US 1928675 A
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Get. 3, 1933. R. w. sAMPsoN 1,928,675
PNEUMATI C CUSHION BY ms ATTORNEY atented l VTEC CUSmON Application September 25, 19331 Serial No. 564,989
My invention'relates to pneumatic cushions,
mattresses and the like, such as are primarily intended for the support of the human body in a sitting or reclining position, which embody a resilient, yielding element or elements consisting of a container or containers formed of rubber or similar material impervious to air, and adapted to hold air or other gas in confinement. Objects of my invention are to give-to the air confining element or elements a configuration which will allow yielding locallyand acceptably to the Weight of the human body, Without undue protrusion of the under side of such element, and
'^ return to a normal position when released from such weight; to embody the pneumatic element or elementsv in a unitary assembly embracing a rigid base or frame in combination with a covering or casing, preferably suitably padded, so that the assembly shall constitute a completed unit ready for use without further special additions or modifications; to so construct and proportion the rigid frame and the flexible casing that the pneumatic element or elements shall be held against sliding or slipping or creeping bodily`toward the central portions of the seat structure; to-provide for the ready removal and replacement of the pneumatic element or elements; to obviate the rolling tendency characteristic of bag-like pneumatic cushions; and to secure the other advantages hereinafter more particularly pointed out and described.
In the drawings Figure 1 is a plan view of an automobile seat embodying the principles of my invention, the same being partially broken away toward the center the better to illustrate the construction of the seat; Figure 2 is a cross sectional view oi the same taken as on the line 2 2 of Figure l, showing the cushion in its normal position; Figure 3 is a similar view showing the cushion subjected to weight of the person sitting thereupon; Figure 4 is a plan view on an enlarged scale of one of the pneumatic elements of the cushion; Figure 5 is a cross sectional view of the.
c same, on the line 5-5 of Figure 6, to show the interior of the structure; Figure 6 is a longitudinal sectional View of the same, on line 6 6 of Figure 7, to show 'the interior of the structure; and Figure 'I is a bottom view of the same.
Similar letters of reference designate similar i or less completely filled with air, and placed upon parts in all the drawings. i
The cushion is shown as embodying three pneumatic elements l, l, l, each of which consists essentially of a plurality of bottom chambers 2, 2, 2 disposed crosswise of the seat structure, and protruding 'from the bottom of the pneumatic element, and a plurality of other 'air chambers 3, 3, 3 extending lengthwise of the seat structure, and protruding from the upper face of the pneumatic element, and intercommunicating with the lower series of chambers, so that air may be distributed through the whole interior of the element under equal pressure.
The result of this construction is to permit the upper face of the cushion to yield more readily from front to rear; and to permit the lower face of the cushion to yield more readily from side to side; so that the stretchability of one face of the cushion in one direction is opposed by the greater resistance of the opposite face of the cushion in the same direction. A rigid frame or base is composed essentially of end pieces 5, 5; a front piece 6, and a back piece 7, forming a rectangular unit.
Lengthwise of this unit and spaced inward from the back and front edges of the frame IA place two bars 8,-and 9, of which 8 is preferably higher than 9. These bars preferably have their upper faces curved or rounded so as to eliminate any'lsharp angles; and they are also, preferably. covered with felt, l0, or the like, so as to prevent their chafing the pneumatic element 1 when it is placed upon them.
In order to elevate the forward edge of the cushion I provide it with a suitable raising strip ll under its forward edge. But I wish it to be understood that -if thecushion is intended for use as a mattress or the like, when it is desirable to have its upper surface approximating a horizontal plane, the bars 8 and 9 may be of the same height,.and the riser 11 may be omitted or a corresponding riser may be placed on the back of the frame. A case or cover is preferably made with an outer face 14 and an inner iiy 15, between which is placed suitable packing as 16, composed of hair or the like. The edges of this cover are secured to the outer edges of the frame, preferably, at least on the ends and back by readily detachable elements as 17, 17 fastened into the frame and adapted to detachably lock into the cover so as to hold it securely in place over the pneumatic elements and the frame. This cover may be tufted in the usual manner as at 1S, 18, if desired. y
When the pneumatic elements have been more the frame and the cover has been put in position,
`it will be seenA that if weight is placed on the upat the same'time, the cushion will tend to be centrally depressed, ,so that between the bars 8 and 9 it will be stretched bridge-like so that it will rest upon iiat surfaces.
afford a resilient resistance to pressure upon it, and will tend to spring back toits normal position when the pressure is released.
It will also be observed that the application of pressure on the upper surface of the cushion will tend to diminish its thickness between ,thatop of the bars 8 and 9 and the upper face of the cushion so that the back and front ends of the chambers 2, 2, will be larger outside of the bars 8 and 9 than directly above them. Pressure on the central portions of the cushion will also tend to force air toward the ends of lthe chambers 2, 2, and will also tend to throw the ends of the chamber upward. But as the cover will prevent upward movement a condition will arise where the ends of thea chambers 2, 2, are enlarged or swollen relative to their dimensions above the bars 8 and 9. l'Ihis prevents the back and front edges of the cushion from drawing inward over the bars 8 and 9 so as to allow the central portions of the pneumatic elements to be thrust bodily down between those bars. And this is a distinct advantage over any construction wherein the front and back edges of the pneumatic elements may be made to For the cushion edges may slide inward upon such surface,4 and bag down too far centrally, while they will develop much less elasticity in practice where the pressure is spread over a wide at area than where it is sustained by comparatively narrow bearings such as the tops of the bars 8 and 9. In practice the cover may be fastened to the` front of the frame, the pneumatic elements slipped in from the side or rear, the cover then secured around the ends and back of the frame, and a desirable quantity of air may be injected into the pneumatic elements.
Any tendency of the cushion to creep from front and back toward the center is also resisted by the longitudinally elevated chambers 3, 3, between which the upholstery of the cover' will be pressed down, more or less by the weightfresting upon it,
and thus offer increased resistance to any tendency of the pneumatic elements to slide toward the center.
I nd it preferable to arch the bottom chambers 2, 2 as at 19, both as tending to resist too reaiv deection of the cushion, centrally, and also as eliminating undue protuberance of the under side of the cushion in case of unusual weight or stresses upon its upper surfaces. These arch-like recesses also afford desirable places for the insertion of valve stems 20, 20 through which air may be injected or 'withdrawn from the pneumatic elements. v
While I have illustrated my invention as embodied in an automobile seat I wish again to state that it is also applicable to mattresses and other similar structures; and that it may be used for the backs of seats, also. For it is obvious that so long as the pressure is applied to the cushion structure in a line generally at right angles to its outer face, it will make little difference whether the cushion is disposed in a horizontal position or in a vertical position or at some intermediate angle, inasmuch as its resiliency, stability and conguration will remain substantially the same at various angles, under similar degrees of pressure.
Having thus described my invention what I claim and d esire to secure by Letters Patent o! the United States is,-
1. A pneumatic cushion, composed of rubber or the like,vadapted to contain confined air, embodying a plurality of elongated chambers projecting from its lower face, extending transversely of the cushion, each having bearing surfaces on its lower face and one thereof having a concaved arch springing lengthwise of the chamber between the bearing surfaces. 1
2. A pneumatic cushion, composed of rubber or the like, adapted to contain confined air, embodying a plurality of elongated chambers projecting from its lower face, extending transversely of the cushion, each having bearing surfaces on its lower face and a concaved arch springing lengthwise of the'chamber between the bearing surfaces;
ROBERT W. SAMPSON.