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Publication numberUS1933019 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 31, 1933
Filing dateNov 30, 1931
Priority dateDec 9, 1930
Publication numberUS 1933019 A, US 1933019A, US-A-1933019, US1933019 A, US1933019A
InventorsLaubi Otto
Original AssigneeFirm Of Lonza Elek Zitatswerke
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of manufacturing artificial textiles
US 1933019 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 31, 1933. o. LAUBl METHOD OF MANUFACTURING ARTIFICIAL TEXTILES Filed Nov. 30, 1931 Patented Oct. 31, 1933 Uri-HE!) STATES METHOD OF MANUFACTURIN ARTIFICIAL TEXTILES Otto Laubi, Basel, Switzerland, assignor to the firm of Lonza Elektrizitatswerke und'Chemische Switzerland Application November Fabriken Aktiengesellschaft,

Basel,

30, 1931, Serial No.

578,196, and in Switzerland December 9, 1930 15 Claims.

The object of the present invention is a process for making artificial textiles, as for example hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies, artificial straw, flat strips and the like.

It has already been proposed (see for example the French Patent No; 430,939) to make tubular straw-like material and the like by spinning solutions of nitro-cellulose, cellulose acetate, copper oxide ammonium cellulose, cellulose xanthate and the like through spinnerets with annular apertures. Iereby, by means of, an electrically heated core, arranged concentrically in the annular opening, an immediate coagulation of the inner wall of the tubular body is effected, to prevent its sticking together. The great difficulties met with in the technical employment of this process have prevented its achieving a practical value.

It has also been proposed to make hollow threads of cellulose acetate by spinning a soluticn of acetate of about 10% strength in acetic acid into an aqueous precipitating bath, the thread traversing in its precipitation a path of about two meters. According to this process, however, only more or less flat hollow threads of opaque appearance can be made (see for example British Patent No. 239,622)

Further it is known to make straw substitute,

and artificial tubes or hoses from viscose or the like by acting with precipitating baths upon the outer wall, or simultaneously upon the outer and inner walls of a tubular body spun through'an annular aperture. It has further been proposed ,to spin solutions of cellulose or cellulose esters through slit shaped openings into precipitating baths and to twist one or more .ofthe strips so obtained to produce a body which has also been termed artificial straw. In this way, however, only a sort :of helical tubes. whichmore or less easily become untwisted can be obtained, because the edges of the single strips sounited are not, or only but slightly, joined together.

Finally it is known to produce tubular bodies of such kind with'a thread-like core or'inlay.

The process described below forming the subject of the present invention distinguishes from the above wet spinning methods by the feature thatithe form ng of the products is effected by the dry method, and further by the use, not as hitherto of a more or less easy flcwingsolution, but of a mass of such concentration that will, after its extrusion from the nozzle, harden more or less rapidiy also on the inside of the hollow thread or tube, and finally by the feature that the bodies produced by the present process are of ring-like closed cross-section and accordingly no untwisting'of the bodies or separating into single strips is possible. 1 7

According to the invention artificial textiles, as for example hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies, artificial-straw flat strips and the like are prepared from cellulose acetate or other cellulose esters or cellulose ethers or mixtures thereof by the raw material being used in the form of highly concentrated dough-like solutions or masses flowing only with difficulty or not at all at ordinary temperatures, which contain at least about 30% of cellulose derivative and if desired softening agents. These solutions or masses are pressed, according to the invention, under high pressure, for example up to say 300 atmospheres or more, and advantageously under he at through a nozzle or nozzles with annular discharge orifices,

whilst at the same time through one or more bores arranged within the nozzle air or another gas, together with one or more thread-like inlays, for example textile threads, metalwires or the like are introduced into the interior of the extruded body. Thus the air or gas stream prevents in all cases a collapse of the spun hollow body at the exit from the nozzle, whilst ensuring exact formation of the inner wall of the tubelike body. i

The thread-like inlay or inlays are enclosed in this operation in a joint-less coveringof cellulose ester or ether which can be of varying thickness and form, for example circular, oval, polygonal and so forth and may firmly, slightly or not at all adhere to the inlay or inlays according to the materialsand working conditions chosen. In all cases, the introduced air or other gas stream involves the formation of a hollow space remaining clear within the body.

The process according to the present invention can be carried out by the use of particular nozzles of which Figures -1, 2 and 3 of the accompanying drawing show some types in vertical section. Figure 1 shows a nozzle with an annular discharge orifice a for the fluid cellulose mass and acentral bore b for the passage of a thread-like inlay c and of air or gas introduced at e into a vessel f communicating with saidbore b. I

A similar nozzle is represented by Figure 2, wherein the central bore b placed within the annular nozzle discharge orifice a is'sufiicientlyenlarged to allowthe simultaneous passage of three thread-like inlays 0 together with an air stream. In Figure 3 a nozzle is shown which comprises four bores 22 for the passage of four thread-like ing or covering the textile thread or threads or wire or wires with a suitable plastic mass before passing them through the nozzle. This can be effected for example by a preliminary treatment of the threads or wires with a cellulose acetate solution containing one or more softening agents and subsequent more or less complete drying. To the same end the threads or wires can be previously treated with advantageously small quantities of substances acting as solvents or swelling agents on the covering material, for example with tri-acetine if the covering is to be of cellulose acetate. 7

With the use for example of cellulose acetate threads as the inlay and a covering of the same material, the covering adheres very firmly to the inlay without preliminary treatment of the latter being necessary.

The solutions or masses to be worked with under the invention can be prepared with suitable low or high boiling solvents or solvent mixtures as for example acetone and/or triacetine, or with mixtures of solvents'and non-solvents. Mixtures of liquids can also be used which alone do not dissolve the cellulose derivatives, but when mixed do so.

The content of cellulose derivatives or of these together withthe softening agents in the masses to be used under the invention, should, as above mentioned, be so high that the masses at ordinary temperature will flow only with difiiculty or not at all and have a consistency say of a more or less stiff dough.

With cellulose acetate solutions free of softening agents the uppermost limit may be about 70% and more and the lowest limit about 30% of acetate. For example'solutions containing 50% of cellulose acetate and 50% of acetone or in place of the latter 50% of a mixture of methylene chloride and alcohol (3:1) are very suitable.

The addition of solid or liquid softening agents or of mixtures of solid and liquid softening agents is of advantage. By means of these, the acetate content of the solutions or masses can be reduced. The acetate content should howevernot fall below about 30%.

Solutions or masses which contain no softening agents yield hard, but slightly flexible final products of considerable tearing strength. With the addition of softening agents, they yield more or less soft, elastic and flexible final products.

By the addition of finely divided filling mate rials, as for instance barium sulphate, gold bronze or other fine metal powders, pigments, dissolved or dispersed dyestufis, solutions or emulsions of oily substances or the like, or by additions such as are used or have been proposed for example in the manufacture of artificial silk, there can be given to the end products of the present process determined properties or a particular appearance, for instance a matt appearance. By the addition of substances which lead during the forming process to a weak gas development, for example by impregnation of the masses with air or carbon dioxide, end products of the nature of the socalled air-silk containing fine bubbl s can be obtained.

The quality of the final products may be improved by filtering the solutions or masses before they are worked up.

The forming of the solutions or masses into hollow threads, tubes or hoses or the like is effected, as mentioned above, by pressing them through annular nozzle orifices, whilst a gas, for example air, in cold, warm or hot condition, is simultaneously discharged under the necessary pressure into the interior of the extruded body to prevent collapse of the tube or the like.

According to the present process it is possible to make artificial straw with inlay of most varying diameters, for example from 0.2 to 10 mm. and more.

It may be noted that according to the quantity of air or gas pressed in during the formation of the body, straws-or the like will be obtained of circular or more or less flat cross-section. If little air is supplied, flat bands can be produced which are also a usable product, for example in the textile industry.

In the manufacture according to the invention of artificial straw or the like with reinforcing inlays, one or more cotton threads, hemp threads, paper threads or the like, twisted together or not, or cords or artificial threads, for example of cellulose acetate, can be used. Further, for example cotton covered wires can have cellulose derivative masses expressed round them according to the invention. To obtain special effects the inlay threads can be coloured all the same or differently one from another while using an uncoloured covering mass.

In order to obtain fiat pressed, easily flexible artificial straw or the like, the fully or not yet entirely dried, if necessary resoftened, bodies can be led between or operated upon by rollers which can be smooth or longitudinally or circumferentially corrugated. Further, characters or ornaments can in this way be pressed into the bodies or printed thereon with colours.

The products obtainable by the process according to the present invention, for example hollow threads, bands and so forth, in particular the manifold kinds of artificial straw obtainable thereby with inlays of textile threads or wires or the like will chiefly find employment for plaited work, for example for hat and basket work making; but they can also be used for making cords or ropes and in so far as they can be spooled they can also be used for weaving.

What I claim is:-

1. A process for making artificial textiles such as hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies, arti-, ficial straw, fiat strips and the like from esters and/or ethers of cellulose, "according to the dry method, comprising forcing highly concentrated, dough-like solutions-or masses flowing only with difficulty or not at all at ordinary temperature, and containing at least about 30% of cellulose derivative, through nozzles with annular orifices under high pressure, while simultaneously jointly introducing at least one thread-like inlay and a gas stream into the body information.

2. A process for-making artificial textiles such as hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies, artificial straw, flat strips and the like from esters and/or ethers of cellulose, according to the dry method, comprising forcing highly concentrated dough-like solutions or masses flowing only with difiiculty or not at all at ordinary temperature, and containing at least about 30% of cellulose derivative, and at least one solid softening agent, through nozzles with annular orifices under high pressure, while simultaneously jointly introducing at least-one-thread-like inlay and a gas stream into the body in formation.

3. A process for making artificial textiles such as hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies, artifi ial straw, fiat strips and the like-from esters and/or ethers of cellulose, according to the dry method, comprising forcing highly concentrator, dough-like solutions or masses flowing only with difiiculty or not at all at ordinary temperature, and containing at least about 36% of cellulose derivative, through nozzles with annular orifices under a pressure up to about soc atmospheres or more, while simultaneously jointly introducing at least one thread-like inlay and a gas stream into the body in formation.

4. A process for making artiiicial textiles such as hollow threads, tubcor hose-like bodies, artie ficial straw, flat strips and the like from esters and/or others of cellulose, according to dry method, comprising forcing highly concentrated, dough-like solutions or masses fiowing only with difiiculty or not at all at ordinary temperature, and containing at least about 89% of cellulose derivative and at least one liquidsoitening agent, through nozzles with annular or ces under high pressure, while simultaneously jointly introducing at least one thread-like inlay and a gas stream into the body in formation;

5. A process for making artificial textiles such j as hollow threads, tubeor hosedilre bodies, artificial straw, fiat strips and the like iiom est .o and/or others of cellulose, according to the cry method, comprising forcing hghly concentrated, dough-like solutions or flowing only with difiiculty or not at all at ordinary temperature, and containing at least about 30% of cellulose derivative and a mixture or" solid liquid softenin agents, through nozzles with annular orifices under high pressure, while simultaneously jointly introducing at least one threaddike inlay and a gas stream into the body in formation.

6. A process for making artificial textiles such as hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies, artificial straw, flat strips the like from esters and/or others of cellulose, according to the method, comprising forcing highly concentrated, dough-like solutions or masses flowing only with diffioulty or not at all at ordinary temperature, and containing at least asout 36% of cellulose derivative and filling substances, through nozzles with annular orifices under high pressure, while simultaneously jointly introducing at least one thread-like inlay and a gas stream into the body in formation. V

7. A process for making art as hollow threads, tubeor noseiicial straw, fiat strips and the bodies, artiiroesters method, coinpi sing todoughdilre solutions or difiiculty or not at all at ordinar and contai; at least abo derivative, through nor" under high pressure, w

I to annular orifices simultaneously jointly introducing at least. one hieaddilre inlay and and containing at least'about co /0 of cellulose derivative, through nozzles with annular orifices under high. pressure, while simultaneously introducing at least one thread-like inlay pretreated witha plastic binding substance and a gas stream into the body in formation.

A process for making artificial textiles such as hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies, artificial streaw, fiat strips and the ike from esters and/or ethers' cellulose, according to the dry method, comprising forcing highly concentrated, dough-lilac solutions or masses flowing only with dinlcultyor not at all at ordinary temperature, and containing at least about of cellulose dill-ZlilVQ, through nozzles with annular orifices under high pressure, while simultaneously introducing a gas stream and at least one threadlilze inlay into the body in formation, said inlay being p"c treated with a substance capable of so acting upon said body in formation as to obtain an intimate union between the latter and the inlay.

1G.- A process for making artificial textiles such as hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies, artificial straw, flat strips and the like from esters and/or ethers of cellulose, according to the dry method, comprising pressing highly concentrated, dough lilre solutions or masses flowing only with difficulty or not at all at ordinary temperature, and containing at least about 30% of cellulose derivative, through nozzles with annular crificesunder high pressure, while simultaneously jointly introducing at least one threadlilre inlay and a gas stream into the body in formation, and then passing the obtained body through finishing means.

11. A process for making artificial textiles such as hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies, artificial straw, stripsand the like from esters and/or others of cellulose, according to the-dry method, comprising forcing highly concentrated, Q like solutions or masses flowing only with diniculty or not at all at ordinary temperature, containing at least about 30% of cellulose derivative, through nozzles with annular orifices under hi h pressure, while simultaneously jointly introducing at least one thread-like inlay and a gas stream into the body in formation, and there-' upon passing the resultant body over rollers to externally modify its surface.

12. in a process for making artificial textiles as hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies, artificial straw, fiat strips and the like from esters and/or others of cellulose, according to the dry method, comprising forcing highly concentrated, dough-like solutions or masses flowing only with difficulty or not all at ordinary temperature, and containing at loas about 30% of cellulose derivative, through nozzles annular orifices under high pressure, while simultaneously joint ly introducing at least one textile thread as inlay and a stream into the body in formation.

13. In a process for making artificial textiles such hollow threads, tube or hose-like bodies, artificial straw, flat strips and the like from esters and/or others of cellulose, according to the dry method, comprising forcing highly concentrated, dough-like solutions or masses flowing only with d ulty or not at all at ordinary temperature, and containing at least about 39% of cellulose derirative, through nozzles with annular orifices under high pressure, while simultaneously jointly introducing at least one wire as inlay and a tream into t is body in formation.

14.. in a process for making artificial textilessuch as hollow threads, tubeor hose-like bodies,

artificial straw, flat strips and the like from esters and/or ethers of cellulose, according to the dry method, comprising forcing highly concentrated, dough-like solutions or masses flowing only with difliculty or not at all at ordinary temperature, and containing at least about 30% of cellulose derivative and a coloring matter as filling substance incorporated in the solutions, through nozzles with annular orifices under high pressure, while simultaneously jointly introducing at least one thread-like inlay and a gas stream into the body in formation.

OTTO LAUBI.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3227786 *Oct 25, 1962Jan 4, 1966Anaconda Wire & Cable CoMethod of jacketing telephone cables
US3303251 *May 13, 1966Feb 7, 1967Owens Illinois IncMethod and apparatus for extruding tubing with continuous internal reenforcement members
US3513017 *Jun 1, 1965May 19, 1970Eastman Kodak CoCoating method and apparatus for coating layers of liquid material onto a support
US4206011 *Dec 2, 1977Jun 3, 1980Western Electric Company, Inc.Apparatus for insulating flexible conductors
US4244995 *Mar 28, 1979Jan 13, 1981Gunn Gerald E WOne piece molded picture frame and method of making the same
US4788088 *Oct 2, 1986Nov 29, 1988Kohl John OApparatus and method of making a reinforced plastic laminate structure and products resulting therefrom
US5358683 *Apr 8, 1993Oct 25, 1994Davidson Textron Inc.Process of making a continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic article
Classifications
U.S. Classification264/514, 264/508, 264/563, 264/516
International ClassificationD01D5/24, D01F2/30
Cooperative ClassificationD01F2/30, D01D5/24
European ClassificationD01F2/30, D01D5/24