US 1909980 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. J. NEWMAN METHOD OF MAKING A RETAINING WALL May 23, 1933.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 .fizve flZ/z'aw f azz/771627 Filed Aug. ffifzg I I a Patented May 23, 1933 lseaese WILLIAM .J'. NEWMAN, or cHIcAeo', ILLINOIS METHOD OF MAKING RETAINING WALL Applicationfiled August 4, 1930. [Serial T1 70. 472,903.
--,;;This invention or discovery relates to undergroundconstruction work and more particularly to methods of drilling and eXcavating and to the. formation of retaining 75- walls. It is particularly adapted for use 1n making retaining walls adjacent to buildings or foundations which would ordinarily require supportlng or shoring but which will ordinarlly requ re no additional sups iport when adjacent walls are formed in accordance with this method. 'It isalso adapted for use in building retaining walls where .water is apt'to be encountered in drilling 0r excavating and I will be particularly effec- ;11 tive for making retaining walls subways or the like. v a
The objectsof' this invention are to provide an improvedlretaining wall andanovel method of making the same; toprovide a .method of making a wall by forming alternate sections and thenfilling in betweenthe sections; toprovide a methodfor forming a wall underground in which the trench or excavation is made by digging or drilling a plurality of holes whicharezthen filled with concrete; to provide an improved method =forforming retaining walls and constructing a subway, basement or the like; andto provide such other improvements inconstruction and. advantages as will 'appear more fully from the followingdescription. In the'accompanying drawings illustrating this invention; V f p Fig. 1 is a plan view showing the first row of holes which are spaced a'partor arranged intermittently; v, V, i
1Figp2 is a. vertical sectional View taken on the line 22 of Fig l and showing the jfillingof one of the holes with concrete? Fig. .3 a sectional View similarfto. Fig. 2, illustrating the next step of filling the intermediate holes which have been drilled or dug; between the posts or fc'olumns formed in the first named holes;
I Fig; leis a planview, showing one method of, placing. bracing betweenktwo-fparallel walls or. twov series of columnslformed as .aboveshown; i i Fig. v5. isga vertical sectional view indicating the partly completed-retaining walls.
Fig. 7 is a sectional view showing the method of shoring when a single wallis to built. i
intendedcto illustrate all of the details incident to the carrying out of the method but should be suflicient for anyone familiar withthis workto perform the same.
Fig.6 is a sectionalview of, an'excavat1on with completed .retalning walls; and
. 55 It will be understood that these drawings are more or less. diagrammatic and-are not The first stage of operatlon as lllustrated in Fig. 1, consists in .the boring or drilling of a series of holes-or wells 6, preferably of the same diameter and spaced apart adistance ofapproximately equal to the diame ter thereof These holes or wells are prefi erably made under water pressure, that is, each well is kept full of water during the entire drilling or boring operation. By maintaining the pressure in this manner the wells are not apt to cave inand there will ordinarily be little or no settling of the adjacent ground so that it will not be necessary to braceor protect any adjacent build-v; lngs or structures, 'One well may. bebored and filled and then the nextsucceedi'ng well bored and filled through the series, i or if I conditions are suitable, the whole series may be bored andthen filled. The holes are filled with concrete by placinga tube or pipe 7 in'the hole, which. extends to the bottom and then depositing the concrete through this tube, :raisingv the tube as the hole fills up; As shown in Fig.- 2, the,
concrete 8, as it is]. deposited in the hole gradually forces the water or liquidlcontents :upwardly and out of the hole until the hole is filled. If desired, any suitable reinforcements such as steel'rods 9 maybe. placed n posltionfor reinforcing the concrete many well-known manner.
, When the series of holes '6 l as been, filled Qwith concrete, another series of holes as indicated at 10 is made'between the holes. .of the first series.
These holes are made as large asp ossible and preferably so that theywill be tangential to orin contact with the columnsor pillars 11 formed in the first named series. Theseholes are also prefer-a ably bored under water pressure, that is, by leavlng water or liquid sludge or the like, in the holes as the boring progresses,
to press or pound the 'concrete'down into the hole and to force the same outwardly against the sides and particularly to force the same against the surfaces of the adjacent columns. During this tamping or pressing actionthe concrete in one of the intermediate holes lOwill be forced against or spread around'a portion 'of' the outer periphery of the adjacent ,columns 11 as shown at 13 in Fig. 4. This tamping is preferably done by means of a pile driver orother suitable apparatus which will provide sufiicient force to drive the concrete into any voids in the sides of the wells or which may exist between the columns or first set of holes and the respective holes of the second series. This forms a substantially" continuous wall which is adapted to support the adjacent earthin a manner similar to sheathing or in some cases may serve as a complete retainingwall. A wallof this charactermade in accordance with? my improved method is particularly adaptedto be made through clay, quicksand, sand and water or Where the conditions are difiicult for digging and making a wall in the usual manner.
While the above I'desc'ribed method of boring. or drilling alternate holes in; the series, filling them with concrete and allowing the concrete to set before drilling the intermediate holes is adapted for use in some instances, Ihave found from actual construction that ifthe third hole of the series is drilled before the concrete in the first hole is set, the concrete may tend to break through the intervening wall of earth thereby greatly'interfering with the operation. It may therefore be advisable in order to expedite the work to vary this order of operation. For instance, instead ofdrilling and filling the first hole, as indicated in Figure 1, and then the third hole, I have found that it may be advisable to drill the first hole and then skip two or more spaces before drilling the next succeeding hole. This is advisable as the work on the second hole may proceed without waiting for the concrete in the first hole to set. After the first holes consisting of the first, fourth,
seventh, etc. in a series, for instance, have been drilled and filled, then the next succeeding holes, two, five, eight, etc. maybe same while the earth or material is being excavated therebetween. As shown in this figure, beams'or Walers 16 are placed along the columns forming the walls l4'and 15 and theseare pressed against the walls by means of jack screws 17 and drums or braces 18 thereby providing suitable shoring for holding the walls until the material between the same is excavatech'foi' instance, as indicated' npFlg. 5. Ofcourse, any number of shoring devices may bensedr and if necessary additional; shoring putin position as the excavating proceeds; j
If a single wall is to be built the shoring may extend to'the opposite face of the ditch or excavation :as shown in Figure 7 instead of engaging with anotherset of columns. \Vhen'the excavationis completed any desired formsmay beplaced in positioninside 'of the row or columns and thejwalls can 'be..
completed as indicated at 19 in Fig. ,6, which shows an additional. facing or bracin wall which ma be made sufficiently thic r, and properly attered ortapered to withstand the pressure after theshoring'has been 're-,.
'moved. It will be'noted, thatby means of" this improved method, walls may be! formed along the sides of a street without njuring or interfering .with'the adjacent buildings and the material then removed from between.v
the walls as fora subway or the like. It will also benoted that this improved method is adapted for building retaining walls of all kinds and therefore I j do-not'wish to be limited to any particular constructionor a'r-r rangement herin set forth and describedex 'ceptas specified in the following claims in which I claim:
1. The herein described method which earth, which are spaced apart, said holes being keptfullof water or sludge during the making thereof, then filling said holes bydischarging concrete through pipes 'ex- 'sists in making two'or' more ,holesin the tending to the bottom of the holes, which,-
pipes are gradually raise'das the holes are filled and the water forced out therefrom; then making holes intermediate of the'fi'rst named holes, said last named holes being substantially tangent to theadjacent holes,
then filling the last named holes in the same manner as thefirst named holes and finally tamping'or pressing the concrete in the last named holes before it is set to force the. same first named, holes; Y
against the adjacent columns formed in the 2. The method of building retaining walls which consists in drilling a series of holes which are spaced apart, filling said holes with concrete, then drilling intermediate holes between the holes of the first named series, then filling said intermediate holes with concrete and forcing the concrete downwardly to make contact with the adjacent columns, then bracing the wall thus formed at one side thereof and excavating the earth adjacent to such side and finally constructing a reinforcing abutment wall on the face of the wall.
3. A method of forming a retaining wall below the surface of the ground which consists in making a series of holes which are.
spaced apart, filling said holes with concrete and allowing the same to set, then removing the earth from between the columns of concrete thus formed and then filling such holes with concrete to complete the wall.
' 4. The herein described method for forming a wall which consists in boring a series of excavations at intervals substantially equal to the diameter of said excavations, then filling the same with concrete and allowing the same to harden into a series of columns and then boring a second series of excavations in the intervals between the first series of columns and then filling the same with concrete and allowing the same to harden to complete the wall structure.
5. The method of forming a wall structure which consists in forming a series of excavations at intervals substantially equal to multiples of the diameter of said excavations, then filling the same with concrete and allowing the same to harden into a series of columns, then boring another series of excavations in the intervals between the first series of columns and contiguous to said columns, filling the same with concrete and allowing the same to harden and continuing such operations until all of the intervals between the first-named columns have been filled to complete the wall structure.
6. The method of forming a wall structure which consists in making a plurality of holes in the earth which are spaced apart, then filling said holes with concrete and allowing the same to set, then making holes between said concrete-filled holes whereby substantially all of the material is removed from between adjacent concrete-filled holes and finally filling the intermediate holes with concrete.
7 The method of forming a trench or well with side walls which consist in making walls on either side thereof by forming a series of excavations at intervals substantially equal to multiples of the diameter of said excavations, then filling the same with concrete and allowing the same to harden into a series of columns, then forming another series of excavations in the intervals between the first series of columns and contiguous to said columns, filling the same with concrete and allowing the same to harden and continuing such operations until the intervals between the columns have been filled to complete the wall structure, then placing braces between the upper portions of the opposite walls and finally excavating the material from between the walls.
intervals between the first-named columns 7 have been filled, then applying transverse bracing between the opposed faces of the columns on either side of said subway, then excavating the earth to the desired depth, and finally constructing reinforcing facings on the inner sides of the first-described Walls.
WILLIAM J. NEWMAN.