US 1914345 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 13, 1933i. c. K. Roos WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed July 7, 1932 i5 WENJ- 4mm @dwg/m ffy-5 sessies .ame is, iss' T @is seriennummer' truncation niy- E?,
This invention reiates to an improved vvaii construction, and has particular relation -to a board' or otherelement composed, either Wholly or in part, of a hydrated or plastic example of such elements is the well known Ythegypsum core or bod ment using thistype o material. In case Wallboard and plasterboard consisting of a core of gypsum and covering sheets of paper. lin producing building elements of these various types, a relatively iarge amount of Water is-initially used to form a hydrated or plastic composition, from' which` the entire element or the .body or core thereof is formed. During the Vmanufacture of these products, a large part of the water 1s removed by one method or another, depending upon the nal ture of the particular product. u 1n allsuch produc-ts to which I have reference, however a partof the water is retained 1n the fimshed product. It will be understood, therefore, that the use of the term hydrated composixtion throughout the specification and suchproducts as include, in the ultimate form iii which they are put to use, an appreciable water content, such, for example, as Water of crystallization, water of composition, occluded water, or the like. It .should be noted that this term does not lnclude suc-h products as Portland cement, clay tile, and similar materials which, although im'- tially prepared with water, lose all or substantially all of such water in the process of manufacture. o r setting. '.[n the products to which the present invention is applicable, the retention of some water is necessary to maintain the strength, fire resistance, or other desired characteristics of the board', as, for example, the water of crystallization in of a building eleof fire in a building in which such elements are used, the Water content is driven oi by the heat and the material then has very little strength and. quickly crumbles.-
t is an object of the present invention to provide a building element and aV method of claimsl hereof is intended to designate only 3.9853.. denial sie. @ls
producing the same in `which the escape of normal moisture under influence of heat is retarded. This result is accomplished by appl ing to one or more lsurfaces. of the lhuil ing elementI a sheet or sheets of material which is impervious to'moisture. ior.
this purpose prefer to use sheets of metal foil such as aluminum foil and the like.
This material is particularly desirable because its bright surface provides a further advantage in insulating the wall against 'heat transmission.
fit is, accordingly, a further4 object of the invention to provide a building element of the above indicated, character in which a covering of metal foil or the like is used to produce the dual advantages of protecting the board against excessivelyurapid escape of moisture under the inuence of. heat andl to constitute an insulation against transmis'-l sion of heat through the Wall.
In ordinary building construction, plasterboards and wallboardsare nailed or otherwise. secured to the studding or other supporting members of the structure with the rear surfaces of the boards facing hollow wall or ceiling spaces between the studs or other supporting members. The surfaces of the boards which face the interior of -the building are normally protected bythe application of coats of plaster, plastic paint, orlother nishing materials, so that these surfaces, are not ordinarily so exposed that moisture Lcan escape rapidly therethrough. The rear surfaces of the boards, however, which face the inside of the wall or ceiling, are fully exposed to the hollow wall spaces and the essential water content of the boards will escape rapidly into this space under the .inuence of heat.
The provision of a metal foil covering accordin to the present invention eliminates thisdisa vantage and also provides an ideal` heat insulating medium, since the rear'surface of the foil which is exposed to the'hollow lwall spaces serves as a reflector and thus greatly reduces the passage of heat through the wall or ceiling. ,The selection of metal foil as a covering to prevent exces'siyely rapid escape of moisture from the building boards lili a low emissifvity v ue. The thermal resistance of the'wall construction is thus vcry materially improved, and this is articularly desirable in walls utilizin boa or blocks l of psum,which in itse f ls of relatively hi heat conductivity. 0
the present mven- It is a further object of tion )to providea covering of the character referred to, which not onl may bc applied to the boards after comp etion, but -which may be applied to the boards at an intermediate stage in the manufacture thereof, 1f desired. During manufacture, the excess moisture must be removed from the boards by suitable means or processes, depending upon the character of the material, and I contem- 80 plate the provision of such a covering as permit its application before all excess moisture is removed.
This advantage sac'compliished'accordmg to my invention by the provlslon of numerous mmute perforations in the foil which is` used to cover the surfaces of the boards or other building elements. By thls arrangement the excess moisture may be removed from the elements during the normal course 8 of manufacture and after the application of the foil covering, while the escape of n ormal moisture under influence of high heat 1s still eectively retarded by said foil covering after the building elements have, been lncorporated 85 in acompleted building. i
The foil covering .w ich is apphed to certain surfaces of the wallboards pursuant to this invention may be used on the inwardly facing surfaces of the boards as well as the 4 outwardly facing surfaces -where a finish of this kind is desired for the wall 'or ceiling surfaces exposed to the inside of the building. Thus, if it is not desired to finish the inside walls with plaster, paint, or other materials, a co'tfering of metal foil 'may be employed on, both sides of the boards, one of which surfaces. will be exposed directly to the interior of the building. This arrangement. has the additional advantage` of increased thermal resistance of the finished wall due to the fact that both surfaces of the boards are vof a high heat-reflecting quality and the escape of moisture is effectively retarded at both sides. i
The foregoing and other' objects and advantages of the present invention will be more fully understood from a consideration of the detailed description of certain specific embodiments' ofthe invention appearing hereinafter, ,taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing,l in which:
xgure 1 is a pers tiveview of a bui1ding board constructs $5 invention;
in accordance with the close together, say, for example, '1,43 or 1A inch Fig. 2 is an enlarged fragmentary and elevational view of a portion of su'ch a board;
`Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on a horizontal plane through a building wall constructed in accordance with the invention; and
Fig. iis a view similar to F' 3 of a portion of a construction in whic a modified form of .board is use d in accordance with another Referring first t Figs. 1 and 2l of the drawin a wallboard or -plasterboard generally esignated by the reference character 11 consists ofa core of gypsum 12, to which covering sheets of paper 13 are applied accordin to well known practice. At least one o the paper covered surfaces. of the board is, in turn, covered by a layer of aluminum or other metal foil -14 which, if de sired, 'may have a plurality of minute perforations 15 Vtherein for the purpose heretofore specified. The `foil 14 may beA ap lied iflc embodiment of the invention.
and secured to the paper covering o the l board in any suitable manner and preferably by the use of a suitable adhesive such as asphalt, neutral sodium silicate solution or a s ially prepared dextrin` adhesive. The foil may be firml secured to the paper covering of the boal by the use of these or other adhesives and by applying heat or pressure, or both, in a suitable and well known manner.
The walls and ceilings of an ordinary house or other structure may be erected in accordance with the' invention in the manner illustrated in Fig. 3. In this figure is shown an outside wall consisting `of bricks` 16,
sheathing 17, and studs or other supporting members 18. Plasterboards 11 of the type shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and having the metal foil covering 14 on the rear surfaces thereof, are nailed or otherwise suitably secured to the studs '18, and the interior vfinish o f the wall may be constituted by a plaster coatin 19 or any other suitable material.
In this arrangement the" foil covering 14 'faces the hollow wall spaces between the studs or other supporting members 18 and 'is in a position to accomplish the desired results by preventing excessively rapid escape of moisture from the boards 11 and enhancing the heat resistance qualities'ofthe completed wall. If the foil is applied to the boards at an intermediate stage in the manufacture of the latter and before the excess Water has been removed therefrom, the foil covering may bel-provided with perforations 15, as heretofore explained.
These perforations may be formed either before. or after -the foil is applied to 'the boards and by any suitable means in either case. I prefer to provide perforations so minute that they are barely visible to the .naked eye, and to space the same relatively apart, although a spacing of 3A inch or more may be desirable in some cases. 'lfhe invention 1s not limited in regard to the size and spacing of the perforations, and the fore' going figures and description are given merely by way of example. '.lhe perforations may be formed mechanically by means of needled rolls or the like, or by the use of small electric arcs which V'will serve to puncture the foil with suitably `sized and spaced holes.
Fig. 4 shows a portion of slightly modified construction which differs from that of Fig. 3 simply in that the boards ll; are covered on their interiorly exposed surfaces with sheets of metal foil 20, inI addition to the foil sheets 14 used to cover the rear sur-l faces of the boards exposed to the hollow spacesv within the wall. l These boards l1 would then be of the type knownas wallboards, which are not adapted to receive a plaster coating, but which are ordinarily finished with a plastic paint or wall paper. The use of the foil covering 20 on the surfaces ofthese boards exposed to the interior of the building provides an ornamental interior wall finish eliminating the necessity of painting or papering these walls and furtheri accomplishing the objects of the present inventionby retarding the escape of moisture from the boards under influence. of heat and decreasing the transmission of heat through the wall. l It will vbe understood, of-
course, that both of the foil eoverings14 and 20 may' be provided with perforations for the purpose heretofore specied if` said coverings are applied before removal of all excess water from the boards during manufacture. "The minute perforations which I prefer to use wherever the provision of any perforations is desired are so small as to be barely noticeable and do not in any way detract from the appearance of a finished wall surface of this character.
In the case of gypsum boards of the type specifically illustrated and described herein, the foil may, if desired, be applied and adhesively secured to the paper covering 13 before the latter is combined with the gypsum core 12; or the foil covering may be applied;
to one or both of the paper lcovered surfaces ofthe board after the manufacture thereof is completed. In the former case, and in the l case of anyV hydrated material to which the vfoil is directly applied before the removal of all excess moisture during manufacture, the perforated foil should be used; but where the manufacture of the boards or other building elements is completed and all excess moisture is removed therefrom prior to 'application of the foil, unperforated foil may bev used. A
While only certain specific embodiments of the invention have been shown and described herein, it will be readily understood ing ysupporting members by those skilled in the art `that various changes and modifications in the details of design and lconstruction may be resorted t0` withdut departing from the spirit'and scope of tbtfinvention as set forth in the appended claims. For instance instead of using aluminum foil on the boards or building` elements a relatively thin metallic covering' of other types or materials may be used if desired. lt will also be understood that the said claims are not intended to bespeciiCally construed except as required by the, prior art, and that Vthe terms used comprehend a proper range of equivalents, e. fr., the term wall includingrr ceilings as well as vertical walls, etc.
What il4 claim and desire to secure lby Letters Patent, therefore, is:
l. A building wall construction comprising supporting members and gypsum-core building boards secured thereto with their rear surfaces facing hollow wall spaces loe-- tween said supporting members, said rear surfaces of the boards being substantially completely covered with metal foil.
A2. A building wall construction comprisinc' supporting members and gypsum-'core building boards secured thereto with their rear surfaces facing hollow wall spaces between said supporting members. said rear surfaces` of the boards bein'g substantialh1 95 -said supporting'.r members with their rear surfaces facing hollow wall spaces between said supporting members, said rear surfaces of the boards being' substantially completely covered with metal foil secured to the paper covering of the boards in intimate contact therewith.
5. Abuilding wall construction comprising supportingr members and building' boards, each .comprising a core of gypsum' .and a paper covering therefor, secured to sald supporting members with their rear sur- Afaces facing hollow wall spaces between said supporting members, said rear surfaces of the boards being'l substantially completely covered with perforated metal foil secured to the papercoverinar `of the boards in intimate contact therewith.
6. A building wall construction comprising supporting members .and building boards, each comprising a corel of gypsum und a paper ,coveringtherefon Secured to said supporting members, said boards having their opposite faces substantially completely covered with metal foil, .one foilv covered surface of each boai'd facing a hol` low wall space between the supporting members and the opposite foil-covered surface being exposed to the interior of thc building.
7. A building wall construction comprising supporting members and plaster-receiving members secured the'reto with their rear surfaces facing hollow .wall spaces between 5` said supporting members, saidvplaster-receiving members comprising hydrated composition material and having fibrous rear surfaces, said rear surfaces of said plaster-receiving members being substantially completely co vei'ed with metal foil secured thereto in intimate contact therewith.
8. A building wall construction comprising supporting members and a. Wall covering of rigid board members secured thereto with their rear surfaces facing hollow wall spaces between said supportinfy members, said board members comprising a lhydrated composition and having their rear surfaces substantially completely covered with metal foil.
9. A building wall construction comprising support-ing members and a wall covering of rigid board members secured thereto l w'ithA their rear surfaces facing yhollow Wall spaces between said supporting members, said board members com rising a hydrated ered with a relatively thin metallic covering adhered to the paper coveringof the boards.
13. A building wall construction comprising supporting members Iand plaster-receiving members secured thereto with their rear surfaces facing hollow wall` spaces between said supporting members, said plaster-receivingI members comprising hydrated composition material and' havin fibrous rear surfaces, said rear surfaces o said lastersubstantial y -comreceiving members bein liitively thin. metallic pletely covered with a ie covering adhered thereto.
14. A building wall construction compris-I `spaces between said supporting members.
composition and haiing fi rous rea-r surfaces and said rear surfaces being substantially completely covered with .metal foil secured n thereto in intimate contact therewith.
10. A building wall construction comprising supportin `members and gypsum-core building boar s secured thereto wit-h their rear surfaces facing hollo'w wall spaces be- ,tween said supportinmembers, said rear surfaces of the boar s being substantially completely'covered with a relatively thin metallic covering.
11. A building wall construction comprising .supportin members and gypsum-core building boar 's secured thereto, said boards having their opposite Lfarces substantially completely-covered vwith a relatively thin metallic covering, one of said faces of each board facing a hollow wall space between the supportin members and the opposite face, of
each boar being exposed to theinterior ofl the building.
12. IA building wall construction vcomprisi ling supporting vmembersl and building boards, veach comprism a core of rtin mem rs with their rear surfaces acing ollow wall s aces between said su orting members, said rear surfaces of t e beingsubstantially completely cov- `and apaper coverin erefor, secure? to said supsaid board members comprising a hydrated composition and lhaving fibrous rear surfaces and said rear surfaces being substantially completely covered with a relatively thin metallic covering adhered thereto.
In witness whereof,l I have hereunto subscribed my name. CARLISLE K. ROOS.