US 1937165 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov 28, 1933. U P|AGNER| 1,937,165
COMBINED PIN TUMBLER AND PERMUTATION LOCK Filed July 19, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN V EN TOR. Z! Z 7 A TTORNE N0!a 28, 1933 U WAGNER] 1,937,165
COMBINED PIN TUMBLER AND PERMUTATION LOCK Filed July 19, 1932 v 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 BY (h ymun0n ATTOR EYS.
INVENTOI 2. 7
Patented Nov. 28, 1933 PATENT oer-Ice COMBINED PIN TUMBLER AND PERMUTATION LOCK Umberto l iagneri, San Francisco, Calif.
' 4 Claims.
This invention relates to a combined pin tumbler and permutation lock. The object of the present invention is to generally improve the operation of pin tumbler locks; 5 to provide a combination pin tumbler and permutation lock which requires manual operation and proper setting of the permutation part of the look before the key can be inserted and the pin tumblers actuated; to provide a lock of this character in which the setting of the permutation part of the lock may be changed to provide different combinations; to provide a pin tumbler lock employing one or more sets of pin tumblers and in which one set of tumblers will lunction as a key shut-out; to provide a pin tumbler lock in which one or more pins in one set of tumblers are carriedby a sleeve or a plurality of sleeves; to provide pin tumbler carrying sleeves which are rotatable to permit certain pins in a set of tumblers to be moved out of alignment with their cooperating pins; to provide a permutation mechanism for actuating or rotating the pin tumbler carrying sleeves; to provide means whereby the permutation mechanism may be re-set or changed to give different visibly readable combinations'; and further, to provide a permutation mechanism which may be audibly operated. I
Thecombined pin tumbler and permutation lock is shown .by' way of illustration in the. accompanying drawings, in which- Fig. 1 is a central, vertical, longitudinal section of the same.
Fig. 2 is a similar section showingthe position of the plug and the pin tumbler carrying sleeves when the permutation combination is to be changed.
Fig. 3 is a horizontal section taken on line III-III of Fig. 1. Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the combined pin tumbler permutation lock.
Fig. 5 is a perspective view of the index dial.
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of the friction Application July 19,1932. Serial No. 623,356.
actuated thereby. The present illustration discloses a pin tumbler lock employing four pin tumblers, indicated at 1, 2, 3 and 4. The tumblers, indicated at 2, 3 and 4, are of the usual construction; that is, they consist of tumbler sections 2a, 3a and 4a, which normally lie within the barrel or housing and a second set of cooperating tumbler sections, indicated at 2b, 3b and 4b, which are normally carried by the plug. Springs, such as shown at 5, cooperate with each tumbler and the tumblers align with the periphery of the plug when the key D is inserted so that the plug and the cam plate actuated thereby may be rotated. Conversely, they are thrown out of alignment when the key is removed, whereby rotation of the plug is prevented. This part of the mechanism is of common and ordinary construction. The tumbler mechanism, indicated by the numeral 1, is, however, quite difierent as it requires several aligning and cooperating tumbler sections. These tumblersections are indicated at 6, '1, 8 and 9. The section 9 is normally carried by the plug, the section 6 by the barrel or housing, while the sections 7 and 8 are normally carried by a pair of tumbler carrying sleeves, indicated at '70. and 80, see Figs. 8 and 9. The tumbler section 8 has a length equal to the length of the sleeve 8a, while the tumbler section 7 has a length equal to the thickness of the sleeve la. y
In order that the key maybe inserted it is essential that the sleeves 7a and 8a be so positioned that the pin tumbler sections "7 and 8 carried thereby are-in alignment with the turnbler sections 6 and 9. When they so align, the keymay be inserted and it is then possible to rotate the plug and to operate the lock in the usual manner, but if it should happen that one or both of the sleeves 7a and 8a should be in a position where the tumbler sections carried thereby do not align with the sections 6 and 9,
then it will be impossible to insert the key and the tumbler section 9 will in that instance function as a key shut-out.
Permutation actuated means are employed for rotating the sleeves 7a and 8a and this is accomplished as follows:' Mounted in the cylinden or barrel housing A at the outer end thereof is a detent clutch sleeve, generally indicated at 10 see Figs. 1 and '7. On the inner end of this sleeve is formed a collar 11 and on the face thereofis formed a lug or clog 12. Formed in the face of the sleeve intermediate its ends are a plurality of detent openings 13 and secured to the sleeve at its outer end is an index dial 15. The
' and the key may then be fully inserted and the dial shown in the present instance is graduated from zero to nine and it is secured. on the outer end of the sleeve 10 by being pinned, or by any other suitable means. The index dial 15 functions as a means for rotating .the combination detent and clutch sleeve 10, while the pin 14 carried by said sleeve functions to rotate a friction clutch sleeve shown at 16 in Figs. 1 and 6. This sleeve is split, as shown at 17. It is interposed between the shoulder 11 on the detent sleeve and a shoulder 11a formed in the cylinder or barrel housing. The friction sleeve is contracted when inserted, but as it is split, it will expand and frictionally secure itself against rotation and it will not rotate at any time except when manually engaged and forcibly rotated, as will hereinafter be described. The friction sleeve carries two dogs, one indicated at 18, and one on the opposite side as indicated at l9.' The dog 19 is adapted to be engaged by the pin 14 and by no other means. The dog 18 is engageable with notches '71) formed inone end of the sleeve 742, while the dog 12 carried by the detent sleeve is engageable in notches 82) formed in one end of the sleeve shown in Fig. 8.
In actual operation it will be obvious that the sleeves 7a and 8a must assume a. position where the tumbler sections 7 and 8 carried thereby align with the tumbler sections 6 and 9 before it is possible to insert the key and align the tumbler sections so as to rotate the plug B. If they so align, the key may be fully inserted and the plug may be rotated and will then actuate the cam C in the usual manner. 0n the other hand, if the sleeves 7a and 8a are not properly positioned the key can not be fully inserted as the .point or forward end of the key will be stopped by the tumbler section 9 and this accordingly functions as a key shut-out; i. e., the sleeves 7a and 8a do not only function to move the tumbler sections 7 and 9 out of alignment with the cooperating sections 6 and 9 but they also function as shutters or stop members to prevent axial movement of the tumbler section 9. No one but an authorized person can insert the key as the authorized person will know the combination of the permutation portion of the lock. Such a person will rotate the index dial until a certain visible reading is obtained. Such rotation of the index dial properly aligns the sleeves 7a and 8a plug rotated. If an authorized person has inserted the key and locked the lock, he or she will give a slight twist or turning movement to the index dial 15, thus double locking the lock for the simple reason that if an unauthorized person attempts to openthe lock, he will, in that instance, not only have to have the proper key but will also have to know the combination of the permutation feature of the lock. If he knows this and has the proper key the lock, of course, can be opened, but if he happens to have the proper key and does not know the combination the chances of opening the lock are very remote, as hundreds of combinations may be obtained by the single index dial shown at 15. The dial illustrated in the present instance is only provided with ten graduations but it actuates two sleeves, to-wit, 7a and 8a, hence the possibility of innumerable combinations. If the number 'of graduations on the index dial are increased the number of combinations that it is possible to obtain will be proportionately increased.
It was previously stated that the index dial 15 was secured to the outer end of the detent sleeve shown in Fig. 7, hence if the dial is grasped and rotated in either one direction or another, the detent sleeve will rotate and as the dog carried thereby normally engages one or another of the notches 8b formed in the sleeve 8a the sleeve 8a will be rotated. Hence, under normal conditions rotation of the dial 15 causes rotation of the sleeve 8a but it will not cause rotation of the friction sleeve 16, nor will it rotate the sleeve 7a unless the pin 14 engages with the lug 19 of the friction sleeve. In that instance, both the sleeves 7a and 8a will rotate as lug 18 engages the notches 7b in the sleeve M. It will accordingly be noted that it is possible to rotate sleeve 8:! independently of the sleeve 7a and that it is also possible to rotate both sleeves in unison. Hence, if the sleeves 7a and8a have been rotated to a position where the tumbler sections carried thereby are out of alignment with the tumbler sections 6 and 9, it is essential that the sleeves 7a and 8a be rotated in unison until the tumbler section carried by the sleeve'la aligns and then to rotate the sleeve 8a independently of the sleeve 711 until the tumbler section carried in sleeve 81: also aligns. This is accomplished as follows:
It will be assumed that the combination required to align the sleeves is 23. In that case, dial 15 is rotated in either one direction or the other a little more than one revolution. When it is rotated it also rotates the detent'sleeve 10 and the pin 14 carried thereby, hence if the dial 15 is rotated more than one rev olution pin 14 will move into engagement with either one side or another of the lug 19 and the clutch sleeve 16 will thus be engaged and rotated, and as it is rotated dog 18 engages with one or the other of the notches in the sleeve la, and said sleeve will also be rotated. The dial is then rotated in the same direction until the numeral 2 aligns with the marker or arrow 22 formed on the forward end of the housing. The dial is then rotated in the opposite direction until the numeral 3 registers with the arrow 22. In rotating the dial in the opposite direction, pin 14 moves away fromthe lug 19, hence sleeve 7a remains stationary while sleeve 8a rotates. Proper alignment of the turnbler section carried in sleeve 7a was obtained when the numeral 2 registered with the arrow and proper alignment of the tumbler section carried by the sleeve 8a was obtained when the numeral 3 registered with the arrow. After such registration has been established the key can be inserted and operated in the usual manner. When it is removed the permutation combination is destroyed by merely rotating the dial slightly in one direction or another, as such rotation immediately brings the tumbler section in sleeve 8a out of alignment and no one but an authorized person can again align it unless the proper numerical combination is known. The permutation actuated mechanism is further complicated as far as an unauthorized person is concerned as it is essential to first position the sleeve 7a before it is possible to position the sleeve 8a and it is not possible to positionthe sleeve 7a until the dial 15 has been rotated at least one revolution either in one direction or another, as such revo lution is necessary to bring about positive engagement between the pin 14 and the lug 19 of the friction sleeve. This sleeve is normally stationary as it is a. split spring sleeve and it will only rotate when forcibly rotated through means of the dial and the pin 14, and it will remain wherever it is set until again, engaged by the pin 14.
To illustrate the further use and importance of a lock of this character, it will be described in conjunction with an apartment house. When locks of this character are installed in-an apartment house, each tenant may have a similar key but the permutation part of each lock will be set to give a different reading, hence while each tenant can open his or her lock, and even though they have the same key as tenants of other apartments, they can not open other apartments as they do not know the combination. Plainly speaking, one of the advantages of a lock of this character is that one single key may be employed for many locks simplifying to a great extent the key problem of apartment houses, hotels, and like places. If a person has lived in an apartment so equipped and moves away without returning the key, the landlord or lady managing the apartment will only have to change the combination and give the new tenant an identical key. The new tenant knowing the new combination will be able to open the look, but if the old tenant returns and tries to enter he or she will not know the new combi-' nation and consequently will not be able to make use of the key. Hence, the problem of lost or.
stolen keys is taken care of.
To change the combination, it is first necessary to insert the key, as shown in Fig. 1. To do that the old combination must be known. After the key is fully inserted the shoulder 24 on the key engages the end of the plug, then by exerting an endwise pressure the plug is moved inwardly within the cylinder or barrel housing, as shown in Fig. 2. This brings all of the tumbler sections -out of vertical alignment and at the same time brings the notches 7b and. 8b ofthe sleeves 7a and 8a out of engagement with the dogs 12 and 18. In this position of the mechanism the combination is changed by simply rotating the dial to give two new readings. When these 'new readings or numerals have been established, pressure on the key is released and it immediately moves back to normal position where the dogs 12 and 18 will engage the notches in the respective sleeves,
hence when it is desired to open the lock after.
the combination has been changed it is necessary to align the first set of tumbler sections in accordance with the new combination. The plug is held in the extended position, shown in Figs. 1 and 3, by means of a pair of springs, such asshown at,28 see Fig. 3. These springs engage pins 29 formed on the cam C,-hence the pins form two functions, first, that of housing and forming seats for the springs 28, and secondly, that of forming a driving connection between the plug and the cam plate. The cam plate may function in any suitable manner. It may rotatea square spindle, such as shown at 30, or it may actuate any mechanism desired. This is of no importance as the mechanism actuated by the cam plate may be changed to suit varying types of locks and particular installations.
Another important feature of the present invention is the fact that the permutation part of the locking mechanism may be actuated whether it is daylight or dark. During daylight. hours it is easy to set the dial, as the numerals are visible and readable but if it happens to be dark and no light is available it would be difilcult to actuate the dial plate as the numerals would not be visible.
Y In order to avoid this difiiculty an audible click .is produced and this is accomplished by forming the detents 13 in the detent sleeve 10 and by providing a detent pin 13a which cooperates therewith, said detent pin being forced downwardly into the detents by a spring 13b. One of the de out of alignment with the tumbler sections, and
tents, for instance that indicated at 130, see Fig. '7, is longer than the other detents. The long detent registers with the zero indication upon the dial, hence if the dial is to be set in the dark, the tenant merely twirls the dial until he or she hears a long click, the long click being obtained when the long detent registers with the detent pin; the remaining clicks being short and sharp as the remaining detents are short. Hence, by feeling or by audible sound the tenant can determine. the zero position on the dial. Then by turning its slowly, he or she can count one click, two clicks, three clicks, four clicks, and so on, and thus determine that the proper numerals are being registered. For instance, if the combination is 92, the dial will be twirled at least one revolution, preferably in anv anti-clockwise direction. It will then be slowly rotated until zero position is located, then by rotating in the same direction until nine clicks occur, as this indicates that the numeral 9 is reached, then rotation of the dial is reversed, and as the last numeral to be registered is two, two will be subtracted vfrom nine giving numeral 7; hence, it will be rotated until it has clicked seven times as at that time two will register and, as 92 is the combination, the permutation is set and aligned so that the key may be inserted. r
While certain features of the present invention are more or less specifically described, Iwish it understood that various changes may be resorted to within the scope of the appended claims. Similarly, that the materials and finish of the several parts employed may be such as the manufacturer may decide, or varying conditions or uses may demand.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is- 1. In a lock of the character described a' barrel housing and a plug, a group of axially alignable tumbler sections carried by the housing and the plug, a plurality of sleeves cooperating with the plug, each sleeve carrying one of the tumbler sections in the axially alignable group, an indicating dial for rotating said sleeves to move the tumbler sections carried thereby out of axialalignment with the remaining tumbler sections, and means for rotating the indicating dial independently of said sleeve to change the position of the dial with relation to said sleeves.
'2. A combined pin tumbler and permutation lock comprising a housing barrel, a plug mounted therein, a group of axially alignable key actuated tumbler sections carried by the housing and the plug, a sleeve cooperating with the plug and having an opening formed therein aligning ith. the tumbler sections when-a key is to be inserted to open the look, a graduated dial for rotating the sleeve to bring the opening in the sleeve into or means for changing the position of the graduated dial with relation to the sleeve. V
3. In a lock of the character described a barrel housing and a plug, a .group of axially alignable tumbler sections carried by the housing and the plug, a sleeve in the housing having an opening formed therein adapted to align with the tumbler sections, a graduated dial for rotating the sleeve to bring the opening in the sleeve into or out of alignment with the tumbler sections, and means for changing the position of the graduated dial with relation to the sleeve.
4. In a lock of the character described a barrel housing and a plug, a sleeve surrounding the memes graduated dial for rotating the sleeve independently of the plug, and means for rotating the graduated dial independently of the sleeve, to change the position of the graduated dial with relation to the sleeve.