US 1937525 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 5, 1933.
w. R. MOBLEY PROPULS ION MEANS Filed March 12, 1931 V Patented Dec. 5, 1933 .15 the propeller and vehicle.
UNITED STATES 1,937,525 7 V PROPULSION MEANS William Robert Mobley, Miami, Fla., assignor oi" one-half t'o'F. W; Bradsby, Louisville, Ky.
. Application March 712, 1931. Serial No. 522,043 7'Claims. (o1. 170+135) My invention relates-to improvements in propulsion'means-fo'r water-craft, air-cra'ftandland vehicles,-comprehending also a novel method of effecting locomotion or propulsion of such vehi Heretofore the propulsion of air-craft and water-craft has'been effected largely by means of the conventional screw propeller. The propel1er,-in 'eiTect,-screws its way through the a 10 fluid in which it'operates and either pushes or Y The motion of the fluid set up, namely the forcing of the same in the opposite direction to the rotation of thescrew propellerand the direction of travel of the ship or crait'preventsyin the case of air-craft, the control or landing of such craft at a low rate of'speedfi By the same '25 token the ascension of the air-craft from the ground is difiicult except when same is traveling at a high rate of speed and the propeller revolvingatahighRRM. l p The present invention is calculated to overcome .30 the difficulties mentioned hereinabove an'davoids the loss of power which results from the objectionable propelling of the in'the opposite direction'to that of the travel of the craft and aims to provide inadvance of the craft and propeller a vacuum which, with a high pressure area existing rearwardly of the craft or propeller, tends to force the propeller and craft forwardly.
- A .further' object of the invention is to effect the forward propulsion of the craft by mea'nsfof 40 a novelpropeller which will disturb but a minimum amount of fluid,-the"propeller being designed so as to prevent the return of fluid once displaced fromin advance of the propeller.
-The invention also contemplates apropeller,
which in thecase of air-craft will greatly facilitate navigation and comfort in travel, since the objectionable rearward currents generated by the propeller, and commonly referred to as backlash, are eliminated entirely so as to reduce very I 350 materially the element of roughairlin air-craft navigation.
A further object of the invention is to provide a novel propulsion means, for the'purpose stated which comprehends a driven propeller, with a 5 shield member in rear thereof providing a plane,
or chamber-defining surface,- exposed to the propeller, and the blade or blades of the propeller being substantially; plane and lying'in planes substantially parallelwiththe .axis of the pro- 6 peller, whereby when the propeller isjin operation, to create .by centrifugal action, a vacuum-at said surface and in advance-thereof, without rearward driving of theadjacent'fluid, although the area in rear of said surface will be a high pressure area as compared to the vacuum area in ad-' Vance of said surface which cooperates with the vacuum forefiecting forward movement of; the
propeller and body on which it is mounted.
A. further object oi=the invention residesinthe provision of a novel propeller which utilizes the entire area insfr'ont'which is definedby' the cir-. cumferential path of the'blades, for the" crea-" tion of a vacuum, the cross section of which will,
at least, equalthe diameter of the circular path defined by saidblades, whereby'a much smaller propellermay be used than would otherwise be necessary to lift or advance a given weight,' 'the nature of the propeller and itsmode of opera tion being such that no power will-,be lost or .ex-
pended in driving air or fluid continuously a built up pressure in the rear;
Another object of the invention is against nomical to manufacture, the unit -comprisingjthe propeller being of-such a nature as'to eliminate parts likely to be broken and get out of :order.
The invention also resides. in certain novel I to provide a propeller whichis simple in. construction,-"ecofeatures of construction, combination? and: arrangement of the various parts-and in methods of hereinafter.
It is to be understood thatI have disclosed in the drawingwhat now appear tobe preferred forms of the invention. However, it clear that'same are susceptible of considerable change and modification within the spirit and scope of the subject matter claimed hereinafter.
In the drawing, 'wherein the same reference characters have been usedto designate the sameparts in all views, v
Figure 1 is a side elevational view illustrating one form or" theinvention; i
Figure 2 is a front elevationalview of the deviceof Figure 1'; 7 V
Figure 3 is a sectional view, takenonthe line 33of Figure 2;
,Figure lls a side elevational view of'another for the chambered member of Figures 1-, 2 and 3;
Figure 5 is 'a fragmentary view, partly broken and partly in section,--disclosing a further'form of the invention whereina chamberedmember and propeller turn-together onthe same center,
and s. Figure 6 is a fragmentary perspective View 0 110 form of invention, wherein a disk is substituted ticularly to Figure 1, it will be noted that I have disclosed for purposes of illustration a base-like member 2sproviding the spaced bearings and supports 3.. for the pintles a of a semi-spherical chambered member 5. member 5 is supported for pivotal movement about the horizontal axis at 4, whereby the direction of propulsion -may be changed by turning the propeller and with it the member or shield 5' on the axis 4, more or less, relative to the substructure, a part of which latter is. shown at 2 and 3.
In carrying out the invention the semi-spherical member 5 is provided with a bearing 6, in which is journalled a shaft '7 extending through the; bearing, and which may be driven by any suitable'source such as a motor, not shown.
. The forward end of the shaft 7 is provided 'witha number of blades 8, of Which four are shown in the present instance.
' when viewed in plan, are shown to be substan- These blades,
tially segmental in shape-with their curved edges outwardly soas to provide, in effect, a continuationv-of thespherical member 5.
. Assuming the device of Figure 1 to be at rest,
and ready to be started, there will be obviously a quantity of air or other fluid in the spherical recess of-the member 5.- y
. However, upon starting of the shaft '7 and the propeller carried thereby, it will be obvious that the'blades will'set up strong centrifugally acting currents in the area about the propeller blades 8. These centrifugally acting. air currents and the action of the rotating propeller which create them, will obviously exhaust air from the exposed, or' open, front. of the semi-spherical member 5. Thus, a vacuum will be created in said member 5yand in the areain front of the blades 8. Atmospheric pressure in back ofithe member 5 will naturally tend to force the member 5 forwardlydue to.- the vacuum created within it, and to its front.
Assuming the unit of Figure l to be mounted on an air-craft, it will be readily seen that the action setup will result in the craft being sucked through-the air as a result of the vacuum created in thechamber of memberfi.v
In actual tests made with a small model involving this principle, tremendous power has been generated, Obviously. the device will generate a more power than wih a fan-type propeller which depends very largely upon the throwing'of the fluid rearwardly to advance the ship or body which carries: the propeller. 1 a
It will be perfectly plain that the/throwing of .the fluid rearwardly by the screw-type propeller the blades 8 in my propeller, as shown in Figure 1,
creates a channel or vacuum through which the air-craft or ship will be pulled and the surrounding swerving air currents will tend to stabilize-the ship and counteract the effect of any natural air currents that may be existent at a particular time.
The matter of. the air currents set up by'my It is evident that the propeller comprising the blades 8 is shown diagrammatically in Figure 1.
Figure 5 illustrates a further form of the invention which comprehends a base 10 providing bearing arms 11, in which is journalled a shaft 12 to which is keyed a semi-spherical casing 14 similar to the semi-spherical casing 5 of Figure 1., In Figure 5 the shaft 12 also carries keyed thereto a fan 13' of the same type shown in Figurel.
It will be obvious that the difference between the construction shown in the last described form of the invention (Figure 5) and that of Figure 1 is that in Figure 1 the semi-spherical casing is stationary and does not revolve. V p
In further carrying out the invention, I have availed of a: further modification, which is shown in Figure 4 and which comprehendsa base providing bearing arms 21in which are journalled thestub ends'or shafts22- at diametrically opposite peripheral portions of a disk 23. disk itself is provided with a bearing 24-for a shaft 25 which carries at-its-outerend the'blades 26, whichv are in all respects similar to the blades shown in the previously described figures.
It will be obvious that the form ofthe invention,
shown in the last embodiment comprising thedisl The 23, differs from the form of invention shown-in Figure 1 only in the absenceofthe spherical mem- V 1 her 5,-the disk in the last form of theinvention being substituted for the spherical member 5. 4
However, the device of Figure, 4 functions'thev same way, in that a vacuum will be created in front of the disk 23 leaving a high pressure area in rear thereof. The high pressure area rear, and the vacuum in front, produce a sucking .ofthe propeller and craftthrough the air.
It is tobe observed that whileI have illustrated theinvention to disclose a plane surface in rear of the propeller blades, or a semi-spherical chamber,-yet any recess or'chamber of whatever configurationinrear-of the rotating fan would serve the same purpose and the functioning of the device would be identical. 1 r 7 Having thus described my. invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters 'Patent is:
1.'A propulsion" means which is adapted for propelling a body through a fluid and. which comprises a member providingfront and rear surfaces, a rotorrotary relative to said member-and operating adjacent said front surface and having blades disposed radially of the axis of said memher. with their edges and sides in places perpendicular to said. surface, and driving means for said propeller, and a pivotal mounting-for said parts the axis of which mounting is cross-wise to the axis of the rotor. V
2. The combination set forth in claim l, andsaid front surface of said member being concave and providing a chamberadjacent said blades;
3. The combination set forth in claim 1,. and said front surface being concave and providing a chamber closed at its rear whose. cross'sectioni is substantially equal to the diam'eterof the. rotor in advance thereof. 7 y
4. Apropulsion means having a rotor and a concave member arranged close to the rear ofi-the rotor, and fixed relative to'the turning. of the rotor, to obstruct rearward flow of air, and acting to promote radial flow of air and the forming of a partial'vacuum in-frontof said member while its rear face is subjected to atmospheric pressure.
5. Ina propeller the combination of apower shaft having a bearing, a pivot arranged transe versely to said bearing on which pivot the shaft isadjustable to different angles, propeller blades,
on said shaft, and a shield arranged at the rear of said blades, said shield being independent of said blades and attached to said bearing and adjustable with the bearing, and said power shaft being rotatable relative to said shield.
6. A propulsion means having a rotor and a shield member arranged close to the rear of the rotor to obstruct rearward flow of air, and acting to promote radial flow of air and the forming of a partial vacuum in front of said shield while its face away from the rotor is subjected to atmospheric pressure, the shield member having a transverse pivot whereon it is adjustable with the rotor to different angles.
'7. A propulsion means for air craft and the like which-comprises a member providing a surface extending across the axis of the propulsion means, a rotor having a blade lying in and'having its sides lying in a planesubstantially parallel with its axis and substantially perpendicular tosaid surface, said rotor being rotary relative to said member and adjacent said surface, mounting means including a transverse pivot for said rotor and member, and means for driving said rotor and in advance of said rotor and produce in ade5, whereby its blades createa vacuum at said surface dition centrifugal currents about the periphery of f