US 1931667 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 24, 1933. Q LOETSCHER 1,931,667
PROCESS FOR REPROD UCING MARBLEIZED SURFACES ON COMPOSITE BUILDING MATERIALS Filed Feb. 26, 1951 MOE 12067 aog w. .ZYwul C. L02 Asoka/7 @M- g WWWMMW- Patented Oct. 24, 1933 PATENT OFFICE 1,931,667 PROCESS FOR REPRODUCING MARBLEIZED SURFACES- ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS BUILDING Emil C. Loctscher, Dubuque, Iowa Application February 26, 1931. Serial No. 518,401
6 Claims. (Cl. 91-68) This invention relates to improvements in processes for reproducing on the surface of sheets, panels or slabs of composite and other building materials, the variegated coloring designs and luster of the various marbles used for :interior decoration and trim.
In a word, the process is one for the production of a marble surface finish which, when applied to various'wall covering materials, would find extensive usage for interior decoration which "would not admit of the use of the natural stone. Such a material would be relatively inexpensive, easy to handle'and apply, and yet faithfully reproducing the effect of a polished marble surface. Marbles are preferably reproduced by the present process, because they occur'in nature in a great variety of shades, color combinations and distinctive patterns in mottled.- veined and cloudy effects which lend themselves: readily to reproduction, although the coloring and surface markings of other building stone such'as limestone, sandstone and even granite, may also be reproduced.
The process, in so far as it admits of illustration, is disclosed in the accompanying drawing, I inwhich v V Figure 1 is a perspective view of the tank and "water bath, showing the manner in which the color film may be transferred to a sheet of paper.
Figure 2 is adetail view in vertical section through the water bath and sheetduring the operation of transferring the color film, and
a Figure 3 is a perspective view of a fragment of a composite sheet having a decorated surface produced by theprocess.
Since the process and the resulting product is essentially a matter of surface finish or decoration, the base material is secondary and hence may be one of many forms of material available,
as for example, wood panels of various thicknesses, pulp or fibrous panel'board, plasterboard and other composite building materials in sheet or slab form which may be cut or sawed by ordinary wood-working tools and nailed or otherwise fastened to a wall, column or other architectural detail. I I Referring now to the process of producing the surface coating to be later applied to the selected basematerial, the medium is preferably paper or like fibrous material on which the particular design is delineated in the desired colors and pattern, and then treated with a resinous varnish.
The initial formation of the pattern and the method of transferring it to the sheet of paper is perhaps the most interesting and novel part of the process.
A shallow tank 1 of, say, 4 or 5 inches in depth, and of any desired length and width (depending on the size of the sheets to be prepared) is filled to a depth of 3 or 4 inches, that is, within an inch constant and the body of water quiescent, al-
though as will presently be seen, surface disturbances may be produced by extraneous means.
The next step in the process is the preparation of the coloring materials which would generally be designated as oil paint, that is, a mineral pigment finely ground and thoroughly mixed with linseed, Chinawood or other suitable drying oil. Under certain conditions a liquid hydrocarbon may also be added to the oil color, par-' ticularly when more than one color or shade enters intothe design to be reproduced.
- In its simplest aspect, the process of creating the desired patterns is to distribute minute quantities of an oil color upon the surface of the water bath as in drops or globules, whereupon it immediately spreads out in a thin film in more or less irregular formations. Now, the phenomenon of oil spreading in a very thin film over the surface of water, is well known, and is explained by the fact that the surface tension is weakened by the presence of the oil, causing an immediate spreading over a wide area when dropped upon the surface of the water.
Thus, drops of an oil color behave in like manner when they come into contact with the surface of the water, forming a film which may not spread uniformly over the surface, but rather break up into vein-like or mottled patterns similar to the markings found in natural marble.
Thus utilizingone color or shade, there may be open water between irregular patches of the oil film.. Again, using two or more colors, the films will intersperse with each other, thus giving the a ground of white or color tint. Similarly, patterns in two or more colors may be created by varying the amount and proportions of colors used, accompanied by a gentle agitation of the water as by directing a current of air upon the surface or circulating a stream of water beneath the surface.
Again, the patterns may be varied by mixing different hydrocarbon solvents with the oil pigments, such as alcohol, benzine or benzol. These solvents coming into contact with the surface of the water, produce different surface tensions, and consequently the films behave differently and with varied results.
A further variation in the patterns may be obtained by first introducing a soap solution on the surface of the water, any ordinary domestic soap being suitable. The result is the formation of a scum as the soap reacts with the alum in the water, this scum being even more stable than that produced by the oil colors, requiring the use of some implement such as a knife to break it up. Having broken up the soap film or scum however and agitating the surface of the water, the pieces distribute themselves as irregularly shaped blocks of relatively large area and of a solid light color such as white, pink, green, etc., the color being obtainable by using a colored soap such as used for dyeing fabrics. The blocks or angularly shaped areas of solid color are intended to reproduce the same pattern found in natural marbles, and which presumably are large crystalline formations running through the mass. Between these blocks are the mottled patterns in one or more colors, produced by the oilpigments as already described.
The dropping of a color pigment on the water sets up considerable surface movement as the film spreads and arranges itself. Moreover, a certain physical change takes place in the character of the film, due to the presence of the alum in the water, namely, the conversion from a relatively unstable and easily disrupted film into a fairly stable and hard scum, a condition that is quite essential to the removal of the film from the surface of the water.
When the surface movement has ceased and the film arranged in its more or less stable scumlike form, it is now ready to be removed by being transferred to a sheet of paper. For this part of the process, thin sheets of paper, such as alpha cellulose paper is used, the same being previously sized to make it waterproof to a degree. A sizing found to be satisfactory is gasoline with a small amount of linseed oil mixed with it. s The sizing of the paper is imperative as unsized paper would absorb the water, become weakened and cause the colors to run.
The sized paper is quite dry when preceding with the transfer operation, which preferably is accomplished by suspending the sheet 2 over the tank in the form of a loop and then lowering it so that the shorter end comes into contact with the surface of the water near one end of the tank in the manner shown in Figure 1. Then by slowing rolling the looped web or sheet of paper in contact with the surface toward the opposite end of the tank, the patterned film is transferred bodily from the surface of the water to the surface of the paper, without the trapping of air between, which manifestly would cause voids in the pattern transferred.
The process shown and described is one that may be carried out by hand, but the same process may be accomplished by mechanical means, even to the transfer of a continuously forming film to a continuously moving web of paper.
The paper used is preferably colored or tinted to carry out'the base color of the particular pattern of marble being reproduced, the colored film in such cases being deposited on the sheet in streaks or patches, while the color of the sheet produces the ground.
After the color film has been transferred to the paper, it is allowed to dry naturally or is dried by artificial means, and then is coated on both sides with a resinous varnish, preferably 9. varnish having a phenol-formaldehyde condensate base such as bakelite. The varnish treated sheet is now dried and is then ready to be applied to the base material by heat and pressure to form a. composite sheet or slab as shown in Figure 2. This final operation is carried out in a press, the base material 3 of the selected kind preferably having one or more sheets 4 of plain paper treated with the same varnish between its surface and the outer decorated sheet, and a like number on its reverse face, so that the tension on both sides may be equalized to avoid subsequent warping.
The combined effect of the heat and pressure fuses the resinous coating and. produces a hard insoluble surface film, while the pressure reduces the materials to a solid sheet or slab having a smooth polished surface finish, having all the markings and appearance of a marble surface;
The finished material can be used wherever the effect of a marble surface is desired in interior decorating, without the expense of reproducing the same effect in natural stone. Manifestly it has not the permanency or richness of appearance of natural marble, but provides an exceedingly practical, inexpensive and satisfactory substitute for certain kinds of work.
Having set forth a practical method of utilizing the process, I claim:
l. A process for reproducing ornamental effects simulating the surface patterns of marble and'like decorative stone consisting of dropping an oil pigment upon the surface of a water bath containing alum in solution, and allowing the same to spread over the surface in a thin film of a'predet'ermined pattern and transferring the pattern to the surface of a sheet offibrous material by surface to surface contact.
2. A process for reproducing ornamental effects simulating the surface patterns of marble and like and allowing the same to arrange themselves in thin films of a distinctive pattern and color combination, rendered relatively stable by the presence of the alum in solution, and transferring the film to a sheet of fibrous material by bringing the surface of the sheet into contact with the surface of the bath. H
3. A process for reproducing ornamental effects simulating the surface patterns of marble and like decorative stone, consisting of maintaining a bath of hot water containing a small amount of alum in a shallow tank, dropping a small quantity of a predetermined color pigment mixed with a hydrocarbon solvent upon the surface of the bath, and allowing it to form a color'film of a distinctive pattern and transferring-the film to the surface of a sized sheet of paper.
4. A process for reproducing ornamentaleffects simulating the surface patterns of marblexand like decorative stone, consisting of maintaining a bath of hot water containing a small amount: of
alum in a shallow tank, dropping small quantities of different colored oil pigments mixed with different hydrocarbon solvents upon the surface of the bath while agitating the surface of the bath sufiiciently to cause the film formed by the oil pigment to distribute itself in a distinctive pattern and transferring the film without displacement to the surface of a sized sheet of paper by a rollthe surface of the water to a sheet of fibrous material.
6. A process for reproducing ornamental effects simulating a marble surface, consisting of maintaining a bath of hot water containing a small amount of alum in solution, introducing a soap solution on the surface of the bath thereby forming a relatively stable film, breaking up said film and agitating the surface of the water to distribute the soap film in the form of irregularly shaped blocks over the surface of the water, introducing oil colors of a contrasting shade into the surface of the water to form a film of a mottled pattern between the segments of the soap film, and transferring the composite films to a sheet of paper by contact.
EMIL C. LOETSCHZER.