US 1913707 A
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June 13, 1933. H. ETHERIDGE CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION Filed June l, 1931 2 jfV 4 l ff,
Ak W ...1. 77432@ ur/mama INVENTOR Patented .lune 13, 1933 @UNITE-D STATES islam? HAR-RY ETHERIDGE, OF ZELIENOPLE, PENNSYLVANIA CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION Application filed June 1,
Concrete is Well known to possess strong resistance to compression but to be weak and subject to fracture when and where subject to tension and shearing stresses. To reinforce this weakness concrete elements and structures are usually reinforced by metallic members embedded in the concrete in proper positions to assume these particular stresses.
However, in addition to the tension and shear strains which are thus assumed, local cracks and fractures tend to occur in the mass, and it is to the prevention of these latter to w iich my present invention is directed.
In the reinforcement of a concrete element against tension and shear strains the reinforcing members, usually rods or bars, function through the adhesion of the concrete thereto, the concrete encircling or surrounding the reinforcing members, and therefore there is nothing to prevent the occurrence of local cracks and fractures more or less adjacent to these reinforcing elements but beyond the field of their reinforcing effect.
All concrete elements are subject to such local cracks and fractures whether reinforced against tension and shear stresses or not. Such local cracks and fractures are particularly common in the case of concrete elements subject to heavy and intermittently applied loads, such as concrete supports and cross ties for railway rails.
The object which I have in View is the prevention of such local cracks and fractures, and I accomplish such object by mixing with the plastic concrete aggregate a mass of metal annuli in sufficient quantity to effect a coupling or what I may term the stitching together of the adjacent cubic masses of the concrete and the encircling of the material of such masses with metallic annuli which efiectually prevent the occurrence of klocal cracks and fractures, such annuli overlapping in a plurali ty of different planes so that contiguous masses are not only surrounded bythe annuli but are also stitched to contiguous masses.
It is obvious that thus the reinforcement encircle-S the masses of concrete instead of the concrete encircling the reinforcement and .therefore the adhesion of the concrete to the reinforcement is not solely relied upon as it 1931. Serial No. 541,295.
is in the reinforcement of the concrete element against tension and shearing strains.
The diameter of the annuli employed and f also the thickness or gauge of material of which they are formed andthe number of such annuli used for each cubic unit of concrete depend upon the intensity of the stresses which tend to result in the local cracks and fractures. v i
The annuli may all be of the same diameter but the reinforcement is improved by using annuli ofk two or more different diameters.
In the accompanying drawing, wherein I have illustrated a practical embodiment of the principles of my invention, Fig. l is a broken sectional view of a mass of concreteV formed in accordance with my invention, the stitching annuli being all of the same diameter. y l n Fig. 2 is a likeview showing annuli of two diameters and constituting a double stitching. f
Fig. 3 is an elevation of one of the annuli.
`Referring to the drawing, l represents the concrete formed of an aggregate of cement with ysand and gravel and/or other well known ingredients in the usual manner and in the proportion suitable for the use to which the concrete element is to be employed. f
At 2, I illustrate the usual ferro-reinforcement against tension and/or shearing stresses which may be rods or any other of the suitable or well known types of metallic reinforcement against such stresses.
To prevent local cracking and or fractures which occur in concrete structures or other elements even when reinforced against tension and shear stresses, I mixed with the aggregate a plurality of metallic annuli, '90 which may be of either round of fiat material but which I have in practice formed of steel wire 'with great success.
In Fig. l, I have shown these annuli to be all of one diameter as illustrated at 3 while 95 in Fig. 2, I have shown two diameters of annuli 3 and 3a, in use.
These annuli are added to the materials of the concrete before the mixture of the latter or during the ymiXturefof such mate- 100 rials and are thoroughly mixed and distributed through the mass of the aggregate so that when the aggregate sets and hard'ens the annuli are permanently embedded in the concrete and are disposed at all angles to each other and in overlapping relation to each other.
The result is what I term the stitching of the adjacent portions of the mass of concrete iermanently together in such a manner that the portions of concrete cannot pull apart and such local tension stresses as may e set up in the mass are thus completely taken up and assumed by the annuli.
Not only are cubic masses of the concrete encircled by the annuli and thus bound against the formation of local cracks and fractures but contiguous masses are stitched together by the overlapping of the annuli in all directions.
I usually employ annuli of but one dialneter but Where the concrete mass or element is to be subjected to very rough usage I may and sometimes do employ annuli of two or more diameters, as illustrated in Fig. 2, thus coupling or stitching together large areas of the concrete` With the larger annuli and intermediate or lesserareas with the smaller annulior accomplishing what may be termed double stitching.
By experience I have found that the diameter of the annuli maybe from one inch to three and one-hala` inches and the gauge of material from which said annuli are made maybe from one-sixteenth of an inch to foursixteenths of an inch. However the diameter and gauge may be varied as requirements dictate.
I have applied the principles of my invention With most satisfactoryT results to the manufacture of concrete supports for rail Way rails. The jarring and pounding of the passing Wheels7 even when the supports are reinforced in accordance with any of the usual methods against tension and shear stresses, tend to produce local fractures and cracks which impair and eventually destroy the usefulness of the supports. I have been able to overcome this Weakness by my system of coupling or stitching the concrete by the embedment of the annuli therein.
That I claim is 1. A body of concrete having its adjacent portions coupled together by a plurality of closed metallic annuli independent of each other and embedded throughout the mass.
2. A body of concrete having its adjacent portions coupled together by a plurality of closed metallic annuli independent of each ot her and embedded throughout the mass, such annuli overlapping in planes angular to each other.
3. A body of concrete having its adjacent portions coupled togetherby a plurality of closed metallic annuli independent of each other and embedded throughout the mass, said annuli being of a plurality of diameters.
4f. A body of concrete having its adjacent portions coupled together by a plurality of closed metallic annuli independent of each other and embedded throughout the mass,
said annuli being of a plurality of diameters j and such annuli overlapping in planes angular to each other.
Signed at Atlantic City, N. QI., this 27th day HARRY ETHERIDGE.
` of May 1931.