US 1933161 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 31, 1933. 1.. w. CLAYBOURN ET AL 1,933,151 I METHOD AND MEANS FOR PREVENTING SMUTTING Filed March 14, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet l Oct. 31, 1933. w. CLAYBOURN El AL 1,933,161
METHOD AND MEANS FOR PREVENTING SMUTTING Filed March 14', 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 I 0 Eg. EL /76 7 5 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 i QnQ 1933- w. CLAYBOURN El AL METHOD AND MEANS FOR PREVENTING SMUTTING Filed March 14, 1932 Oct. 31, 1933. w. CLAYBOURN ET AL 1,933,161
METHOD AND MEANS FOR PREVENTING SMUTTING Filed March 14, 1952 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Iz'g J as iPateiitemi et. 31, 1933 UNITED STATES METHOD AND MEANS FOR PREVENTING SMUTTING Leslie W. Claybourn and Carl 0. Sweet, Milwaukee, Wis.
Application March 14, 1932. Serial No. 598,780
industry is the offsetting of ink from a previously printed surface to another surface and the transfer of such offset ink to it subsequently printed portion of the same surface opposite of the sheet being printed, or to another portion of the sheet or sheets, resulting in sinutting of the sheet or sheets. Theterm sheet as herein used includes webs and separate sheets for instance of paper.
Such difficulty is encountered principally when printing'on both sides of the sheet, especially when both sides of the sheet are printed in quick succession as in rotary perfecting presses. Similar diificulty is met in other relations in operating on or manipulating freshly printed sheets.
We have provided novel method and means for reducing or preventing the transfer of ink from a printed surface and for neutralizing any transfer which may take place.
It is the object of our invention to provide novel means and method to reduce or avoid the transfer of printing from the printed surface; further, to provide novel method and means for treating the surface contacted by the printed surface; further, to provide a novel surface to be treated; and, further, to provide novel method and means acting on said treated surface before contact thereof with another sheet surface for eliminating transfer of ink which might have taken place upon said treated surface.
It is the object of our invention further to provide a surface which is to be contacted by a freshly printed surface with a novel coating which is resistant to the transfer of ink, and novel meansfor removing ink which may be transferred to said treated surface; further, to provide a conditioning agent for said surface which facilitates application of the resisting medium; and, further, to make such surface of a material which is receptive-in novel manner of said conditioning agent and resisting medium.
In carrying outour invention, although not limiting the same thereto, we provide the contacted surface with a film of metal or metallic element which is liquid during application pref erably under ordinary temperatures, mercury being an example of such substance, and in association therewith employ an agent qualifyingsuch substance to facilitate its adhesion to the contacted surface, and we preferably make such contacted surface of a substance receptive to such qualifying agent and such metal or metallic element.
The invention will be further readily understood from the following description and claims and from the drawings, in which latter:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation ofa diagrammatic representation of an exemplifying perfecting printing press containing two multi-color printing units, and having our invention applied thereto.
Fig. 2 is a-vertical cross-section, taken on the irregular line 22 of Fig. 3, illustrating our invention, and partly broken away.
Fig. 3 is 'a plan view of the same, partly broken away.
Fig. 4 is a cross-section of a detail of the same, taken on the line 4--4 of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a cross-section of the same, taken on the irregular line 5-5 of Fig. 4.
Fig. 6 is a side elevation of the same, taken from the gear side thereof, partly broken away.
Fig. '7 is a cross-sectional detail View, taken on the irregular line 'l-7 of Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is a cross-sectional detail view, on the. irregular line 8-8 of Fig. 6.
Fig. 9 is a cross-sectional. detail view, on the line 99 of Fig. 6.
Fig. 10 is a cross-sectional detail view, in the plane of the line 10-10 of Fig. 8.
Fig. 11 is a cross-section of a detail of one of the feed rollers, taken on the line 1111 of Fig. '7, and showing the outer layer thereof in clamped and stretched relation, and partly broken away.
Fig. 12 is a similar view of the same, showing the parts in release relation.
Fig. 13 is a cross-section of the same, taken on the line l3--13 of Fig. 12, and partly broken away; and,
Fig. 14 is a cross-section showing the contact relation between one of the feed rollers and the impression cylinder, partly broken," away.
Inthe exemplification of the printing machinery. the sheet of paper being printed is exemplified as a web 21. (Fig. 1). This web proceeds from a suitable web roll, not shown, about a rotary impression cylinder 22, also called a tympan cylinder, the side 23 of the web being printed by the imprint cylinders 24, 25, for printing one side of the paper in two colors. The impression taken taken taken cylinder and imprint cylinders form printing emplified comprises an impression cylinder 29 and imprint cylinders 30, 31, 32 and 33, respectively provided with inks of different colors by inking mechanisms 26. One or more of the imprint cylinders may be employed. The directions of rotation of the various cylinders and the direction of travel of the web are indicated by arrows in association therewith.
The opposite side 34 of the sheet is printed in this second printing unit, and during such printing the previously printed side of the printed sheet is presented toward the impression surface 35 of the impression cylinder 29. The printing ink on this previously printed side is usually still wet or moist when it reaches the second impression cylinder, with the result that there is danger that portions of the wet ink will be transferred to the surface of the impression cylinder, being thence offset upon or transferred to different portions of the previously printed side of the sheet, disfiguring or smutting said printed side.
Such smutting may also take place during subsequent operations upon the printed sheet or manipulations thereof.
In our invention the surface which is contacted by the freshly printed surface is made resistant to adhesion of ink thereto, and is so made as to permit "ready removal of any ink which might adhere thereto, whereby the transfer of ink from the freshly printed surface to another surface or portion thereof being printed or operated upon is avoided. The surface which receives the contact of the freshly printed side of the sheet is for example treated so as to present a smooth slippery film of coating, this film or coating being wiped for removal of any ink which may adhere thereto before its presentation to the sheet.
Such film or coating preferably contains metal in liquid state at ordinary atmospheric temperatures, an example of which is mercury.
In order to facilitate the application of the metal to the surface to be treated, the metal is so treated as to make the same readily flowable in film form as distinguished from separate globules, for which purpose for example, a mixture is made of the metal and a qualifying agent, for example sulphate of copper or blue -vitrol.
' Mercury and a saturated solution of sulphate of copper in water in equal portions by volume may beemployed, and-the surface to be treated may be a material receptive to adhesion of the liquid metal, which substance may for instance be copper, brass, zinc, aluminum, or the like,
although copper or a copper containing substance has thus far been found to be most effective.
This surface material may be in the form of a thin sheet stretched about the impression cylinder or about or upon the part with which the freshly printed sheet makes-contact. Such a thin sheet or layer is shown at 38 about the impression cylinder, (Figs. 2 and 14). It may be a separate sheet of the receptive material, for instance copper, or it may belacoating on the outer tympan sheet as hereinafter explained with relation to the outer sheets about the transfer rollreceived about a usual stretching roll 43 and the other end Off the outer'sheet 38 being received about a usual stretching roll 44. These stretching rolls are provided with usual operating means.
The ink-resisting film or coating may be applied to the sheet supporting surface of the outer sheet before or after the same has been stretched about the cylinder. The ink resisting film or coating may be applied to the coppersheet by thoroughly rubbing the copper sheet with the saturated solution of sulphate of copper in water, and then applying the mixture of mercury and saturated solution of sulphate of copper to said surface, and rubbing the same thoroughly upon said surface until an even film or coating of mercury is provided on said surface. The application of the saturated solution of sulphate of copper may be made by means of a suitable felt pad and the application of the mixture may be made by means of a suitable felt pad, copper brush or other suitable device by means of which the mercury may be applied to said surface.
A film or coating of mercury 45 (Fig. 14) is thereby applied to the supporting surface for the freshly printed sheet which is resistant to the ink and which repels the ink and reduces or prevents transfer of ink to said surface.
The qualifying agent or material, instance as sulphate of copper, acts for causing an aflinitv between the mercury and the copper, when copper is employed for the supporting surface, for causing adhesive in film form of the mercury upon the copper surface, or as an amalgamating agent between the mercury and the copper.
Means are provided for replenishing the ink resistant film or coating, and if desired, these means may be employed for applying the original film or coating.
The replenishing means are exemplified as rollers provided with supporting surfaces similar to 1' the supporting surface of the impression cylinder, and includes a fountain roller and a ductor roller between the fountain roller and a distributing roller.
A fountain 51 is arranged to contain a quantity of the mixture of ink repelling liquid and qualifying agent. (Figs. 2 and 3). A fountain roller 52 is rotatable in suitable bearings 53. An agitator 54 is provided with agitator ribs 55 and is moved in opposite directions lengthwise of the fountain for agitating the contents of the fountain..
The agitator has a bearing 56 about a shaft 57 having spiral grooves 58, 59, perpendicular to each otherlengthwise of the shaft, and a hearing 60 about a rod 61 in the frame of the machine. (Figs. 2, 3, 4 and 5). A shoe 62 is received in the grooves and is pivoted in a bearing 63 on the agitator and is arranged to be shifted into positions at right angles to each other by the walls of the grooves at the ends of the grooves for reversing the direction of movement of the agitator lengthwise of the shaft 5'7.
The fountain is provided with a spring regulating blade 65 (Fig. 2) extending across the fountain, the lip of the blade which contacts thefountain roller 52 being adjustable toward and from the fountain roller by set screws 66 which are positioned close to each other throughout the length of the fountain roller. This regulates the thickness of the film on the fountain roller.
A ductor roller '71 is on a shaft 72, each of the ends of which is mounted on a lever 73 'pivoted on a stud 74 and provided with a bearing 75 for the ductor roll shaft, the shaft reciproeating in a slot 76 in each side of the frame of the machine. (Figs. 2, 3, 6, 8 and 9).
The lever is provided with a roller 77 on a stud 78 in a block 79, adjustable lengthwise in a slot 80 of said lever by means of a screw 81 for adjusting the force of contact of the ductor roller with the fountain roller. The ductor. roller is normally moved toward a reciprocating roller 32 by means of a spring 83, this movement toward the reciprocating roller being limited by a stop 84, shown as a set screw, threaded in a ing 85 in .the frame and engaging a lug 86 on the lever.
Movement of the lever 73 at each side of the machine is accomplished by a cam 91 fixed to a shaft 92, (Figs. 6 and 9) journaled in the frame and having thereon a gear 93 with which a gear 94 meshes, suitably operated by an operating part in the machine. The cam is shown adjustable by comprising a cam plate 95 secured to said shaft and a cam plate 96 journaled on a bearing 97 about said shaft and provided with a springpressed pull-pin 98, the inner end of which is arranged to engage holes 99 in the cam plate 95. The cam controls the durations of contacts permitting endwise movement of the shaft in the gear. The shaft is provided with a spool 165 in the groove of which a roller 106 is received. This roller is on an arm 107 of the lever 198, pivoted on a pivot 109, on the bracket 110 extending from the machine. has an arm 111. A reciprocating rod 112 has a joint 113 with this lever for operating the same. The reciprocating rod is operated by any suitable means having operative connection with an operating part of the machine.
Distributing rollers 117, 118, cooperate with a reciprocating roller. Feed rollers 119, 120, operate between the reciprocating roller and the supporting surface of the impression cylinder.
Each of. these rollers is provided with a receptive surface for the ink repelling metal similar to the receptive surface of the impression cylinder. The receptive surface on the fountain roller 52 may be a layer 121 of copper electrolytically deposited on the metal of said roller, and the receptive surface of the reciprocating roller 82 may be a layer 122 of copper electrolytically deposited upon the metal thereof. (Fig. 2). Each of the rollers 71, 117, 118, 119 and 120 is provided with a layer 123 of receptive material, such as copper, brass, zinc, aluminum, or the like, copper or a copper containing mixture being at present preferred. This layer may be on a sheet 124. The sheet is provided with such layer of receptive material in suitable manner, and this layer may be electrolytically deposited thereon. This sheet may be of paper. It is preferably made" impervious to the ink-repelling and conditioning material. If desired, the rollers may be provided with sheets of the reception material, as copper, as explained in connection with the impression cylinder.
f The layer of receptive material on the rollers The lever also 71, 117, 118, 119 and 120 is preferably cushioned, as by a layer 125 of cushioning material, for instance sponge rubber, felt, or other cushioning substance, between the bodies of said rollers and said receptive layers. v
Referring to Figs. 11, 12 and 13, the respective margins 126, 127, of the sheets are provided with slots 128, 129. These margins are slipped between a supporting plate 130 and a clamp plate 131. A space 132 between said plates is provided by means of springs 133 located about screws 134. The walls of the slots 128, 129, are received about said (springs. The springs normally raise the clamp plate 131 above the supporting plate 130 for providing the space 132 between them for ready reception of the edges of the sheet. (See Fig. 12)
A spring 141 is received about the screw between the supporting plate and the bottom 142 of a locating recess 143 in the bottom wall of a slot 144 extending lengthwise of the roller. The supporting plate has depending side flanges 145 provided with laterally extending flanges 146 arranged to contact ledges 147 at the outer ends of said slot for limiting outward movement of the supporting plate, so as to locate its outer face substantially on a level with the outer ends of the walls of said slot.
, The screws 134 with the springs 133 and 141 thereabout are arranged at short intervals lengthwise of the plates along the roller. The edges of the cushion layer at said slot are provided with outer rounded corners 148 and the -clamp plate is at its inner face provided with rounded corners 149 for facilitating slippage of the margins during clamping.
If it is desired to apply or renewa receptive sheet upon the, roller, the screws 134 are unscrewed until the plates are substantially in the position shown in Fig. 12. One of the receptive sheets of a length to surround the roller with the margins thereofreceived in overlapping relation in the space 132 between the plates and provided with the slots 123, -129, is placed about the roller with said margins between the plates, and with the springs 133 located in the inner ends of the slots, the sheet being arranged as evenly as convenient about the roller. The screws are then rotated to move the clamp plate inwardly, the springs 133 yielding in this movement, for clamping the clamp plate upon the lapping margins of the sheet, the springs 141 being of sufiicient strength to resist the springs 133.
Further inward screwing of the screws causes both plates to move inwardly against the resistance of the springs 141. These springs, during the beginning of their yielding movements, cause only sufficient pressure between the plates to permit slippage of portions of the overlapping margins so as to arrange the receptive sheet evenly about the roller. Further inward screwing of the screws causes clamping action between the plates by reason of the further compression of the springs 141 for causing said margins to move throughout their lengths with the plates to draw the receptive sheet evenly about the roller.
The ductor roller 71, the distributing rollers 117 and 118, and the feed rollers 119 and 120, coacting respectively with the fountain roller, with the reciprocating roller and with the impression cylinder, are preferably provided with yielding surfaces, accomplished by providing the cushioning layers 125 between the bodies of said rollers and the outer layers thereof. This permits more intimate contact between said rollers and their coacting surfaces for more readily transferring the ink resisting metal to the impression cylinder and distributing the same for even application of the ink resisting material lengthwise of said rollers.
The slots 144 of the respective rollers are so related about the reciprocating roller 82 andthe impression cylinder 29 that no two of the slots register with similar portions of said reciprocating roller and said impression cylinder during rotations thereof. This insures better distributionof the ink repelling material.
The action of the transfer of the ink repelling mercury mixture between rollers and between the feed rollers and the impression cylinder is exemplified in Fig. 14, in which such transfer between one of the fed rollers and the impression cylinder is illustrated, the transfer taking place along the line of contact between said parts for feeding the conditioned mercury from the feed roller to the impression cylinder.
Means are also provided for preferably causing equal peripheral travel of said rollers and the impression cylinder. (Figs. 2 and 3). Thus the impression cylinder is provided with a gear 151. The rollers 119, 120, have gears 152, 153, secured to their respective shafts, these latter gears meshing with the gear 151 fixed to the axle of the impression cylinder. The pitch line of the gear 151 preferably has a diameter equal to the diameter of the bearers 154 of the impression cylinder and concentric therewith, these bearers being of diameter equal to thediameter of the impressing surface of the impression cylinder and concentric therewith.
The shaft 101 of the reciprocating roller 82 has the gear 103 thereon. The gear 103 is driven by the gears 152, 153, and meshes with gears 15 5, 156, respectively fixed. to the shafts of the distributing rollers 117 and 118. A double width gear 157 is loosely mounted on the stud 74. (Fig. 8). An intermediate pinion 158 meshes with the gear 157 and with a gear 159 fixed to the shaft of the fountain roller 52. A gear 160 is fixed to the shaft of the ductor roll 71, and meshes with the double width gear 157 for being driven thereby, and is offset endwise outside the gears 103, 159, so as to avoid meshing therewith.
The gear 159 meshes with a gear 161 journaled on a stud 162 fixed in the frame which-in turn meshes with a gear 163 fixed to the grooved shaft 57.
The pitch lines of the gears on the respective rollers are preferably equal in diameters to the diameters of the respective rollers and are concentric with said respective rollers, and the intermediate gears are so arranged as to drive all of the rollers and the impresson cylinder with equal peripheral speeds and in opposite directions at their contact lines so as to have rolling contact with each other. v
Wiping means for wiping the impression surface of the impression cylinder are shown in the form of a wiping roller 171 having a wiping surface on a wiping layer 172 which is backed by a cushion layer 173, for instance of sponge rubber, felt or other cushioning substance. (Figs. 1, 2 and 3). This wiping layer may be of felt on other suitable Wiping material for wiping any ink which may have been transferred to the impression cylinder before contact thereof by an advancing portion of a sheet.
The means for applying the W p layer to the roller 171 may be similar to the means for applying the layers to the rollers 71, 117, 118, 119,-
120, respectively, similar parts being designated by similar reference numerals raised to the series 200.
Rotation of the wiping roller is preferably such that there is a rubbing action between the wiping roller and the impression cylinder. The contact portions between the wiping roller and the cylinder are shown moving in opposite directions in Figs. 2 and 6. The wiping roller is driven by a gear 174 fixed to its shaft, an intermediate gear 175 meshing with this gear and with the gear 151 fixed to the axle of the impression cylinder. The pinion 175 rotates on a suitable stud 176 fixed to the frame.
The surface treating means for the impression cylinder are shown located in the space 179 between the incoming stretch 180 and the outgoing stretch 181 of the loop of the Web received about the impression cylinder 29.
In practice, the film or coating of ink resisting material is extremely thin and is very resistant to the wiping action of the wiper so that very little replenishing of the ink resisting material is required, but such replenishing means are preferably provided so that the replenishing may take place during operation. It is, however, within the spirit and scope of my invention as set forth in the appended claims that such ink repelling means may be supplied by other applying means or be manually applied, if desired.
Having thus fully described our invention, what we .claim as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
1. A. method of reducing smutting from printed surfaces which comprises providing a support for the printed surfaces comprising a layer which is receptive to mercury under the influence of an amalgamating agent and providing said layer with mercury under the influence of such amalgamating agent.
2. A method of reducing smutting from printed surfaces which comprises providing a support for the printed surfaces comprising a layer which is receptive to mercury under the influence of, an amalgamating agent, providing said layer with mercury under the influence of such amalgamating agent, and cleaning such mercurialized surface between contacts with such printed surfaces.
3. In combination, in a device in which freshly printed surfaces travel, a supporting surface for supporting the freshly printed surfaces comprising a layer receptive to a coating of liquid metal under the influence of an amalgamating agent, and an amalgamating agent and a coating of liquid metal applied to said supporting surface for reducing transfer of ink to said supporting surface from the freshly printed surfaces.
4. In combination, in a device in which freshly printed surfaces travel, a supporting surface having an aflinity for mercury for supporting the freshly printed surfaces and a mixture of mercury and an amalgamating material applied to said supporting surface and spread evenly thereover for resisting transfer of ink to said supporting surface.
5. In combination, in a device in which freshly printed surfaces travel, a supporting surface having an afiinity for mercury for supporting the freshly printed surfaces, a mixture of mercury and an amalgamating material applied to said 'mixture for removing ink which may have been transferred thereto, said applying and spreading means and said wiping means located between the points of contact of the freshly printed surfaces with said supporting surface.
6. In combination, in a device in which freshly printed surfaces travel, of a rotating part for the sheet, an outer copper layer therefor, and a mixture of mercury and a saturated solution of sulphate of copper in water applied to said copper layer for resisting transfer of ink thereto.
7. In combination, in a device in which freshly printed surfaces travel, of a rotating part for the sheet, an outer copper layer therefor, a mixture of mercury and a saturated solution of sulphate of copper in water applied to said copper layer for resisting transfer of ink thereto, and wiping means for said mixture.
8. In combination, in a device in which freshly printed sheets travel, a printing couple including an impression cylinder provided with an outer mercury receptive layer, a feed roller therefor comprising an outer mercury receptive layer, a cushion thereunder for resiliently supporting said last-named layer, and means for rotating said impression cylinder and said feed roller with the contact portions of their peripheries moving in similar directions at equal speeds.
9. In combination, in a device in which freshly printed sheets travel, an impression cylinder, an outer layer of mercury receptive material thereabout, and a series of supply rollers for supplying a mixture of mercury and qualifying agent and including a fountain roller, an intermediate roller and transfer rollers between said fountain roller, said intermediate roller and said cylinder, said transfer rollers provided with outer layers of mercury receptive material and cushioning layers thereunder causing yielding between said last-named mercury receptive layers and the rollers and cylinder coacting therewith for caus' ing transfer of mercury between said rollers and said cylinder.
10. In combination, in a device in which freshly printed sheets travel, an impression cylinder,
an outer layer of mercury receptive material named mercury receptive layers and the rollers and cylinder coacting therewith for causing transfer of mercury between said rollers and said cylinder, and means for causing movements in similar directions and at similar peripheral speeds between the contacting portions of said transfer rollers and said cylinder.
LESLIE W. CLAYBOUR-N. CARL C. SWEET.