US 1933613 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 7, 1933.
L. M. WOOLSON INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed April 14, 1930 2 Sheets-Sheet l LJUNEL JV. NOEL 501v.
NOV. 7, 1933. 1 WQOLSQN 1,933,613
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Filed April 14, 1930 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 LIUNEL ZZ WUUL 501V.
Patented Nov. 7, 1933,
UNITED STATES PATENT ()FFlCE 1,933,613 INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Application April 14, 1930. Serial No. 443,992
This invention relates to internal combustion engines and more particularly to charge controlling mechanism.
In engines ignited by compression or electrical ignition, the quantity of fuel and the temperature of air drawn into the cylinders, with any given compression ratio, determine the temperature within the combustion chambers. When the air portions of the charges are caused to move directly into the combustion chambers and liquid fuel is then sprayed therein, as with one type of compression-ignition engine, there is an atmospheric temperature below which combustion fails because of the lack of developed heat. As a consequence, starting is extremely diilicult regardless of the fuel regulation, while with the fuel regulated for idling, stalling often results even when the atmospheric temperature is relatively high. An object, therefore, of this invention is to eliminate such difficulties with compression-ignition engines when low atmospheric temperature conditions are encountered or when the fuel charge is below a predetermined quantity.
Another object of the invention resides in mechanism for controlling the temperature of engine fuel charges to raise the normal temperature thereof below a predetermined fuel quantity supply.v
A further object of the invention is to utilize the valve push rod housings of an engine as a part of mechanism for controlling the air charges introduced into the cylinders.
Another object of the invention is to provide a control mechanism, for regulating the temperature of the fuel charges in an internal combustion engine, in which air throttle valves are actuated through the connection of the valve push rod housings with the fuel control mechanism when the latter is actuated intermediate its low and high range.
A still further object of the invention resides in a throttle valve control mechanism for the air supply in internal combustion engine charges which is actuated by the regulation of the fuel control mechanism below a position introducing a predetermined quantity and in a manner reducing the air supply with the fuel supply.
These and other objects of the invention will appear from the following description taken in connection with the drawings, which form a part of this specification, and in which:
Fig. 1 is a rear elevation of a. radial Diesel engine partly broken away and partly in section;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary plan view done of the cylinders partly broken away to show the air throttle valve associated therewith;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary plan view of the connection between the fuel control mechanism and Referring now to the drawings by characters of reference, 10 represents a barrel type of onepiececrank case having the rear end arranged to be closeduby a plate 11 and provided interiorly with a iletachable diaphragm 12. A plurality of air-cooled cylinders 13 extend radially from the crank case and are provided with flanges on opposite sides, as indicated at 14, which bear against the periphery of the crank case and receive two compression bands 15 which serve to retain the cylinders with the crank case .and to place the crank case under a, compression which is greater than the maximum explosive stress. The cylinders are formed with an integral head 16 and secured to each of such heads is an auxiliary head 17, the cylinders and their heads are preferably formed of steel while the auxiliary head is formed of aluminum or some material having similar characteristics.
Extendingthrough the heads of each cylinder is a Venturi passage 18, the outer end of which passes through a neck 19 formed integral with the auxiliary head, and communicating with the neck is a conduit 20 also preferably formed as an integral part of the auxiliary head. The Venturi passages extend at an angle to the axis of the associated cylinder and at one side thereof so that air will pass tangentially into the cylinders. This form of inlet causes the air entering the cylinders to rotate spirally and thereby cause turbulence for a purpose hereinafter described. The inner end of each passage is controlled by a. valve 21 which is normally maintained in a closed position by a plurality of coil springs 22 and mechanically opened through conventional mechanisms carried within the housings 23 and operated by a push rod 24 extending within the housing 25. Such valve rods project into the crank case and are actuated through suitable cam mechanism driven from the therein. The valves are arranged to be maintained open during the air intake and exhaust strokes of the pistons 26 and to be closed during the compression and working strokes of the pistons. Each passage 18 serves both as the air crank shaft 5 inlet and the exhaust outlet, such passages opening transversely to the direction of air flow past the cylinders, while the conduits 20 extend axially in a path with the air flow. The forward end of the conduits 20 serve as the air intake entrance, while the rear end of the conduits 20 are connected by legs 27 with a circular exhaust outlet manifold 23 having a single outlet 29.
As a means of injecting atomized liquid fuel charges into the rotating air charges compressed within the cylinders so that there will be a uniform distribution, I provide an individual fuel injection mechanism for each cylinder. Each of such fuel injection devices consists of a nozzle portion 30 which is connected with a barrel 31 of a fuel pump unit, and such combined structures are rigidly secured to the cylinder by bolts 32. The barrel 31 is provided with a plunger and with a plurality of fuel inlet openings 34 which are opened or closed by the position of the plunger relative thereto. A fuel feeding manifold 35 is'arranged in communication with the inlet openings 34 of the several fuel pump devices, such manifold being connected with a suitable rwervoir and having an overflow conduit 36 leading from the uppermost portion of the manifold back to the reservoir. There is also a low pressure pump associated intermediate the reservoir and the manifold (not shown) for causing circulation of the fluid through the manifold so that when the plungers 33 uncover the openings 34, the nozzle portion therebeyond will be maintained filled with liquid fuel. The stroke of the plungers after closing the ports 34 determines the quantity of fuel displaced, that is, injected into the cylinders through the nozzles. Such strokes can be regulated through rotation of the ring 37 which is associated with the diaphragm 12 by cap screws 38, there being slots 39 in the ring permitting limited rotation thereof.
Through the connection of the links 40, with the push rods 41, the angular relation thereof to their associated slippers 42 can be regulated so that in this manner the stroke of the plungers can be simultaneously and uniformly regulated as desired. The adjusting ring 37 has a rack 43 secured thereto, and cooperating with such rack is a gear segment 44 which is rotated by turning the shaft 45, extending through the crank case, by means of a lever structure from which an arm 46 extends. Such arm has a-suitable linkage 47 connected thereto so that it can be moved in a direction to rotate the shaft 45 through manipulation by an operator located remotely from the engine. Suitable mechanism including a guide member 48 extends between each of the push rods 41 and associated plunger 33 for moving the plunger in its injection stroke, and a coil spring 49 is associated with the barrels and the plungers to normally move the plungers into a position uncovering the fuel inlet openings 34. The slippers 42 are pivotally mounted on pins 50 which are secured between the end cover 11 and the diaphragm l2, and a four-hole cam 51 is rota ably carried by the crank shaft 52 and driven through a train of reduction gears, one of which is indicated at 53, driven from the crank shaft. The gear 53 meshes with teeth arranged internally of the cam 51 and this arrangement of the cam and the fuel injection devices provides for an injection stroke of each fuel pump plunger 'once in every two revolutions of the crank shaft, as there is an eight to one reduction of the movement of the cam relative to the movement of the crank shaft.
The engine described is of the compressionignition or Diesel type and operates upon a fourstroke cycle. Air is drawn into the cylinders during the suction strokes of the pistons and is compressed during the compression strokes thereof. Prior to the top-center position of the pistons on their compression stroke, the cam 51 will actuate the fuel injection mechanisms so that fuel charges are projected into the rotating air charges during the compression strokes. It will be seen that, with the construction so far described, the temperature of the air drawn into the cylinders will materially influence the temperature of the fuel mixture within the combustion chambers so that under low temperature conditions and particularly when the fuel charge is injected in a low range of adjustment, there will be difficulty experienced in producing sufficient heat during the compression stroke to ignite the charges. When the engine is used as the power plant for an airship, stalling of the engine will occur below a certain atmospheric temperature because of the lack of heat in the air and fuel charges under such conditions.
In order to sustain combustion under different temperature conditions, when the fuel charge is in its low range of adjustment, and to assist in the starting of an engine of the compressionignition type, I provide mechanism for controlling the temperature of the air which is introduced into the combustion chambers. To this end, I associate a throttle valve 54 interiorly of the conduits 20 and.in advance of the junction of the passages 18 therewith. In order to operate these throttle valves, I preferably arrange mechanism which will automatically start to close the valves only when the fuel quantity reaches a predetermined point in its low range of adjustment, in other words, such throttle valves are regulated so that they are effective to reduce or shut off the air supply only when the fuel adjustment mechanism approaches an idling regulation, or with airship motors, when running below cruising speed.
In order to carry out such regulation of the air charges, the lever structure fixed to the ring adjusting shaft 45 is provided with an arm 55 arranged to be connected to actuate mechanisms controlling the throttle valves 54. A cam member 56 is clamped upon one of the valve push rod housings by bolts 56', as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, and has extending therefrom an arm 57 which engages in the socket of a bearing member 58 carried with a bifurcated bracket 59, such bracket being secured to a ring member 60 by bolts 6. The cam 56 is provided with a curved surface upon which a roller 62, pivotally carried by the free end of the pivoted arm 55, is arranged to ride. The surface with which the roller 62 engages is formed over the major portion thereof so that it lies in the same radius as the roller relative to the pivotal point of the lever structure carrying the arm 55. The roller engaging surface is formed with an abrupt curvature at 61 so that upon the roller engaging the same, the cam 56 will be moved by the arm 55, as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 3, whereas over the other portion of the roller surface of the cam there will be no movement responsive to the movement of the arm 55. With such a relation of the lever 55 and the cam, the major portion of the fuel adjustment, through the linkage 47 and the arm 46, will not cause a corresponding movement of the ring 60'and the throttle valves will remain closed, but when the arm 46 reaches a point in ill u 1,eas,e 18 the fuel adjustment approaching cruising condition, or a condition. above idling, the roller 62 will reach the end of the radius in the cam 56 and will engage the portion 61 causing its movement in a direction which will rotate the ring 60 to open the throttle valves, as shown in dotted lines in Fig. 3. It will thus be seen that while the roller engages the arcuate surface of the cam the throttle valves will be "closed, and that when engaging substantially the remainder of the cam surface the throttle valves will'loe open.
The cam 56 being clamped to one of the valve rod housings can rotate the same and actuate the throttle valve associated with such housing. A connection is provided between each of the other valve rod housings and the ring so that the throttle valves will be actuated simultaneously when the ring is rotated. A bracket 80 is clamped to each rod housing and includes a head 81 projecting laterally from the housing. Secured to the ring 60 are a plurality of brackets 82 arranged adjacent each of the brackets 80, and each having an opening into which the associated bracket head 81 extends. Within each bracket 82 is arranged opposed coil springs 83 one of which engages the ring and urges a socket 84 into engagement with the associated head 81, while the other spring 83 exerts-pressure against the associated head. This association of the ring with the valve rod housings allows the-ring to rotate in a vertical plane and transmit rotation to the rod housings without binding or lost motion in the connections due to movement in different planes relatively. The ring member 60 has bearing plates 86 attachedthereto for engagement with the perimeters of bosses 87 on the crank case which serves to locate the ring with the engine, endwise securement of such ring being through the association with the valve rod housings. Collars 90 are secured to the housings 25 to assist in maintaining the ring 60 against vertical displacement.
Each valve push rod housing has fixed at, the outer end thereof a lever 63, the free end of which is associated with a link 64, and cooperating with each of the links 64 is another lever 65, which is pivotally mounted upon a pin 66 and terminates in the throttle valve 54. Each conduit 20 is formed to receive a pin 66 and with a recess 67 adjacent such pin for the reception of a bearing member 68 which normally engages the lever and is retained to place the throttle valve in wide open position. A coil spring 69 is arranged in each recess 67 to automatically cause the levers 65 to be moved to maintain the throttle valves in open position. A clip 85 is attached to each housing 23 for engagement with the lever 64 which actuates the associated throttle valve, thus preventing their vibration and misplacement.
The valves are opened and closed in accordance with the fuel quantity adjustment in a quantity range intermediate high and low, and in this manner as the heat of the combustion charge becomes less through the reduction in the fuel quantity, the valves will be moved in a closing direction. The arrangement is such that the valves are entirely closed considerably prior to that fuel adjustment which will not supply sufficient fuel to cause operation of the engine, and under such circumstances, sufficient air will be drawn through the exhaust outlet to support combustion, such air being introduced into the cylinders substantially at the temperature of the exhaust gas. As the throttle valves begin to close, they will reduce the quantity of air being drawn through the inlet end of the conduits 20 and as there is an open arrangement between the cylinders and the exhaust manifold, the amount of air which has been cut off will be replaced by exhaust from the exhaust manifold so that the temperature of the charge introduced through the passages 18 will be raised in accordance with the degree to which the throttle valves are closed.
It will be seen that by this manner of raising the temperature of the charges drawn into the cylinders, a combustion temperature will be automatically maintained, because below a predetermined fuel quantity adjustment, air will not be drawn directly into the cylinders and reduce the temperature of the cylinders, the pistons, and the fuelcharges. It will thus follow that the mechanism is especially adaptable for assisting the starting of a Diesel type of engine because the heat of the first exhaust gases will be utilized to raise the cylinder and charge temperature in a much quicker period of time than if cold air was being drawn into the already cold cylinders. The device is also of advantage with'a Diesel type of engine used as the power plant of an airplane during gliding operations, at which time the fuel supply must always be cut down to produce idling. The device is also of especial advantage for engines duringidling operation when the atmospheric temperature is below that which will support combustion when drawn directly into the combustion chambers. Thethrottle valves are operated in conjunction with the fuel regulatingmechanism so that they will be simultaneously actuated between open and closed positions only during a small period of the low fuel adjustment range, and a portion of the necessary engine elements are utilized as a part of the throttle operating mechanism, thereby saving weight and extra elements.
While I have herein described in some detail a specific embodiment of my invention, which Ideern to be new and advantageous and may specifically claim, I do not desire it to be understood that my invention is limited to the exact details of the construction, as it will be apparent that changes may be made'therein without departing from the spirit or scope of my invention.
What I claim is: v
1. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having a common port for the air intake and the exhaust, an air inlet conduit leading to the port, an exhaust manifold communicating with the port, valve means in the air inlet conduit, 9. fuel quantity control means, and mechanism connecting the valve means with thefuel control means, said mechanism being actuated by the actuation of the fuel control means to open and close the valve.
2. In an internal combustion engine, a plu rality of cylinders, an air inlet conduit leading to each cylinder, an exhaust manifold in communication with the inlet conduits, a valve controlling the passage of air through each of the air inlet conduits, mechanism for actuating the valves simultaneously, and fuel control means connected to actuate the mechanism.
3. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having an air inlet, an exhaust manifold associated with the cylinder and communicating with the inlet, a valve for regulating the amount of air entering the inlet, the charges being augmented by exhaust from the manifold in thetrol mechanism controlling the air inlet valve.
4. In aninternal combustion engine, cylinders, an air inlet and exhaust passage associated with each of the cylinders, a valve in the passage, means for opening the valve during the exhaust and intake strokes, a second valve controlling the quantity of air entering each of the cylinder passages, adjustable fuel injection mechanism, and means connected with and operated by the fuel injection mechanism controlling the valves.
5. In a radial internal combustion engine, a
. plurality of cylinders each having an air inlet and exhaust port, an exhaust manifold communicating with the ports, fuel injection mechanism including a ring adjustment control, means for actuating the ring control, valves for regulating the air drawn into the cylinders, another ring member connected to actuate the valves, and a connection between the fuel regulating ring actuating means and the valve actuating ring, said connection moving the valve, ring to open the valves during idling of the engine.
6. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder, a valved air inlet for the cylinder, a throttle valve for controlling the size of the opening in the air inlet, fuel injection control mechanism, throttle valve actuating mechanism including a cam, and means operated by the fuel injection control mechanism for actuating the cam.
'I. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder, an engine controlled valved port, a common inlet and exhaust conduit associated with the valved port, an inlet valve controlling the quan tity of air entering the conduit, fuel injection mechanism, an actuator for adjusting the fuel injection mechanism to vary the charge, mechanism for controlling the inlet valve, and a common actuator for both the fuel adjusting mecha- I nism and the inlet valve actuating mechanism.
8. In an internal combustionengine, a plurality of cylinders each having a valve controlled inlet and exhaust port, an open conduit associated with each port and communicating there with intermediate its ends, a valve in one end of the conduit, mechanism for actuating the valves simultaneously including a cam, fuel injection mechanism for each cylinder, and mechanism for adjusting the injection mechanisms simultaneously to regulate the fuel charges delivered thereby, said injection regulating mechanism including a lever associated to actuate said cam.
9. In an internal combustion engine, a plurality of cylinders each having a valve controlled inlet and exhaust port, an open conduit associated with each port and communicating therewith intermediate its ends, a valve in one end of the conduit controlling the quantity of air entering the same, a ring connected to actuate said conduit valves, a cam connected to actuate said ring, fuel injection regulating mechanism, and a member actuating in conjunction with the adjustment of the fuel injection regulating mechanism for actuating the cam.
10. In an internal combustion engine, a plurality of cylinders each having a valve controlled common inlet and outlet port, adjustable fuel injection mechanism for each cylinder, means for the regulation of said fuel injection mechanism, valve means for regulating the quantity of air entering the cylinders, a ring for controlling said valve means, a cam for actuating the ring, and a connection between the cam and the fuel injection regulation means, said connection cooperating with the cam to cause a relatively quick movement thereof from one extreme position to the other.
11. In an internal combustion engine, a crank case, radially extending cylinders each provided with an air inlet and exhaust port, a valve for regulating the quantity of air entering the ports during the intake cycle, a ring member for controlling the position of the valves, said ring being held upon the crank case, and fuel injection regulating mechanism for actuating the ring.
12. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having a combined air inlet and exhaust outlet passage, a movable push rod housing, a throttle valve controlling the quantity of air entering the passage during the intake period, means connecting the housing with the valve, and adjustable fuel control means connected with the housing.
13. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder having a combined air inlet and exhaust outlet passage, a rotatably mounted push rod housing, a throttle valve controlling the quantity of air entering the passage, a connection between the housing and the valve, actuating means connected to the housing for imparting rotational movement thereto, the rotation movement of said housing regulating the position of said valve.
14. In an internal combustion engine, a plurality of cylinders, a combined air inlet and exhaust outlet conduit leading to each cylinder, a throttle valve controlling the passage of air into each of the inlet conduits, mechanism for regulating the valves simultaneously, and fuel control means connected to actuate the valve regulating mechanism.
15. In a radial internal combustion engine, a plurality of cylinders each having a combined air inlet and exhaust outlet passage, a throttle valve in each of the passages regulating the volume of air passing therein, a ring member, connections between the valves and ring member, said valves being regulated upon rotational movement of the ring member, and adjustable fuel regulating mechanism connected with said ring member, the adjustment of said mechanism causing rotational movement of the ring member.
16. In an internal combustion engine, a cylinder, a port, conduit means having a port leading to the cylinder, said conduit means having an inlet end and an exhaust outlet, a control valve for the port leading to the cylinder opened uniformly by a moving part of the engine, a throttle valve in the conduit means adjacent the air inlet end, and means including a movable rod housing for regulating the throttle valve position in the conduit means.
LIONEL M. WOOLSON.