|Publication number||US1929234 A|
|Publication date||Oct 3, 1933|
|Filing date||Feb 25, 1931|
|Priority date||Feb 25, 1931|
|Publication number||US 1929234 A, US 1929234A, US-A-1929234, US1929234 A, US1929234A|
|Inventors||Anderson Per August|
|Original Assignee||Anderson Per August|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (12), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 3, 1933. P. A. ANl DERSON 1,929,234
CARBURETOR Filed Feb. 25, 1931 3 Sheets-Shet 1 65 67 r 66 44 v m A a5 9 INVENTOR PE R A UGUSTANDERSON BY fi ydzkzumv ATTORNEYS Oct. 3, 1933. ANDERSQN 1,929,234
CARBURETOR Filed Feb. 25, 1931 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR PERAUGUSTANPERSON BY fig W ATTORN EYS Oct. 3, 1933. P. A. ANDERSON 1,929,234
CARBURETOR Filed Feb. 25, 1951 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR ATTORN EYS Fatenteol 3, 1933 UNITE STATES PATENT OFFICE Application February 25,
My invention relates to carburetors for internal combustion engines and has for its object to provide a carburetor of novel and simple construction whereby the atomization of the liquid 1 fuel is effected with maximum efficiency and whereby an explosive mixture of great efiectiveness is produced in a uniform and positive manner. The invention further contemplates the provision of a carburetor whereby wastage of unused fuel is prevented and whereby control of the mixture may be readily effected to secure the most efficient engine operation. Other more specific objects will appear from the description hereinafter, and the features of novelty will be pointed out in the claims.
In the accompanying drawings, which illustrate an example of the invention without defining its limits, Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of the novel carburetor; Fig. 2 is a horizontal sectionthereof on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is a sectional elevation on the line 3-3 of Fig. 1; Fig. 4 is a fragmentary elevation of said carburetor; Fig. 5 is a plan'view of the exit end of the fuel nozzle on a slightly enlarged scale; Fig. 6 is an enlarged horizontal section on the line 6--6 of Fig. 1; Fig. 7 is a detail inverted end view of an element of the fuel atomizing means; Fig. 8 is an enlarged detail section on the line 88 of Fig. l, and Fig. 9 is an enlarged sectional 30 elevation of another element of the fuel atomizing means. r
In the illustrated example I have shown the carburetorin a form adapted for use particularly Q with internal combustion engines such as are 35 commonly found in automobiles and other automotive vehicles, for which it is specially designed.
It'is to be understood however that the novel carburetor is also adapted for efiicient use in combination with other types of internal combustion engines and that the form shown in the drawings is not to be construed as defining the limits of said carburetor,
In its illustrated form the carburetor comprises a casing 10 including a nozzle chamber 11 provided with an air inlet 12 arranged in communication with an air inlet tube 13 secured to the casing 10 in any conventional manner, as by means of screws14. The air inlet tube 13 has mounted therein the customary choke valve 15 carried by a shaft 16 upon the external end of which an arm 17 is secured for the purpose of enabling the choke valve 15 to be controlled in the conventional way, for instance, from the instrument board of an automobile or other automotive vehicle. In its bottom, the casing 10 is 1931. Serial No. 518,059
(Cl. 26l54) provided with a threaded opening adapted to accommodate the fuel nozzle 18, which extends into the nozzle chamber 11 and communicates by means of a recess 19 and passage 20 with a source of liquid fuel supply illustrated in the form of a float chamber 21, which may comprise an integral part of the casing 10, as illustrated in Fig. 1. At its exit end, the nozzle 18 is provided with a central opening 22 and with a plurality of exit passages 23 diverging outwardly from said opening; in addition, a central axial exit passage 24 communicates with said opening 22 and terminates in the end face of the nozzle 18. 18 or, in other words, the amount of fuel passing therefrom is controlled by means of a needle valve co-operating with the opening-22 and adjustably mounted in said nozzle, as shown in Fig. 1, a suitable apertured guide 25 being provided to guide said valve 25 in its movements lengthwise of the nozzle, as illustrated in Fig. 6. To enable the needle valve 25 to be adjusted for the purpose of varying the aforesaid issuing capacity, said valve is provided with a stem 26 having a threaded portion 27 in threaded engagement with an opening provided in a plug 28. The latter is threaded into the casing 10, and in the illustrated example, serves to close the recess 19 from below. A stuffing box 29 of any conventional form is combined with the plug 28 to prevent leakage of the fuel. The screw thread of the portion 27 and the co-operating portion of the plug 28 is preferably of a relatively coarse pitch, so that a slight rotation of the stem 26 about its axis will shift the needle valve 25 toward and away from the opening 22 to effect the desired adjustment of the fuel supply from the nozzle 18. Suitable means, for instance, in'the form of a cross bar 30 may be provided at one end of the stem 26 to facilitate its manipulation in order to bringabout the desired setting of the needle valve 25. In order to permit the needle valve 25 to be adjusted from a remote point with respect to the carburetor, as, for instance, the instrument board of an automobile, the rod 26 is further provided with an arm 31 which may be releasably clamped in position on said stem by means of a screw 32, and which is connected by means of a link 33 with a suitable manipulating device located at the aforesaid remote point. It will be understood that the arrangement is such as to produce a rotation of the stem 26 about its axis when a pushing or pulling force is developed upon the link 33.
In addition to the parts so far described, the
The issuing capacity of the nozzle 18 is thoroughly atomized and completely broken up into a very fine mist, this operation taking place as soon as the liquid fuel issues from the,
nozzle 18. This device comprises foraminated means mounted in axial proximity to the exit end of the nozzle 18 and in its illustrated form consists of a sleeve 34 located in telescopic registry with said exit end and in annularly spaced relation therewith, so as to form the annular air passage 35 which preferably flares downwardly and outwardly as indicated at 36. In addition, the sleeve 34 includes radial recesses 3'7 communicating with the air space 35 and preferably 10-. cated in registry withthe exit ends of the diverging passages 23 of the nozzle 18; thus recesses 37 which constitute air passages are dimensioned in accordance with the requirements existing in each case and may easily be enlarged by filing or otherwise to' secure the most eflicient results. The atomizing device further includes a foraminated tubular shell 38 provided with apertures 39 and detachably connected with the sleeve 34 to form an axial continuation thereof, for instance, by being screwthreaded into the same. A screen 40, the mesh of which preferably is smaller than the apertures 39, is carried by the shell 38, so as to obstruct the exit end thereof, and preferably ex-- tendsinwardly into said shell, as shown in Figs. 1 and 9. In its preferred form the screen 40 is of inverted cone shape and terminates in an apex consisting of an unperforated metallic member 41, the end of which is directed toward and is in axial registry with the central axial passage 24 of the nozzle 18; the apex member 41 preferably sets over the lower end of the screw 40 and is secured thereto in any convenient manner, as by soldering; the screen 40 maylikewise be fastened in place in the shell 38 by soldering or in any other suitable manner. Instead of detachably connecting the shell 38 with the sleeve 34 as shown, which enables said shell 38 to be removed to facilitate cleaning or replacement thereof, the apertures 39' may be produced directly in the sleeve 34 which in such case would be of increased axial length and avoid the necessity for a separate shell. The screen 40 would insuch case be fixed directly in the elongated sleeve 34.
To prevent accidental'rotation of the shell 38 relatively to the sleeve 34' and to maintain said shell against unintentional disconnection from said sleeve, any suitable form of device may be provided. In the illustrated example, this device comprises an elastic member 42 of circular form located in an annular groove 43 of the sleeve 34 and having its one end permanently secured to said sleeve, for instance, by means of a rivet 44. At its opposite end the member 42 carries a pin 45, which extends through a suitable opening in the sleeve .34 and projects into a recess 46 provided in the shell 38 to receive the same. Obviously, when the pin projects into the recess 46, the shell 38 will be firmly'fixed against unintentional rotation, and at the same time the member 42 will lie inside of the peripheral surfaceof said sleeve 34, as clearly shown carburetor includes a novel fuel atomizing device tion developed in the motor. As shown in Figs. 1, .2 and 3, the air regulating means comprises opposed members or shutters 4'7 and 48 recessed as indicated at 49 to encircle the sleeve 34 when said shutters occupy their normally closed positions, as illustrated in Fig. 2; suitable stops are provided for supporting said shutters 47 and 48 in said closed positions as will appear more fully hereinafter. The shutters 4'7 and 48 are pivotally mounted by means of shafts 50, which project exteriorly of the carburetor, as shown in Fig. 2 and carry arms 51- and 51 respectively. The arms 51 and 51* are independently controlled by means of springs 52 and 52 the outer ends of which engage nuts 53, threaded upon the outer ends of upright rods 54 mounted in stationary positions upon suitable-portions of the carburetor. In the preferred arrangement, the spring 52 is of lighter tension than the spring 52 so that the shutters 4'7 and 48 will be automatically operated in sequence by the developed suction, as will appear more fully hereinafter. The nuts 53 may be fixed against accidental movement by means of ball detents 55 influenced by the springs 56, as shown in Fig. 4. To permit a restricted amount of air to pass beyond the shutters 4'7 and 48, even when the latter are in their closed positions, said shutters may be provided with one or more air apertures 57, as shown in Fig. 2; if desired or found preferable, these air apertures may omitted.
In the preferred arrangement, the fuel atomizing means and the air regulating means, as
described hereinbefore, are carried by anindependent tubular member 58 mounted upon the casing 10 in registry with the nozzle chamber 11, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3. In such case, the sleeve 34 and its associated elements may be carried by supporting me bers 59 extending diametrically across the tubul r member 58, and secured upon projections 60 thereof, for instance, by means of screws or the like 61, as illustrated in Fig. 3. While the illustrated example shows the sleeve 34 and members 59 as separate elements suitably secured together, it will be understood that in the preferred arrangement said sleeve 34 and members 59 are cast or otherwise constructed as integral parts of each other. In addition to their other functions :the members 59 may constitute stops which support the air shutters 4'7 and 48 in their normally closed positions.
The carburetor, in its illustrated form, further includes a fixture 62 mounted upon the tubular member 58 and provided with a throttle valve chamber 63 located in registry with said tubular member 58 and consequently with the nozzle chamber 11. A' conventional throttle valve 64 is pivotally mounted in the chamber 63 by means of a shaft 65 and is controlled through the medium of an arm 66 and a link 6'7 leading to the instrument board of an automobile or other motor vehicle, or to some other point in easy accessibility to the'operator of the motor of which the carburetor forms. a part. The fixture 62 and the tubular member 58 may both be fixed in place by bolts or similar fastening means 68. The throttle valve chamber 63,'it will be understood, is connected with the manifold of the internal combustion engine in the conventional manner.
The supply of liquid fuel to the nozzle 18 is regulated and controlled in the illustrated example by means of a needle valve 69 co-operating with a valve seat '70 arranged in communication with a channel '71 connected by means of a tube 72 with a supply of liquid fuel located, for
ordinary conditions generally leak out of the instance, in the conventional gas tank of an automobile. The automatic operation of the needle valve 69 is controlled by means of a float 73 and weighted arms 74 pivotally mounted at '75, for instance, upon the removable cover '76 of the fioat chamber 21 and having their inner ends in operative connection with the needle valve 69, for instance, by means of a grooved collar 77. With this arrangement, as the float 73 rises in the chamber 21, by the action of the inflowing liquid fuel, the weighted ends of the lever 74 will finally be engaged, and said levers 74 will be pivotally actuated to move the needle valve 69 downwardly into the seat to thereby out off the supply of liquid fuel to the chamber 21. As the supply of fuel in said chamber 21 decreases by pas sage out of the nozzle 18, thefioat 73 will descend in the chamber 21 and release the levers '74, which because of their weighted ends will accordingly swing in the opposite direction and raise the needle valve 69 out of the seat 70 to permit a new supply of liquid fuel to pass into the chamber 21. To simplify the construction and to increase the efficiency thereof, the valve seat '70 is formed in a fuel inlet member 78, which is slidably fitted into an opening 79 provided in the bottom of the float chamber 21, said member 78 being continued in the form of a threaded neck 80 with which the tube 72 is connected by means of an internally threaded collar 81. To properly position the member 78, it is provided with a flange 82 arranged to rest upon the bottom of the float chamber 21, as illustrated in Fig. 1; a pin or other projection 83 may be located upon the bottom of the chamber 21 for co-operation with a recess 84 in the flange 82 to prevent location of the member 78 about its axis. A look nut 85 is threaded upon an external portion of the member 78 for engagement with the lower end 10f the float chamber 21 to firmly fix the fuel inlet member 78 in its intended position.
In carburetors of the type under discussion, considerable portions of the atomized fuel sometimes becomes condensed in the throttle valve chamber 63 in the form of unused fuel and under carburetor and result in wastage of gasoline or its equivalent. To overcome this difficulty, the present novel carburetor includes a by-pass con: nection, which establishes communication between the throttle valve chamber 63 and nozzle chamber 11 and serves to conduct any condensed unused fuel from said throttle valve chamber 63 back to the nozzle chamber 11. The fuel thus returned to the latter chamber is withdrawn therefrom by suction when the engine is again operated, and thus is fully utilized instead of being wasted as heretofore. The by-pass referred to consists of a tube 86, one end of which is connected with an elbow 87, communicating with a passage 88 leading to the nozzle chamber 11 near the bottom thereof. The other end of the tube 86 is connected with a fixture 89 communicate ing with a passage 90 leading to the throttle valve chamber 63, preferably in receiving relation to the throttle valve 64, which, generally speaking, occupies an inclined closed position, as indicated in Fig. 3. If desired, the communication between the aforesaid by-pass and the interior of the throttle valve chamber 63 may be con trolled by means of a needle valve 91 adjustably mounted in the fixture 89 and adapted to be secured in an adjusted position, for instance, by means of a lock nut 92. For the purpose of collecting and retaining the unused fuel which is &
returned from the throttle valve chamber 63 to the nozzle chamber 11, the latter may be provided in its bottom with a well 93, while an overflow well 94 may be located in the air inlet tube 13 in overflowing relation to the well 93 for receiving unused fuel beyond the capacity of said well 93. To enable the by-pass 86 and its asso-, ciated elements to be transferred to another location, if this should be desired, additional internally threaded bosses 88 and 90 may be provided as shown in Fig. 3. When not in use these bosses are closed by plugs 88 and 90 respectively.
In practice, when the motor of which the carburetor forms a part is in operation, the developed suction will withdraw liquid fuel from the float chamber 21 or an equivalent source of sup-. ply through the passage 20 and recess 19 and upwardly through the nozzle 18 from which said fuel will issue through the exit passages 23 and 24 in quantities depending upon the adjustment of the needle valve 25 relatively to the outlet opening 22. From the nozzle 18, this liquid fuel will issue in divergent sprays through the passages 23 and in a central spray through the passage 24, and will be drawn through the apertures 39 of the shell 38 and through the interstices of the screen 40. It will be noted that the outlet opening 22 and the exit passage 24 are tapered toward the exit end of the nozzle 18, the taper of said opening 22 and passage 24 preferably being slightly less than the taper of the needle valve 25. The fuel in its passage along the needle valve 25 is thus given the form of a hollow column which in this form passes out of the no exit passage 24; at the same time the fuel is also directed toward the passages 23. The issuing direction imparted to the'fuel by the passages 23 and the impact of the tubular spray from the passage 24 against the apex 41 of the screen 40 will cause said issuing fuel to assume an outwardly sprayed funnel-like form whereby the particles of said fuel will be divided into a condition most effective for atomization. In this condition the fuel will pass through the apertures 39 and through the screen 40 and will be thoroughly and completely broken up thereby into a very fine mist capable of becoming easily and efliciently mixed with the air to provide an explosive mixture of the utmost effectiveness. At low speed the air shutters 47 and 48 will occupy their closed positions, and the air for admixture with the fuel will be drawn through the annular air space 36-35, and will pass through the apertures 39 and the screen 49 with the fuel as it issues from the nozzle 18. As the speed of the engine increases, the developed suction will first cause the air shutter 47, because of its lighter spring 52, to be pivotally adjusted to an open position, so that an additional supply of air will pass upwardly through the tubular member 58 for mixture with the atomized fuel. If the speed of the engine increases still more, the air shutter 48 will be correspondingly actuated by the increased suction to provide a still greater supply of air for admixture with said atomized fuel. As the speed of the engine is reduced the air shutters 47 and 48 will finally resume their normal closed positions. As the shutters 47 and 48 assume inclined open positions, the degree of which depends upon the engine speed, the incoming air will be confined thereby in proximity to the atom izing means or in most intimate mixing relation means. In this way, an explosive mixture of the proper proportions of air and fuel is automatically supplied to the engine at all times in accordance with its speed of operation. If, because of atmospheric conditions, it is difficult to start the engine even when the choke valve 15 is completely' closed, the supply of fuel through the nozzle 18 may beincreased to provide an increased richness by adjusting the needle valve 25 away from the outlet opening 22 through the medium of the arm 31 and the link 33. When this extra richness in the mixture is no longer required, a reverse operation, by means of the link 33 and arm 31 will restore the needle valve 35 to its previously set position to which it has been adjusted through the medium of the cross bar 30 or its equivalent. The choke valve 15 and the throttle valve 64 are each operated in the customary manner to bring about the desired operation of the motor with which the carburetor is connected. In addition to the functions previously described the by-pass 86 serves to supply air to the throttle valve chamber'63 when the throttle valve 64 occupies a closed or nearly closed position, as when the engine is operating at low speeds; this supply of air may be accurately adjusted to insure the most efiicient results by means of the needle valve 91 and constitutes an additional feature whereby the efficiency of operation is increased. The condensed fuel collected in the wells 93 and 94 is utilized by the engine as it is started subsequent to the collection of said fuel. I
The carburetor in the form illustrated and described is simple in construction and most efilcient in operation-and avoids the necessity for the customary Venturi tube or equivalent means which generally are included in carburetors of conventional form and also avoids the necessity for devices located beyond the throttle valve for breaking up the fuel into the fineness necessary to produce the most effective motor operation. With the novel arangement the fuel is atomized or thoroughly broken up into an efficient mist immediately at the exit end of the nozzle and as soon as it issues from said exit end; this mist is readily combined with the incoming air to provide a fuel mixture which is fully exploded in the operation of the engine. The complete combustion which is thereby secured avoids the production of carbon monoxide gas in any harmful quantity and accordingly overcomes the danger therefrom which now exists. At the same time a very high fuel efficiency is secured which reduces the operative cost to a minimum. The needle valve arrangement which controls the issuing capacity of the nozzle provides a simple means whereby most effective operation and, quick starting of the engine under all conditions and at all times is assured. It will be understood that the needle valve 25 may be set relatively to the nozzle opening 22 to secure the most effective fuel mixture by means of the cross-bar 30, the arm 31 being released, if necessary, during this operation; it will further be understood that the adjustment of the needle valve 25 by means of the arm 31 and link 33 to vary this setting tem porarily may be utilized at any time during the operation ofthe engine when such use will increase the operative eflicicncy of the motor. The method of mounting the fuel inlet. member '78 in the float valve chamber 21 reduces this construction to thesimplest point and does away with the necessity for screw threads through which leakage is likely to take place. It will, of course, be obvious that the float chamber 21 may be replaced by other existing or special means for supplying the liquid fuel to the nozzle 18.
Various changes in the specific forms shown and described my be made within the scope of the claims without departing from the spirit of the invention.
1. In a carburetor, a fuel nozzle connected with a supply of liquid fuel, and provided with a plurality of outwardly diverging exit passages, a tubular foraminated shell extending over said nozzle in annular spaced relation thereto and having its inlet end located in axial proximity to the exit end of said nozzle, and a screen obstructing the exit end of said shell and converging into the same, said shell and screen constituting means whereby the fuel issuing from said exit passages is atomized.
2. In a carburetor, a fuel nozzle connected with a supply of liquid fuel, and providedwith a central axial exit passage and with a plurality of outwardly diverging exit passages, a sleeve mounted in telescopic registry with the exit end of said nozzle and in annular spaced relation therewith, a foraminated tubular shell comprising an axial continuation of said sleeve, and a screen of inverted cone shape located at the exit end of-said shell and extending into the same with its apex in axial registry with said axial exit-passage, said shell and screen constituting means whereby the fuel issuing from said passages is atomized.
3. In a carburetor, the combination of a nozzle chamber having an air inlet, a throttle valve chamber located beyond and communicating with said nozzle chamber, a nozzle projecting into said nozzle chamber and connected with a supply of liquid fuel, means located at the exit end of said nozzle in axial registry therewith for atomizing the fuel issuing from the exit end of said nozzle before it reaches said throttle valve chamber, said atomizing means being in ann'ular spaced relation to said nozzle to form an annular air passage, and means co-operating with said atomizing means independently of said annular air passage for regulating the air supply thereat.
.4. A carburetor as set forth in claim 3, in which the air regulating means consists of spring controlled shutters automatically operated by developed suction to control the air supply at said atomizing means.
5. A carburetor as set forth in claim 3 inwhich the atomizing means comprises tubular foraminated means located in axial proximity to the exit end of said nozzle, and the air regu-- lating means consists of pivoted shutters located in said nozzle chamber and recessed to encircle said tubular means, said shutters being automatically operated by developed suction and being independently controlled by springs of different tension.
6. In a carburetor, a casing provided with a nozzle chamber having an air inlet, a nozzle connected with a supply of liquid fuel and located in said chamber, an independent tubular member mounted upon said casing in registry with said nozzle chamber; a fixture mounted upon said tubular member and provided with a throttle valve chamber in registry therewith, a sleeve 145 carried by said tubular member in telescopic registry with the exit end of said nozzle and in annular spaced relation therewith, a foraminated device carried by said sleeve for atomizing the fuel issuing from said nozzle, 9. pair of air 150 shutters pivotally mounted within said tubular member and recessed to encircle said sleeve in their closed positions, arms located externally of said tubular member and connected to move with said shutters, and independent springs of different tensions effective upon said arms whereby said shutters are automatically operated in sequence by developed suction to control the air supply to the atomized fuel.
7. In a carburetor, including a nozzle, an atomizing unit consisting of a tubular member constituting part of the carburetor casing, a sleeve carried by said member in concentric relation thereto and adapted to be positioned by said member in operative relation to the exit end of the carburetor nozzle, a foraminated shell detachably mounted in said sleeve, and a screen directed inwardly toward said nozzle and obstructing the bore of said shell.
8. In a carburetor including a nozzle, an atomizing unit consisting of a tubular member, a sleeve carried by said member and adapted to be positioned thereby in operative relation to the exit end of the carburetor nozzle, a foraminated shell detachably mounted in said sleeve, an inwardly directed screen obstructing the bore of said shell, a pair of opposed air shutters pivotally mounted within said tubular member and recessed to encircle said sleeve, arms located exteriorly of said tubular member and connected to move with said shutters, and independent springs efiective upon said arms for normally maintaining them in and returning them to their closed positions.
9. In a carburetor, a fuel nozzle connected with a supply of liquid fuel, a sleeve projecting over said nozzle in telescopic registry with the exit end thereof and in annular spaced relation with said nozzle to form an annular air passage, a foraminated atomizing member detachably secured in said sleeve, and releasable means whereby said atomizing member is locked in connection with said sleeve.
10. In a carburetor, the combination of 2. casing including a nozzle chamber provided with an internal well, an air inlet tube connected with said nozzle chamber and provided with an overflow well, a nozzle in said nozzle chamber connected with a supply of liquid fuel, a throttle valve chamber communicating with said nozzle chamber, an ,external by-pass connection between said chambers whereby condensed unused fuel in said throttle valve chamber is conducted back to said nozzle chamber and stored in said well and overflow well, and an adjustable needle valve in said by-pass connection.
PER AUGUST ANDERSON.
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|US2632636 *||Apr 19, 1951||Mar 24, 1953||Andrew H Carson||Carburetor|
|US2704659 *||May 19, 1950||Mar 22, 1955||fuchs|
|US3680846 *||Jan 8, 1971||Aug 1, 1972||Acf Ind Inc||Staged carburetor|
|US3848858 *||Apr 27, 1973||Nov 19, 1974||K Page||Velocity-actuated fuel control valve|
|US4057602 *||May 30, 1974||Nov 8, 1977||Kolm Ernest L||Venturi scrubber|
|US4141940 *||Dec 27, 1977||Feb 27, 1979||Acf Industries, Incorporated||Carburetor fuel flow control|
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|US8609029||Jun 3, 2010||Dec 17, 2013||Zimek Technologies Ip, Llc||Ultrasonic sanitation and disinfecting device and associated methods|
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|U.S. Classification||261/54, 261/63, 261/75, 261/DIG.580|
|International Classification||F02M19/035, F02M9/10|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S261/58, F02M19/035, F02M9/106|
|European Classification||F02M9/10C, F02M19/035|