US 1938161 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 5, 1933.
D. D, WHITACRE BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed April 27, 1929 INVENTOR .DOZJ WH/ZA E Patented Dec. 5, 1933 sTA ss P rsNT OFFICE 13 Claims.
This invention relates to building construction and more particularly to a device or arrangement of parts whereby nailing strips or similar appurtenances may be readily and easily secured to i structural surfaces. I
I am familiar with the construction illustrated and described in U. S. Patent No. 1,486,935 issued to Swanson et al, March 18th, 1924 and I also refer to my copending application Serial No.'307,958
I filed September 24, 1928. My invention described and claimed herein constitutes an improvement over the teaching of both the above mentioned patent and application and constitutes a continuation in part of said application.
Generally stated, the object of my invention is to provide means by which nailing strips, plaster grounds, chair-rails, moldings, blackboards, coat hangers and the like may be attached and secured to a structural surface, which means can be incorporated in the surface after the structure is completed." A more specific object includes the provision of wooden wedge blocks which may be wedged or jammed into a groove in the structural surface of peculiar shape, which facilitates their 23 use and provides a firm and enduring foundation for holding nailing strips etc. Another objec is to arrange wedge blocks and the groove in which they are driven-of such size and shape that the forces directed normal to the structural surfaces to this end, I employ a novel soft nail, the point of which is intended to contact with the bottom of the groove in the surface and be bent to move laterally to form a hook, which cannot be withdrawn other than by fracturing the wood through which it has been driven. a 7
Other objects will appear from the following description of a preferred form of my invention, reference being had to the accompanying drawing. 7 The essential characteristics are summarized in the claims.
'In the drawing, Fig. 1 is an elevation of a tile block which may constitute part of a structural surface showing a nailing strip held in the face thereof; Fig; 2 isa section taken along the lines 2-2 of Fig. 1; Fig. 3 is an enlarged section of the partof Fig. Z'illustrating the wedge blocks in the groove; and Fig. 4 illustrates in perspective the wedge blocks.
Referring to the drawing, I illustrate-a-hollow tile block 1 having grooves 2 formed in the sur-' faces in which are wedged, preferably wooden, blocks 3 and 4. A nailing strip 5 is secured to the surface of the tile block by a nail 6 which penetrates the strip and at least one of the'wedge blocks.
' The groove 2 has a wall 10 lying in a plane preferably normal to the surface of the block and an opposite wall 11 which is inclined inwardly to overhang the bottom 12 of the groove. The block 3 has a base 20, inclined side walls 21 and 22, and a fiat broad top 23. By arranging that the wall 10 of the groove to extend normal to the surface of the tile block, I obtain a greater opening at the face of the groove than would be obtained did the wall 10 incline as the wall 11 is inclined, and thereby am able to increase the lateral dimension of the block 3.. As illustrated in' Fig. 3, it will be appreciated that the block 3 may be readily inserted into the groove by movement normal to the structural surface so that its bottom will rest on the bottom of the groove and its side wall 21 will engage the overhanging wall 11 of the groove. After the block 3 is laid in the groove, the smaller block 4 which is formed as a truncated wedge, is driven between the wall 10 of the groove andthe face 22 of the block 3. The block 4 has a narrow bottom 30, an inclined face 31, a face 32 lying normal to the top and bottom and a top face 33 of greater width than the bottom face and preferably parallel therewith. It will be appreciated that as the block 4 is driven into the groove that its movement is necessarily normal to the structural surface because of its contact with' the wall l0 of the groove and that its movement is directly in line with the force delivered by the hammer or maul with which it is driven into place.
Thus the blocks are more easily and readily wedged upon each other and expanded laterally within the groove. It will of course be'appreciated that the blocks are so proportioned that the block 4 does not contact with the bottom of the groove, at least until it has been firmly driven into place andI prefer that the blocks be so' proportioned that the block 4 will normally be spaced away from the bottom of the groove, as at 34, to allow for size variation in blocks and grooves.
-The wedge blocks 3 and 4 having been driven into the groove, are held therein by the resulting deformation, however slight, and the friction between the various engaging surfaces. Thereafter I lay the nailing strip 5 over the surface and in contact with the top face 33 of the block 4, as at 35; the upper surface'33 of the block 34 preferably extending above the structural surface and slightly above the top surface 23 of the block 3. While the strip 5 is so held, I drive a nail 6 through thestrip and block 3 and into contact with the bottom 12 of the groove when its end is turned, as at '7, to form a hook 8 within and at the bottom of the block 3.
The nail 6 is preferably made of soft iron of sufiicient hardness to penetrate the wooden strips and the wooden block but soft enough to be easily and effectively turned by contact with the bottom of the groove. The'nail 6 is longer (in practice about inch) than the distance from the top of the strip to the bottom of the groove so that the hook 8 is formed in every instance. The nail being driven through the strip 5 and block 3 tends to draw the block and strip toward each other so that a compressive load is transmitted between the top surface of the block 4 and the under surface of the strip 5, which looks the two blocks and the strip together, whereby the three elements are locked together and cannot be moved relative to the structural surface.
It will be noted that the top surface 23 of the block 3 is of relatively great width so that the carpenter driving the nail 6 may be certain that the point of the nail would enter the block 3 to the exclusion of the block l whereby there is no tendency'to'split off the edges of either of the blocks. At the time of driving the nail, the block 3 and necessarily the part of the block near the upper surface, is under lateral compression due to the wedging action of the block 4 and is insured against splitting as the hall 6 penetrates it.
'While I have described a preferred form of my invention, I wish it to be understood that the arrangement of the blocks in the groove may be advantageously used with nails or similar means other than the particular or preferred nail described herein, and I wish it to be further understood that the particular nail formed and used as I have described it may be advantageously used with other arrangements of wed'ging blocks or parts such as those illustrated in the Swanson patent or in my copending application, and that its'efficacy does not depend upon the particular forms and arrangement of wedge blocks illustratadapted to be driven intothe groove between the large block and the other wall of the groove and ed herein; While the foregoing illustrates and describes a preferred form of my invention, I do not care to be limited in the scope of my patent other than by the claims appended hereto.
'IIclairhi- 1; The combination of a tile block having a groove in its face, nail receiving means comprising, overlapping wooden blocks positioned in said groove'each having an inclined side'face, a strip tobe held on the surface of the tile over said groove and a soft nail adapted to be driven through the strip and into said means and into contact with the bottom of the groove where its end is turned to form a hook engaging said means.
2. The combination of a tile block having an undercut groove, a relatively large wooden block having at least one inclined side face disposed in said groove adjacent one wall thereof, and a relatively small block having an inclined side face having its top surface higher than the surface of the tile block, the inclined side faces of said wooden' blocks contacting a strip to be held on the block whereby a compressive load is transmitted from the strip to the block to Wedge said blocks in said groove.
3. The combination of a tile block having an undercut groove, a relatively large wooden block with inclined side'faces positioned in said groove and lying on the bottom thereof, and a relatively small wedge block having at least one inclined side wall adapted to be driven into the groove and having its top surface higher than the surface of the tile block, the inclined side wall of said small wedge block co-acting with one of the inclined side walls of said large wooden block, a strip to be held on the tile surface engaging the WP f said smaller block and means coacting with said strip and the larger block to draw them together and maintain contact between the strip and the smaller block whereby said small block is wedged between the wall of said groove and the larger block to retain said blocks in said groove.
4. In combination, a building block having a groove in its surface with one straight wall; and one inwardly inclined wall, a wedge block with aplurality of inclined faces positioned in the groove and in contact with the inclined wall thereof, a second wedge block having an, inclined face engageable with one of the inclined faces ofthe first block and adapted to be d i YQn into the groove in contact with the straight wallof the grooveand; in a direction normal to the surface of the said] building block, a strip adapted to be nailed to, the first of said wedge blocks and overlying the: surface of said building block and engaging said; second Wedge block, and means for holding the; strip and block together adapted to be driven; through said strip and into saidbloclg whereby a compressive force is transmitted to the second wedge block effective to wedge the same between; the wall of the groove and the blockreceiving the securing means.
5. Building construction comprising; a struc-v tural surface formed of units providinglgrooves; in the surface, members in saidgrooves hav-ingfaces inclined with respect to the vertical axes of the units in contact whereby relative move ment between members produces a wedging, ac tion to holdthe members, in position, a stri-p to be held on said surface, one of said members ene gaging said strip, andmeans passing through, said strip and the other of said members whereby,- said strip and said member are secured1together125 and the other ofsaid membfirsis wedged in said; groove against the other Of said members,
6.- Building construction comprisinga structuralsurface formedof units providingf loflves in the. surface, members. in said ,grooyes having gg inclined faceslying in planes-parallel to, the.; axi-s of the, groove and in contact whereby relative movement between members produces aflwedgingq a i n o o e me er in position, astrin. to be held on said surface, o e of said member 5, engaging said strip, andemfihhs adapted t be driven through said strip, and through thegother of said members by the, application ofa force, thereto in a direction normal to: theplaneyoffhe; structural surface, whereby .said strip; and theg other of said members are secured togethenand; a compressive force; is exerted, upon, the. first named'of said membersto lock;- said -members against relative. movement -in; said;;groove.
A s ru ione hsre n a l nsp t i se rciila held r c m's,., 1irf es. avi is g oov i at least n an in allec m r s es. w en eh n a art nder he han in wall, a second wooden block formed; as,; a-;w,edge and engaging the firsti block and the otherwa11 15d of the groove and adapted to be driven into the I groove in a direction normal to the structural surface to a depth having a part above the surface and above the other block, a strip adapted to be secured to said first named block, means for securing said strip to said first named block comprising a penetrating device adapted to be driven through said strip and intosaid block by force, said force being transmitted through said strip to apply a compressive load to the other of said blocks whereby said block is wedged between the wall of the groove and the first block.
8. In a nailing base, a plurality of sections adapted to be inserted into a groove, the contacting faces of which are inclined with respect to the base whereby the forcing of one of said sections transversely into the groove will cause said sections to secure themselves in position without relative longitudinal movement, and a nailing strip adapted to be secured to one of said sections and through which a force is applied to the other of said sections to cause said section to be forced transversely into the groove.
9. In a nailing base, a plurality of sections adapted to be inserted independently into a groove, the contacting faces of which are inclined with respect to the base, said sections being so constructed with relation to the groove that the forcing of one of the sections transversely into the groove willcause both of said sections to assume engaging contact with the side walls thereof, and a nailing strip adapted to be secured to one of said sections by means of a penetrable device adapted to be driven thereinto, the force applied to drive said penetrable device into said section being effective to'moveone of said sections transversely into the groove.
10. In combination with a nailing base provided with a groove, a sectional block structure comprising a plurality of sections the contacting faces of which are inclined with respect to said base, whereby the forcing of one of said sections transversely into the groove will cause them to assume engaging contact with the side walls thereof, and a strip adapted to be secured to one of said sections by a nail, said nail being driven through said strip and into said section, the force applied to drive said nail through said strip and said section eifective to wedge the other of said sections between the wall of the groove and the other of said sections, said nail and said strip be- 11. In combination, a building block having I a groove in its surface with one straight wall and one inwardly inclined wall, a wedge block adapted to be positioned in said groove, said wedge block having a plurality of faces inclined with respect to the vertical axis of the block, said block being positioned in the groove in contact with the inclined wall thereof, a second wedge block having a face inclined with respect to the vertical axis of said block engageable with the first block and adapted to be driven into the groove in contact with the straight wall of the groove and in a direction normal to the surface of the building block, a strip adapted to be nailed tothe first of said wedge blocks and overlying the surface of said building block and engaging said second wedge block, and a soft iron nail for holding the strip and block together having a hooked end formed by contact with the bottom of the groove.
12. A building construction comprising a structural surface formed of units providing grooves in the surface, members in said grooves having faces inclined to the vertical axis of said members and in contact whereby relative movement between members produces a wedging action to hold said members in position, a strip to be held on said surface, one of said members engaging said strip and a nail fastened through said strip and the other of said members whereby said members are locked against relative movement in said groove.
13. A construction wherein nailing strips are held to structural surfaces having grooves with at least one overhanging wall comprising a wooden block having a part under the overhanging wall, a second wooden block formed as a wedge and engaging the first block and the other wall of the groove and adapted to be driven into the groove in a direction normal to the structural surface to a depth wherein a part thereof remains above the surface and above the other block, and a strip to be held on said surface and means engaging said strip and the first named of said blocks for locking said blocks against relative movement, said means including a soft iron nail penetrating the first block and having its point turned by contact with the bottom of the groove. 7
' DONALD D. WHITACRE.
ing effective to hold said parts in wedging relation.