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Publication numberUS1922286 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 15, 1933
Filing dateJan 4, 1932
Priority dateJan 4, 1932
Publication numberUS 1922286 A, US 1922286A, US-A-1922286, US1922286 A, US1922286A
InventorsGronbech Hans Peter
Original AssigneeGronbech Hans Peter
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Composite window sash and screen
US 1922286 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aha; 15,1933.

H.P[GRONBECH' COMPOSITE WINDOW SASH AND SCREEN Filed Jan. 4, 1952 5 Sheets-Sheet l ATTORNEY Aug; 15, 1933. H. P. GRONBECH 1,922,286

COMPOSITE wnwow SASH AND SCREEN Filed Jan. 4, 1952 s Sheets-Sheet 2 2/ FIG. /6 32 83 gym Aug. 15, 1933. H. P. GRONBECH 1,922,286

COMPOSITE WINDOW SASH AND SCREEN Filed Jan. 4, 1932 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 FAG-ZZZ [710 876%? AMA/5A mo/vbfa/ QWG 26 tion to more effectively meeting the requirescreen roller removed.

f 3 incorporation of improved means for obtaining nism thereof;

Patented Aug. 15, 1933v 7 1,922,286

' i UNlTEfi STATES PATENTOFFICE I l 1,922,286 2 Q COMPOSITE WINDOW SASH ANDQSCR-Elllfi Hans Peter G ronbech, Pacific Beach, Calif.

Application January 4. 1932. Serial No. 584,643 13 Claims. 01. 156-39) The present invention relates to improved left hand corner of the device shown in Fig. 1. apparatus for compounding a sliding window In this view some parts are broken away to sash, and a follower screen detachalelyattached illustrate a portion of the awning rollerand to said sash and forming an extension of "one screen roller mounting.

b side edge thereof adapted upon rolling or un- Fig. 7 is a fragmentary elevation of the upper 60.

rolling to accommodate itself to the movement right hand corner of the window framing shown and position of the sash. in Fig. 1. In this view aportionof the structure More particularly the invention" resides in is alsobroken away to show further mounting the novel construction of the window framing of the awning roller with its'tape whereby it is and the parts housed "therein which coordinate operated as well as other details. with the supplementary parts to insure a work- Fig.- 8 is a fragmentary elevation of the lower able and efficient combination. left hand corner of the window framing shown' Thesupplementaryparts referred to are the in Fig. 1, some portions of which are broken awning and screen roller attachment. The conaway to show existingstructure therebehindr 15 struction of these parts and their operating Fig: 9 is a fragmentary elevation of thelower mechanisms separately considered, being new right hand corner of the window framing shown and novel. have been made the subject matter in Fig. l. I i of other applications for Letters Patent now Fig. 10 is an end view ofFigQG. pending. These applications were filed on De- Fig. 11 isan end view of. Fig. 8." a 20ce1nber 18, 1931, and their serial numbers are Fig. 12 is an end view of Fig.7. 581,881 and 581,882 respectively, the latter of Fig.' 13 is an end view of Fig. 9. which matured into Patent No. 1,877,853 on" Fig. 14 is a plan View of Fig. 6 showing the Sept. 20, 1932. screen roller.

An important object of the invention in addi- Fig. 15 is a plan View of Fig. 3 showing the merits outlined supra, is to improve in general Fig; 16 is a plan view of Fig. 7. upon applicants invention entitled Combina- Fig. 17 is a plan view of Fig. 9, tion screen andglass window construction filed Fig. '18 is asideelevation of themovable sash June"25,1930; Serial No. 463,696; and patented carrier or carriage} 1 3 0 Mar. 15, 1932, No. 1,849,371. H Fig.= 1.9" is a section taken on line 19-19 of An irnportant object of the inventionjis the Fig. 18. p g 1 incorporation of improved means for eonnectin Fig. 20 is a fi'agmentary side elevation of the and disconnecting the sash to the. screen; movable sash carrier, a portion of the structure An important object of the invention is the being broken away to show the locking mecha- 9 0 a more perfect balanceof the sash and the Fig. 21 is a cross section of thesill portion screen. of V the window frame illustrating the locking Still further objects will obviously become apmechanism when the movable sash is in the pal'ent-asthe invention is hereinafter disclosed.v closediposition.

I t a fi p l d a illustrating The present improved Window. frame construch lnvention: i v tion provides for the incorporation of an im- F g. 1' s a perspective View of the device. proved awning unit 2 1S m m v iy w 111115 .The entire unit which now comprises Win- 45 figavllgstghsehlianner In which the sash is fastened dew sashe's" cooperatingsicregn and awning,

Fig 3*is a fragmentary erspective view taken gather co'ordmatmg part-S whereby on l ne 3-3of Fi" l. a portion in the iew being they are manually Operable .Come aisembled from thefactory and ready for installat on.

broken away to show hidden construction.

Fig 4c is a fragmentary perspective View taken The unit may be installed in Class A build- 50 on line 4+4 of 1, some parts of the View 11155 Without any 9 r on either being broken away to showunderlying structure. exterior of h building thus y- 5 isasectiontaken through a portion of f s Wi' h u s d a s w spe t the sash to show the construction of the sash to afire p oo uc u 0 h u s apt member. to be installed in Class'C buildings with or with- Fig. 6 is afragmentary elevation of the upper outwood trim and in Class D building using bull-nose effect with stucco or wood trim as desired.

The device as illustrated in the drawings is shown assembled and mounted in a wooden frame 1, and includes a stationary sash 2 and a movable sash 3.

The movable sash 3 is shown partly opened to illustrate the manner in which it is fastened to the screen 4. The fastening means is further illustrated on a larger scale in Fig. 2. In the latter figure is shown a screw 5 which is partly screwed into the edge face of the sash member.

The screen 4 is provided with an end strip 6, a portion 7 of which extends laterally from the screen.

The end strip 6 is provided with an aperture 8 through which the head of the screw projects. Adjacent the aperture is pivotally mounted a locking lever 9 with which the head of the screw cooperates, there being a slot 10 in the lever 9 which partly encircles the shank of the screw, whereby the lever may be inter posed between the head of the screw and the end strip to lock the screen to the sash.

When it is desired to detach the screen from the sash, the locking lever, is rotated from the position shown in Fig. 1 to that shown in Fig. 2. The diameter of the aperture 8 is made greater than that of the screw, thus more easily effecting the manual disengagement and engagement of the sash with the screw.

The screen 4 is provided witha screen roller 11 obscuredly mounted in the screen roller hous ing 12, see Fig. 6, from which it is manually unwound and upon which it is automatically wound by the spring 11a as the movable sash is shifted back and forth in front of the stationary sash, thus accommodating itself to any position in which it is desired to placethe sash.

Since the structure of this particular screen roller and its cooperating mechanism contributes to the subject matter of the other applications for Letters Patent hereinbefore referred to, and does not form per se a part of the present invention, it is considered unnecessary to dwell further on disclosing remarks other than the foregoing description and the illustration shown in the drawings which are deemed sufficientto identify the structure with its parent invention.

In addition to the screen roller housing 12 at the left of the window, there is provided an awning housing 13 at the top of the window and a housing 14 at the right side of the window somethe fabric 16 of the awning winds and unwinds.

Said roller is provided with a trunnion pin 17 at one end and an aperture at its other end into which the pin 18, welded, to the upright frame member 28, is adapted to be inserted.

The trunnion pin 17 is journalled in an adjustable three cornered bracket 19. The bracket fits snugly between the upper wall 20 and the lower wall 21 of the housing upon which it slidably rests, there being an adjusting screw 22 whereby the awning on that end is laterally adjusted in relation to its opposite end, in or der to maintain the awning in a perfect stretched condition.

The awning roller is made manually rotatable throughthe medium of the steel tape 23, one

eaaese end of which is wound around one end of the roller 15. From the end of the roller the tape is fed downwardly into the housing 14, then through a slot 24 and finally to an operating handle 24a which is moved manually up and down in the slot 25 to extend or retract the awning fabric as desired.

Since the particular structure of the awning proper, its correlated parts and the manner in which it functions, contributes also to the subject matter of another application for Letters Patent hereinbefore referred to, and does not constitute per se a part of the present invention, it is deemed unnecessary, other than what has been shown and described, to identify it with its parent invention, to allude further thereto at this time.

The housings 12, 13 and 14 are made of shapes pressed from narrow gage steel plates. The housings 12 and 14 are of somewhat similar size and shape, and consist of two upright frame members 26 and 27 for the housing 12, and two upright frame members 28 and 29 for the housing M. The shapes which compose the awning housing 13 are designated by the numerals 30 and 31, the part 30 being considered the header frame, and the part 31 being considered the header moulding.

Likewise the upright frame members 27 and 29 constitute the inner trim or mouldings which are mitered with the header moulding 31 where they meet.

The header 21 of the housing 13 is a pressed angle shape. It is screwed to the header frame 30 and the ends thereof abut and are welded to the upright frame members 26 and 28.

To the header 21 is screwed the spaced horizontal wood strips 32 and 33. These strips run the full width of the header 21 and abut the upright frame member 28 on one side of the window. On the other side of the window they terminate at a point 34 substantially in line with that of the return portion 35 of the header moulding 31, said return portion 35 being fastened to the wood strip 32 by means of wood screws 36 as shown in Figs. 14 and 16.

To the upright frame member 27 at the bevel juncture of the jamb portion 3'7 with the face portion 38 is welded one edge of a metal strip 39, the other edge of said strip being bent and rounded as at 40.

Interposed between the strip 39 and the jamb portion '37 is the rubber cushion 32', said cushion being fastened to said strip as shown in Fig. 14.

To the upright frame member 26 is fastened a wood strip 11 which is impregnated with oil. The rounded nose-portion 42 of said strip 41 is the rubber cushion. Between the nose 41 and the rounded portion of the metal strip 39, is an opening 13, through which the screen 4 from the roller 11 passes, it being urged to bear upon the nose portion 42 by the edge of the rubber cushion. 7

There are two flanges 44 and 45 formed in the upright frame members 26 and 2'7 between which the sash member rests when in the closed position. In the latter position the edge of the sash abuts the rubber cushion. Through the agency of the rubber cushion the closing of the sash is made noiselessa It also makes the window water-proof at this point.

Through the agency of the round nose effect 12 on the impregnated wood strip 41 the screen 45,..thus eliminating. friction, wear, and noise.

The wood-strips 32: and; 33 form a. guidebotween which the top portion ofthe screen travelst They also perform another. function which will appear later.

At. the point 343 where theijamb portionfifl and the return portion 35 meet, the return portion 35 is formed. into a downwardly directed lip. 46, which fits. betweenthe metal. strip 39: and the jamb portion 37. It serves as altenon to bolster and hold that, part of the jamb. portion 37 intact.

This tenon' not only forms. a keyas, described but also acts as a guide in reassembling; the up right frame member 27 with its associated parts after it has been removedfor the purpose of in spection or otherwise; 1

The upright frame members 28 and 29 as stated before, conform in general to those desig nated by the numerals 26 and 27, but with: these differences however. i

The'flanges 4.7 and 48 between which the stationary sash; rests are dissimilarly arranged.

The angle strip 49- is riveted to the upright framemember 28 in such a manner that the rubber bumper and Weatherstrip- 50 can be clampingly interposedbetween the said frame members 28 and 29 and the said angle strip 19 to make a leak-proof joint at this pointi l V In addition tothe foregoing the upwright frame member 29 has a. recessed channel portion 5i in which the tape 23- plays.

The-channel recess is covered with an auxila,

iary moulding 52which is screwed to the membe]? 29. Into the moulding 52. where the end is overlapped is formed a rack. With said rach cooperates the catch of a dog52a.

The detail description of the frame work of thehousings 12, 13 and 14 having been set forth, the construction of the window sill framing and mechanism housed therein will now be described.

The views in the'drawings to which thef01"- lowing description generally alludes, consists of The channel 53 is a pressed metal shape. It is screwed to the iron bar 54 by means of screws 55. The bar 54 is bent at a right angle at each and thus forming a return bend 56 and--57 whereby it is secured to the window stool 57 in a manner to serve as a reinforcement therefor.

The channel-53. provides a track in which the ball bearing rollers 58 shown: in Figs. 4, 18: and

19 may travel; Said rollers being, fastened to a window carriage 59 shown in Fig. 18,.1 upon.

which the movable sash 3 is mounted.

There. iswriveted to the windowstooll 5d, a pressed. angle shape 60 which runs the full length of the windowstool 57. serves as a guide for the stationary cash. 2, over which; it rides. when it is desired to move the stationary sash for cleaning purposes. Furthermore the shape 60 serves to make the window waterproof under the stationary sash.

There: is interposed between the pressed angle shape 60 and the face of the window stool 57 a filler strip 61.

This filler strip is as wide asthe stool on",

ner the strip 61 arrests the water at a point;

where. the stationary sash and movable sash overlap when: closed.

The L irons 63 and 64 are secured to thcmairr Said shape 6.01 1

. On. the left side of. the window frame when" viewing: thehdrawings in Figs; 8,..11 and 15 it will" be noted the pressed angle shapev 60 (-seeparticularly Fig. 11) instead of being held aw'ayfronr the window stool by a filler stripfil is provided with aseries of washers 69 interposed therebetween. This construction provides for'the egress. of. water which: runs down the movable sash. n

The window stool 57 is provided with an upturned: flange 62 and. an upturned flange 70; the flange 62: beingtof' lesser height: than that of the flange'mi. It will be seen by referringto Fig. 4, that this oifset or difference in height occurs a'point Where the; stationary sash. stops or approximately at the middle of the window frame.

This construction. allows the movable sash when. disconnected from the carriage and moved in. front of. the stationary sash: over the flange 62, toi be taken out of the window frame any time desired. It will als'obe: noted by referring: to Fig. 3 how the Wood strip 32 is rabbeted at 34a to accommodate the. removal of the movable sash at this point- The: additional space thus aiforded by the rabbeted condition. allows the: movable to give slightly when the weatherstripel' is pressed. between the two sash frames when the movable sash is in. the closed position.

The upturned flange: 70 engages aislot in the bottom frame of the movable sash and thus pro vides a guide for said sash. It also makes the sash waterproof at the: bottom.

The top face of the metal trim- 71\isprovided: with a tenon' 7.2;. Said tenon holdsthe upright frame: member 2'7 position; The touch clamped between the upright frame member 2'7 andi the metal strip- 3 9 at the bottom in a mam ner similar to that in which the tenon 46 is held at the top.

Themlattertarrangement is very desirable in that'it'provides for' quick detachment of the up: right frame member 27-. whereby ready access is had: for inspection, repair, and adjustment screen roller.

The: metal trim 71* has a hook shaped edge 73 which hooks over the V-shaped' points 74 punched through the window stool moulding-65.

This construction holds; the metal trim to the window stool at said. hooked edge; The other edge of the metal trim is secured to the window stool moulding by screws, the window stool moulding'in turn being held. to the main frame bythe L irons 63and 64 already described.

On the L iron 64 is secured an iron plate Z5 which provides a bearingfor the screen roller adjustment device, the latter device being pivoted in the aperture '16; To the plate 75 is fastened a spring '771which prevents the screen rollerfrom unwinding the spring 11a in the screen roller. after it is once adjusted. This construction as stated before istreated' in detail in another application. p l

The window carriage: 59 is shown in side and section in Figs. 18: and 19- and its telescopic adaptation to the sash 3 is shownin- Fig. 4; Said,

carriageuincludes a. plate: 7:8,. a bar '19 attached of the QUi to the top edge portion .of said plate, and a reinforcing bar fastened to the lower portion of said plate, one end of which is provided with a saw-tooth arrangement 83.

The bar 79 is adapted to be telescoped within the bottom member of the movable sash as shown in Fig. 4 and it is secured thereto by means of screws 81 screwed into holes 81. The movable sash together with the carriage is supported by the ball bearing rollers 58 which travel in the channel 53 already described, the inside height of the channel being slightly greater than the diameter of the rollers. The spring 66 attached to the hook 67 is to counterbalance the pull exerted by the screen roller spring 11a by virtueof the screen being attached to the movable sash. In the half open position of the movable sash the tension in both springs is about the same. I 1

The ball bearing roller axle 68 is machined ec centrically on the ball bearing adjustment bolt 82, thereby making the carriage structure adjustable.

Thus by turning the adjustment bolt in a clockwise or counterclockwise direction, the carriage 59 may be raised or lowered as desired.

The saw tooth arrangement 83 at one end of the bar 80 is to provide in conjunction with the operating handle 84- a locking means for the movable sash, when the latter is in its closed position.

In Fig. 20 a portion of the carriage is broken away to show the saw tooth portion 83 on the reinforcement bar 80.

Secured to the window stool moulding 65 is a tubular barrel screw holder 85 and screwed into said barrel is a chisel pointed steel screw 86. The point of the screw is adjustable with respect to the height of the saw tooth portion 83 through the aperture 86a.

The operation of the parts involved in the locking means is as follows:

When the operating handle 84, as shown in Fig. 4, is pressed downwardly, the eccentric cam 87 is rotated and presses down upon the window stool moulding 65 springing it through the medium of the metal trim '71.

The latter operation forces the movable sash toward the stationary sash. This movement not only takes out the play which is necessary to allow the movable sash to slide freely, but also prevents rattling and tends to make the structure waterproof as well.

Furthermore the downward action of the cam on the window stool moulding through the medium of the metal trim acts upon the screw holder to depress it and thereby cause the point of the screw to engage with the saw tooth directly therebelow.

The engagement of the screw with the saw tooth bar locks the carriage as well as the movable sash, thereby making the window jambproof.

Window frame construction of this type with a carriage on ball bearing rollers may be used for very large sashes with heavy glass and is practical at times without the use or incorporation of a screen.

In Fig. 3 a portion of the structure is broken away in order to show the stationary sash in locked position. The locking device whereby the stationary sash is held immovable, comprises a locking lever 88 pivotally mounted to the sash member by means of a screw 89.

There is a plate 90 fastened to the wood strip 33. Said plate contains a locking aperture with which the end of the lever cooperates. Manually inserting the end of the lever in said aperture locks the stationary sash to the strip.

A rubber Weatherstrip 91 is clamped and screwed to the edge of the stationary sash by a metal strip 92, the rubber strip projecting sufii ciently over the side of the sash to make a weather-proof joint between the stationary sash 2 and the movable sash 3 when the latter sash is in its closed position, and is directed toward the glass to prevent the entrance of insects when in a partly opened position.

The stationary sash is waterproofed and guided at the bottom by means of the pressed angle shape 60 and at the top by the drip lip 30a, the upwardly directed flange of the member 60 engaging the bottom member of the sash in a manner similar to that in which the movable sash is engaged and guided.

Thus when the locking lever is released from its locking aperture, the sash may be slidden over the guiding flange to the opposite side of the window where the outside of the sash may be washed more readily from the interior of 'the building.

Each of the stationary and movable sashes have a similarly constructed sash frame, Fig. 5 showing a typical sash frame construction for the stationary sash at its side and top and the side members of the movable sash, and Figs. 3 and 4 typical top and bottom sections of the movable sash. The construction of the bottom member of the stationary sash is also shown in Fig. 4. Said frame comprises a deep seated channel member 93 in which the glass 94 is mounted.

The glass is held in place by a metal moulding consisting of a looped portion having a straight portion 95 which abuts the glass and a curved portion 96 which abuts the inside flange of the channel to press the straight portion smartly and evenly against the glass.

The portion 95 is provided with a flange 97 which on account of its thinness is quite resilient. The portion 96 is folded over as at 98 and is provided with a lip 99 which over-rides the edge of the flange 97.

The lip 99 provides a stop against which the flange 97 abuts and also serves to close the gap which would otherwise exist between the straight side and the curved side of the loop.

The springing qualities and the compressed condition of the moulding automatically adjusts itself to the accommodation of glass of different thicknesses. This type of moulding is also very easily inserted and detached on account of its peculiar shape. This is one of the striking features which makes this type of window construc tion practical.

In Fig. 3 there is shown a guide plate 106 welded to the web of the channel member 93, said guide travels in the opening formed between the wood strips 32 and 33 to hold the movable sash plumb as it is moved back and forth in the window frame.

The channel member 93 for both the movable sash and the stationary sash is slotted to accommodate their travel over their respective guide flanges, the typical condition for each being shown in Fig. l and identified by the character 101.

The glass is inserted in the sash through the opening in which the guide flanges at the bottom extend.

- said flange.

2. In a window frame construction, a sliding sash, a window stool having a flange running end to end of the window opening engaging said sash, a track secured to said stool, and means mounted upon said track for supporting said, sash, said meansincluding a carriage, a portion of which is adapted to be telescoped into and fastened to said sash. r I 1 3. In a window frame construction, a sash, a carriage upon which said' sash is slidingly mounted and an operating lever mounted to said sash and provided with a cam element which when manually rotated will clamp the sash in various adjusted positions to the window frames 4. In a device of the kind described, the combination with a slidable sash, of a screen detachably attached to said sash and forming an extension of one edge thereof, said screen being provided at its attaching side with a bar portion of which extends laterally from the screen, there being an aperture in said laterally extending portion, a screew, a portion of the body of said screw being screwed into the edge of said sash, said screw being provided with a looking head which extends through said aperture and a locking lever pivotally mounted to said her engageable with the body portion of the screw between said head and the laterally extending portion of said bar.

5. In a window frameconstruction, a sash and a carriage for slidingly supporting said sash,

a track upon which said carriage is rollingly mounted, a window stool for supporting said track, an operating handle including a cam pivotally mounted to said sash and a locking element actuable by said cam.

which the point of said locking element regis-- ters when. said cam element is rotated into clamping position with said trim.

. 7. In a window frame construction, a sash, a stool, a carriage upon whichsaid sash is slidingly mounted, means for attaching said carriage thereto, means for rollingly mounting said pivotally carriage to said stool, a window stool moulding provided with a barrel and a window trim fastened to said moulding, an operating handle including a cam element mounted to said sash injuxtapositionto said window trim, a locking element having a locking point mounted within said barrel, a rack carried by said carriage having teeth with which the point of said locking element registers when said cam element is rotated into clamping position with said trim, and yieldable means having one end fastened tosaid carriage and the other to the window frame to oppose the closing movement of said sash.

8. In a device of the kind described, a sash having a bottom frame providedwith a slot, a

follower screen securable to an edge of said sash, there being a housing into which said screen is retractable and from which it is withdrawable, means to shift said sash and said screen in unison, said means including acarriage detachably secured to said sash, spaced ball bearing rollers secured to said carriage and trackage for said rollers whereby said sash is adapted'for sidewise movements, a window stool to which the trackage for said rollers is attached, said stool carriage detachably securable to said sash, rollers eccentrically secured to said carriage and a track for rollingly supporting said rollers to shift said carriage, a window stool to which said track is attached, said stool being provided with an upturned flange which engages said slot, and an operating handle whereby the shifting of said sash is manually effected.

10. In a window frame construction, a sliding sash, a Window stool, having a flange running end to end of the window opening engaging said sash, a track secured to said stool, and means mounted upon said track for supporting said sash,: said means including a carriage, a portion of which is adapted to be fastened to said sash.

11. In a window frame construction, .a sash,

a Window stool having a flange running end to end of the Window opening engaging said sash,

a track secured to said-stool and means mounted upon said track for slidingly supporting said sash.

12.111 a window frame construction, a sash,

a'window stool having a flange running end to end of the window opening engaging said sash,

a track secured to said stool and a carriage mounted upon said track forslidingly supporting said sash. i

13. In awindow frame construction, a sash, a window stool, a track secured to said stoola carriage detachably fastened to said sash and slidably mounted upon said track and means including a cam element which when manually rotated will clamp the sash in various adjusted positions to the window frame.


Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2663917 *Jan 28, 1948Dec 29, 1953Peterson Dev CorpWindow structure
US4359081 *Nov 6, 1981Nov 16, 1982John BrowerDoor barriers
US4993468 *Jul 28, 1989Feb 19, 1991Hackman William AWindow with automatic screen
US6056038 *Aug 21, 1998May 2, 2000Allset, IncorporatedRetractable barrier
US6123135 *Mar 2, 1999Sep 26, 2000Architectural Millwork Of Santa Barbara, Inc.Window-screen combination and method of use
US7676990 *Feb 28, 2007Mar 16, 2010Truth Hardware CorporationPositive action lock for sliding windows
EP1126128A2 *Feb 28, 2000Aug 22, 2001Karl-Heinz LorentzSystem of a mosquito net
WO2009008846A1 *Jul 9, 2007Jan 15, 2009Ali Ersan CebisliWindow or door with integrated roller blind
U.S. Classification160/23.1, 160/99, 49/450, 160/DIG.100
International ClassificationE06B9/54, E06B3/46
Cooperative ClassificationE06B3/4609, E06B9/54, Y10S160/10
European ClassificationE06B9/54, E06B3/46B