US 1916813 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Filed April 4, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet l M. SESSA July 4, 1933.
AEROPLANE 'Fild April 4, 1952 2 Shegts-Sheet 2 Patented July 4, i933 PATENT OFFICE f MICHELE SESSL, OF I108 'AiNGELES, CALIFORNIA mnornm Application filed April 4,
This invention relates to an aeroplane and has as its primary object the provision of means for facilitating taking oif and landing operations and which is applicable for use during flying to either augment or supplement the usual propelling mechanism.
Another object is to provide an aeroplane with an arrangement auxiliary propellers which may be employed to effect liftin and m stabilizing of the aero lane during ight, particularly in event the main propelling mechanism be rendered inoperative from any cause.
7 Another object is to provide a construction 15 whereby the ordinaryty es of aeroplanes ma be equipped with auxiliary .prope lers whic are adjustable to vary the direction of their ropulsive force and which may be utilized in propelling the aeroplane forwardly, or in go retarding forward movement of the aeroplane as in landing or be used to assist in sustaining the aeroplane during flight by creating upward propulsive forces.
Another object is to provide, in conjunction with auxiliary propelling mechanism, supplemental and auxiliary wings arranged for cooperation with the supplemental propelling mechanism and with the main wings.
Another object is to provide a means whereby the supplemental wings may be adjusted longitudinally of the aeroplane fuselage to vary their positions relatively to the main wings as occaslon may re ulre.
With the foregoing ob ects in-view, together with such other objects and advantages as may subsequently appear, the invention resides in the parts and in the combination, construction and arrangement of parts hereinafter described and claimed and illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a view of an aeroplane as seen in sildedelevation showing the invention as app Fig. 2- is a plan view of the aeroplane shown in Fig. 1.;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary perspective view as seen in the direction indicated by the arrow 3 in Fig. 1 with the wing structure removed, showing adjustable pivotally mount- 'tions.
1832. Serial No. 602,987.
ed motors and the means for adjusting same, as embodied in the invention;
Fig. 4: is a diagram illustrating the manner of varying the position of the motor on an auxiliary propeller driven thereby, shown in Flg. 3, 1n chan g the direction of the propu sive force 0 the propeller;
Fig. 5 is a detail in cross section as seen on the line 5-5 of Fig. 2', showing the manner of mounting the adjustable supplemental wings;
Fig. 6 is a sectional view taken on the line fi-6 of Fig. 5 showing the means for effectmgad ustment of the supplemental wings.
- Referring to the drawings more specifically A. indicates the aeroplane fuselage, B indicates the usual main supporting wings extending laterally from opposite sides of the fuselage, O designates the usual main propeller, and D denotes the rudder.
In carrying out my invention, I provide a pair of supplemental propellers 10 and 11 which are arranged at equal distances on opposite sides of the longitudinal center of the aeroplane bod and are preferably mounted beneath an' adj aoent the longitudinal central portions of the main wings B; the propellers being carried on the drive shafts of motors 12 and 13 operable to rotate the propellers 10 and 11 in opposite direc- The motors 12 and 13 are carried in a suitable framework 14 carried by and depending from the wings B and are supported for turnable movement on a horizontal axis extending at right angles to the axis of the wings B.
The means here shown for turning the shaft 15 embodies worm gears including a worm wheel 16 on the shaft 15 engaged by a worm 17 on a shaft 18, which latter may be rotated in any desired manner to effect rotation of the shaft 15 through the worm gears 16 and 17 by means under control of the pilot, here shown as embodying a hand crank 19 and transmission mechanism 20. By providing the worm gears as a means for turning the shaft 15, the latter, together with the attached motors, will be maintained in the desired adjusted position until such position is changed by the operator. The rock shaft 15 with the motors 12 and 13 thereon is designed to be turned at least a half revolution so as to position the propellers to drive either forwardly, downwardly, rearwardly or at angles to the horizontal.
The motors 12 and 13 are positioned in such spaced relation beneath the wings B, and the propellers 10 and 11 thereon are of such size that the latter may be disposed in a vertical or near vertical position beneath the wings as indicated by the dotted lines a in Figs. 1 and 4 so as to project a stream of air in a forward direction or in a forward and downward direction on rotation of the propellers for the purpose of retarding advance of the aeroplane. The propellers 10 and 11 may also be positioned to extend vertically, or near vertically, as shown in full lines in Figs. 1 and 4 to project a stream of air rearwardly of the aeroplane and thereby effect a forward or forward and upward propulsive force'thereon through the wings B. The propellers may also be disposed to revolve on a horizontal, or near horizontal, plane as'indicated by the dotted lines I) in igs. 1 and 4 so as to project a stream of air downwardly and thereby impart an upward propulsive force to the aeroplane through the win s B. When the propellers 10 and 11 are isposed in this horizontal plane they will act to stabilize the aeroplane and will also assistin elevating the aeroplane and in maintaining it in an elevated position.
As a means for affording greater stability to the aeroplane, as well as to provide increased wing surface, a pair of supplemental wings E are mounted to extend laterally from opposite sides of the aeroplane fuselage rearward of and in spaced relation to the main wings B, and mounted beneath the wings E is a pair of propellers 21 and 22 operated by motors 23 and 24 adapted to turn the propellers 21 and 22 in opposite directions. The
motors 23 and 24, with their propellers, are preferably spaced equi-distant from the longitudinal center of the aeroplane body a distance corresponding with the spacings of the motors 12 and 13.
The propellers 21 and 22 are disposed on a plane extending substantially parallel with the plane of the contiguous under surface of the wings E, and are adapted on rotation to project streams of air downwardly or perpendicular to the undersides of the wings E, to impart an upward propulsive force on the wings E tending to lift the rear portion of the aeroplane or to oppose downward movement thereof.
. guideways 25 The motors 23 and 24 are rigidly carried on the wings E, and may be operated either in conjunction with or independently of the motors12 and 13.
The motors 12 and 13, 23 and 24 may be of any suitable type and construction and may be operated and controlled in the usual and conventional manner, but preferably comprise internal combustion engines equipped with the usual fuel feed and control appliances not necessary to be here shown.
As a means for varying the spacings of the propellers 21 and 22 relatively to the propellers 10 and 11 and of the supplemental wings E relatively to the main wings B to accommodate their operations to variations in the position of the load or center of gravity of the aeroplane, the wings E are mounted for longitudinal adjustment on the aeroplane fuselage, and for this purpose are here shown as interconnected, and slidably' carried on guideways 25 and 26 extending longitudinally of the upper wall of the aeroplane fuselagefand as being operated by means of a lead screw 27 engaging an internally threaded sleeve 28 afiixed to the supplemental wing structure (see Figs. 5 and 6) the lead screw 27 extending longitudinally of the aeroplane and being operable in any desired manner to effect movement of the sleeve 28 longitudinally thereof and thereby efiect movement of the wings 20 longitudinally of the and 26.
Stabilizing fins 29 mounted contiguous the rudder D are preferably mounted for vertical adjustment relatively to the fuselage to vary the planes thereof relatively to the planes of the wings B and E; the fins 29 being here shown as being carried on an upright threaded shaft 30 through the medium of an internally threaded sleeve 31 which carries the fins and has screw engagement with the shaft 30 whereby on rotation of the latter the fins may be raised or lowered. The shaft 30 may be rotated by any suitable means not necessary to be here shown.
In the operation of the invention, the auxiliary propellers 10, 11, 21 and 22 are set in motion according to requirements, being designed for use in instances Where the main driving propeller C is incapable of performing the required work. There are occasions when the auxiliary propellers may be operated in conjunction with the main propeller to cooperate therewith, and there are times, asin emergency when the main propeller is out of operation, that the auxiliary propellers will be operated independent of the main propeller.
In taking off, the auxiliary propellers 10 and 11 are particularly serviceable, either with or without cooperation of the main propeller, in which instance these ropellers may e disposed in their vertical p ane for attaining speed ahead, or they may be disposed horizontally to effect a more rapid lift of the forward portion of the vehicle, or they may be disposed to direct a stream of air obliquely downward to the rear to effect both forward and upward propulsion of the aeroplane.
During flight, the propellers 10 and 11 may be disposed as just described to supplement the main propeller in effecting speed ahead or lift, but ordinarily placed out of operation as long as the main propeller is doing its intended-work and being placed in operation ifn emergency as when the main propeller ails.
In making landings the propellers 10 and 11, when placed in operation, are disposed to directa stream of air forward, or forward and downward, so as to retard advance of the aeroplane or to both retard advance and effect a lifting action, so as to enable landing of the aeroplane in a limited or restricted area.
The propellers on the supplemental wings are placed in operation when it is desired to effect a lift of the rear portions of the vehicle, being employed either with or independently of'the main propeller C or of the forward pair of auxiliary propellers 10 and 11 as circumstances may require, and accordingly they may be used on the take off, or in sustained flight or in making landings.
When it is desired to impart upward propulsive forces on the aeroplane tending to effect vertical lift thereof throughout or to retard vertical drop, and to maintain the aeroplane in a substantially horizontal position during flight, the propellers 10 and 11 are disposed to rotate on a plane paralleling that of the propellers 21 and 22, or near to it, whereupon both pairs of the propellers are set in operation so as to project downward streams of air from beneath the outer end portions of the wings B and E.
The points of projection of the air streams created by the propellers 21 and 22 may be varied with relation to the length of the fuselage by adjustment of the supplemental wings E longitudinally of the fuselage as before described; thus enabling variation of the effective lifting action of the propellers 21 and 22 as occasion may require.
While I have shown and described a specific embodiment of my invent-ion, I do not limitmyself to exact details of construction or the arrangement shown but ma employ such changes, structures and mo ifica-" tions as come within the meaning and scope of the appended claims.
1. In an aeroplane having a fuselage and a pair of main wings extending laterally from opposite sides of the forward portion of the fuselage; a power propelled propeller beneath each of said main wings, means whereby said propeller may be positioned to impart a lifting action on said main wings, interconnected supplemental supporting wlngs extending laterally from opposite sldes of the fuselage rearwardly of and in spaced relation to said main wings, means for advancing and retracting said su plemental win longitudinally of the fuse age to vary thelr spaced relation to the main wings, operable tohold said supplemental wings in various adjusted positions, and a power driven propeller arranged beneath each of said supple metal wings and positioned to impart a 11fting action on said supplemental wings.
2. In an aeroplane, a fuselage, main wings extending transversely of the fuselage, supplemental wings extending transversely of the fuselage in horizontal spaced relation to said main wings, a power propelled propeller arranged beneath each of said wings, the propellers beneath the main wings being mounted for operation on various planes relatively to the main wings, and the propellers beneath the supplemental wings being carried thereon and bein arranged to rotate on a plane parallel therewith, and means for shifting said supplemental wings longitudinally of the fuselage to vary the spacing of the ropeller thereon rela tively to the propellers eneath the main wings.