US 1926304 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Sept. 12, 1933 i POWDERED FUEL FOR INTERNAL COM- BUSTION ENGINES Rudolf Pawlikowski, Goerlitz, Germany No Drawing. Application February 10, 1928, sggzal No. 253,510, and in Germany June 14, 1
6 Claims. (01. 44-9) In powdered fuel engines only such fuels can pression of the combustion air rapidly drives the be used as will ignite and burn up during the gases out of the fine grains. The coarser grains short time space of one stroke of the engine. This are then ignited by the flame of the finer grains. capacity to burn is small if the grains of powder My invention therefore provides the means for are large, orif the fuel powder is moist (e. g. peat reducing the d ng s of th fuel p or wood-meal), high in ash content (e. g. coke The fi grinding ds to be Carried y $0 from the distillation of coal or lignite) and low in f r th n he r nd pow r j s n quick materials volatilizable by heat (e. g. cake or an-, i ni i fin t pa l ar p n to b i the thracite coal, etc.) v combustion air of the cylinder to that tempera- 1o s 1181 powders which ignite t dificulty ture which will result in the ignition and burnor burn up too slowly can be adapted for drivihg p Of the p Of the powder which is in the ing internal combustion engines in ac ord n e ,form of larger grains within the time limit de with my invention by utilizing them together with termined y the a e. quick igniting or burning kinds-of powder. one 'In order to surely bring about the ignition of 15. may ready mixture of l igniting wthe coarser ground powder grains in the comders (e. g. coke powder, moist peat dust, coal bustion chamberQof the engine they should be dust with high ash content 5 1 i lat l introduced into the cylinder only after the finer gases, etc.), and easily igniting kinds (e. g. ligmore rapidly g n p w in F r thi nite powder or dust of naphthalene, anthracene, purpose h m x f coarse n fi particles 20 Sugar or t like) o the other hand, one may can be subjected to a separation as it enters the instead of using the previously prepared mixture, Cylinder, r x p y if in or the like. Thi
bring the two kind of powder having good and can be accomplished in the manner shown in my poor ignition qualities together as'it is introcopending application Sen 390,997 by are duced into'the machine, that is, either ina small in refl ct rf in the inle conduits reservoir on the machine, in the injection nozzle, for 'retarding the u powder fl w throughor eveninthecombustion chamber of the engine By these reflecting Surfaces the coelsel' and itself. These various possibilities are illustratedin heavier grains are thrown back and retarded in m cppendmg application serialNos 39 7 filed their motion, while thefiner and lighter grains Septe b 3, 1929. I follow more easily the changes in direction of the si th qluihkignitingv kinds of powder are conveying air current necessitated by these hinnearly alwaysmore costly than the 1 igniting drances, and do not strike against the reflecting ki d it, i advantageous in employing my meth walls. They therefore suffer no decrease in ve- 011 t use greater t t of the l m g locity and pass into the combustion space of the powder as the primary driving fuel and to add engine Sooner than t coarser grains- 35 only a Small quantity of the quick igniting kind By means of my invention every too uncertainas primer The quick igniting powder can be 1y, or too slowly igniting, or too slowly burning made of difierent kinds of combustible material kind of powder anthracite, coal of high from th 1 igniting powder, or under certain ash content, coke residues from distillation, deconditions may consist of the same material as oiling bitumen removing opel'atimls, moist 40 the lat-ten peat, wood-meal, fallen leaves, animal carcasses,
the case of moist fuel or t which is high in etc.) can be adapted for utilization in internal ash one need only subject a f ti thereof, combustion engines by utilizing these slow ignitwhich. n easily be determined by experiment ing materials together with greater or less quantito a more complete drying or de ashing (e. g. by ties of lignite powder, low ash coal dust, finest 45 flotation or sifting) or in other wards, by puri ground coal, powder of naphthalene or other fying it with respect to its ignition properties, in Solid hydrmcarb? sucfh as anthracene or Sugar order to obtain a mixture which will operate sator any other easlly igmtable powderjsfactorfly in an internal combustioniengme. In certain cases the slow igniting powder can 50 w th many fuel powders it is um ient mere, also be impregnated with substances favoring ig- 1y'1;o grind relatively-small t of the fu l nition such as saltpeter, potassium chlorate, powder very fine, leaving the greater part in the P us Solution, With ap gases of form of larger grains so as to reduce the cost of easily ighitable Substances s y be d production. The finest powder grains th n 1 either before the fuel is fed into the engine or 55 flame first during the operation of the machine in he n in its l 1 l0 and sufficiently quickly, because the heatof com- The capacity for igni ing and burning of various powdered fuels is dependent upon a number of different factors, principal of which are grain size, moisture content, ash content, and content of readily volatile combustible substances. vThe present invention is concerned with'the capacity of powdered fuels to ignite and burn in an internal combustion engine during a single stroke. Fuel powders which are unable to ignite and burn up completely within. a single stroke, due to large grain size, high moisture. content, etc., I refer to as having slow ignition and burning qualities. Substances which are capable of igniting and burning completely in less than a single stroke of the engine I refer to. as having rapid ignition and burning qualities. Since the capacity of a certain fuel powder to ignite and burn up within a single stroke is dependent upon the type of engine, the form of. the combustion chamber in the working cylinder, and the driving conditions of the engine, as well as the nature of the fuel powder itself, what would be a slow igniting and burning powder for one engine might be a rapid igniting and burning powder for another engine.
In carrying out the process according to my invention any internal combustion, engine of the reciprocating type (c. g. Diesel, semi-Diesel, hot bulb v, or any other high pressure motor) or any engine working on the turbine principle (e. g. according to the Holzwarth system) may be used. The process can also be used in the type of inter-' nal combustion engines not used for the production of power, but primarily for the production of certain chemical products as waste gases.
Having described my invention, 1'. claim:
1. A fuel for internal combustion engines composed of a powder all particles of which are sufiiciently small to pass through the fuel valve of an internal combustion engine, the major portion of the fuel consisting of a carbonaceous powder having such slow igniting and burning characteristics that it is intrinsically incapable of burning up completely within a single engine stroke, the remainder of the fuel consisting of a predeterimned proportion of a priming powder consisting of a material which has been dried to a greater extent than the powder having slow igniting and burning characteristics.
2. A fuel for internal combustion engines composed of a powder all particles of which are sufficiently small to pass through the fuel valve of an internal combustion engine, the major portion of the fuel consisting of a carbonaceous powder having such slow. igniting and burning char acteristics that it is intrinsically incapable of burning up completely within a single engine stroke, the remainder of the fuel consisting of a predetermined proportion of a priming powder consisting of a material having a lower ash con-' tent than the powder having slow igniting and burning characteristics.
3. A fuel for internal combustion engines composed of a powder all particles of which are sufficiently small to pass through the fuel valve of an internal combustion engine, the major portion of the fuel consisting of a carbonaceous powder having such slow igniting and burning characteristics that it is intrinsically incapable of burning up completely within a single engine stroke, the remainder of the fuel consisting of a predetermined proportion of a priming powder consisting of a material characterized by a greater capacity for quickly yielding combustible gases under the influence of heat than the powder having slow igniting and burning characteristics.
4. The method of making a fuel for internal combustion engines from a carbonaceous powder having such slow igniting and burning characteristics that it is intrinsically incapable of buming up completely within asingle engine'stroke, which comprises grinding a small portion of said powder to a very small average particle size, and mixing said finely ground powder with the ,remainder of the powder.
5. A fuel for internal combustion engines consisting of a mixture of'anthracite coal powder and lignite powder, the powders being sufliciently fine to pass through the fuel valve of an internal combustion engine, the anthracite coal powder forming the larger portion of the mixture, and the lignite powder being in sufiicient amount to cause the ignition and complete burning of the entiremixture in a single stroke of the internal combustion engine with which the fuel is to be used.
6. A fuel for internal combustion engines composed of a carbonaceous powder having slow igniting and burning qualities impregnated with a sufllcient quantity of a volatile substance to cause the ignition and complete combustion of the powder within a single stroke of the internal combustion engine in which the fuel is to be used, the powder being sufiiciently fine to pass through the fuel valve of the internal combustion engine.