US 1938215 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 5, 1933. M. x. CORCORAN WALL S TRUCTURE Qriginal Filed Aug. 26, 1931 3 Sheets-Sheet l Dec. 5, 1933. x CORCQRAN 1,938,215
WALL S TRUCTURE Original Filed Aug. 26, 1931 s Sheets-Sheet 2 5; V 3., 6 igari Dec. 5, 1933. CQRCQRAN 1,938,215
WALL S TRUCTURE Original Filed Aug- 2 1931 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented Dec. 5 1933 Mott X. Corcoran, Valparaiso, Ind;
Application August 26, 193i; SerialNo. 559,403
Renewed May 1, 1933 3 Claims.
The present invention relates to wall structure and means for and method of making the same, and particularly to a wall structure consisting of blocks made of molded plastic materials such as cement, which blocks are provided with means for spacing the same in a wall to provide air spaces together with the provision of means for insulating blocks one from another as well as a method of constructing a wall utilizing such blocks. a
It is a well recognized fact that if a wall were to be made of cement and have the same heat insulating properties as a frame building, such wall would have to be at least 28-inches in thickness. Obviously, the construction of walls of 28-inch thickness is prohibitive both as to cost and space.
An object of the present invention is to provide a wall structure comprising a plurality of blocks made of molded plastic material, such, for instance, as cement, which. blocks are made in similar shapes and sizes and which blocks have webs projecting from a side of the blocks with the webs disposed nearer one end of the blocks than the other, so when the blocks are reversed in endwise position for breaking joints, the webs will be in vertical alignment and at the same time function to space the blocks in the walls to form the inner and outer spaces of the same to stabilize the well.
An object of the present invention is to provide a wall structure which is self-sustaining.
Another object of the invention'is to provide a wall structure which is effectively insulated against heat interchange through the wall.
A further'object of the invention is to provide wall blocks of molded plastic material so fashioned and formed as to be readilylaid in a man ner to break joints and to provide air spaces between the inner and outer wallfaces.
A yet further object of the invention is to provide wall blocks of molded material the surfaces of which blocks receive the finish both exterior and interior of the wall structure.
Another and yet further object of the invention is to provide wall blocks laid to provide a wall with means for insulating against heat interchange between the blocks constituting the outer wall face and theblocks constituting th inner wall face. e
Another and further object of the invention is to provide a method "of laying blocks toform a wall whereby the blocks of the several courses are properly aligned and interlocked.
Another and yet further object of the-invert" tion is to provide a molded wall block with an integral web disposed substantially one-quarter of the length of the block from one end of the block whereby equal spacingsof the webs are achieved whenblocks are laid in the wall, and whereby joints are broken by reversing these blocks in one course with respect to the blocks in-the next course. I r
Still another object of the present invention is to provide cement building blocks of similar construction which are molded with substantially flat bodies and with webs perpendicular to the bodies projectingfrom one side thereof with the webs spaced froinan end of the block substantially equal to one-quarter of the length of the block and the blocks being formed with'recesses for receiving insulating strips, which recesses are substantially one-quarter of the distance of the block length from the-other end of the block.
The above, other andfurther objects of the invention will be apparent from'the following description, accompanying drawings and appended claims. l
The accompanying drawings illustrate blocks 0 constructedto embody principles of the'present invention, and the views thereof are as follows:
Figurel is a fragmental elevational view of a wall constructed with blocks embodying the pres- I entinvention.
Figure 2 is a fragmental isometric view of the rear side of a face of a wall constructed-in accordance with the principles of the present invention.
Figure 3 is a 'fragmental horizontal sectional view of a wall corner, which wall isconstructed to embody principles of the present invention, and showing one manner of forming the corners and also a manner of insertingwindow frames and door frames in said wall.
Figure 4 is an isometric view looking at the rear elevation of a'block constructed to embody principles of the present invention.
Figure 5 is a fragmental elevational view of a wall finished to represent Flemish'bond in brick, and r Figure 6 is a fragmental horizontal sectional view through a wall constructed in part with .blocks embodying the principles of the present invention and also including in part bricks and bats to supply an exterior finish simulating Fleml0 5 ishbond. I e l The drawings will now be explained. Figure 4 illustrates a block constructed in accordance with principles of the present invention and constructed preferably of cement, although ,9
it may be made of other suitable plastic material which may be molded.
The illustrated form of brick herein shown consists of a body 1 which is substantially fiat and rectangular in elevation and arranged to be laid edgewise in a course. At a point substantially equal to one-quarter of the length of the block 1 an integral web 2 is molded which is substantially perpendicular to the block. A recess is formed in the block near the other end thereof and spaced substantially one-quarter of the block length from its adjacent end for the reception of an insulating strip. Figure 4 illustrates such recess 3 as formed by two spaced vertically disposed ribs 4 and 5 which are formed of the material of which the block is constructed. Each end of the block 1 is provided with a vertically disposed mortice 6 to receive therein mortar or other binding material to interlock adjacent blocks together in a wall structure.
The top and bottom of the Web 2 is each provided with a recess 7 to form a key-way or way for mortar or other binding materiaL'to aid in interlocking the blocks in a wall structure.
The block 1 may be made Z-feet long, 1-foot high, and approximately 2-inches thick. The web 2 may be substantially Z-inches in thickness and approximately 7-inches in length from the inner surface of the body 1 to the free margin of the web. 1
Figure 2 illustrates the preferred manner of assembling blocks such as shown in Figure 4 to form a wall base. Three courses of blocks are illustrated in this figure although as many as desired the first course A as is necessary to complete a 40' course of properlength. It will thus be observed that the vertically arranged webs 2 are spaced a distance substantially equal to a length of a block, that is, substantially 2-feet. It will be observed also that the recesses or guideways 3 are substantially equidistant between the webs 2 of adjacent blocks. When the course A is laid, mortar is inserted between the adjacent ends of the block as at 8 to tie together these blocks, the mortar entering the mortices 6 in the ends of the blocks. 7
When the course A has been completed the second course 13 is then laid with the blocks 1 reversed in endwise position. The blocks in the course B are laid withthe webs thereof in vertical alignment with the webs 2 of the blocks in the course A, but in order to break joints, the blocks 1 have to be reversed in endwise position as illustrated in Figures 2 and 3. The blocks 1 in the second course B, then, lie with the bodies thereof overlying the joints between adjacent ends of two blocks immediately below a block in the second course B thus breaking joints as is customary.
Laying the blocks in the second course B therefore brlngs the recesses or guideways 3 of these blocks in vertical alignment with the recesses or guideways 3 ofv the blocks in the first course A. When the blocks of the second course B are laid on the blocks of the first course A, mortar is applied alongthe tops of the blocks in the course A as at 9 and in the keyways or recesses '7 of the webs 2 as at 10, thus interlocking the blocks of the courses A and B.
Insulating strips 11 of cork or similar material and of approximately 1-inch in thickness are inserted in the guideways 3 as the courses are laid. Figure 2 illustrates one of these strips 11 inserted in the bottom guideway 3 of a block of the first course A. The insulating strips 11 are preferably longer than the height of a single course of blocks so that these strips serve as guide means for aligning the blocks in upper courses with respect to blocks in the lower courses, the alignment being both endwise and crosswise of the blocks.
Blocks in the course B are reversed in edgewise position with respect to the blocks in the course but in the same direction as the blocks in the course A, so that the Webs 2 thereof align with the webs 2 of the blocks in the course B and the bodies l thereof break joints with respect to the blocks in the course B.
A wall of any height may be made in the manner just described taking care that the blocks in alternate courses are reversed in endwlse position to the blocks in the other courses for the purpose of breaking joints and also for the purpose of vertically aligning the webs 2 of the several blocks.
A wall constructed in the manner described and as webs 2 act to laterally support the wall which comprises the bodies 1 of the several blocks; consequently, a wall of any desired height may be readily made with blocks of the present inven" tion. Such wall will be self-sustaining.
Figure 3 illustrates the manner of making a double-faced wall wi h the outer face designated at D and the inner face at The outer face D is constructed of blocks 1 having webs 2 laid up in end to end relation with the webs 2 extending inwardly from similar ends of the several blocks. The adjacent margins of the blocks are locked together by mortar or cement in the recesses 6 and the webs 2 of the several courses are tied together by mortar in the keyways 10 in addition to which mortar is, of course, spread on the top and bottom margins of the blocks webs in the usual manner.
The inner face E is constructed of similar blocks reversed in endwise position and also re- 1. i
versed so that the webs 2 thereof extend towards the blocks 1 of the outer face I). Such arrangement of the blocks provides a plurality of air spaces 12 which may be filled with suitable insulating material such as rye or flax straw or in the opposed block 1. Suchinsulating strips 11 g:-
are interposed between every web 2 and its-adiacent block for insulating purposes. In this man-- ner heat interchange between the inner and outer faces D and E of the wall is prevented and satisfactory insulation results.
Under some circumstances, it be necessary, in order to tie the spacing walls I) and E together to apply a block with its web 2 overlying an insulating strip ll. However, there is very little heat interchange through a single block or through a fewblocks of sufficient character to make any difference.
The inner and outer wall faces D and E are built to proper height in the manner described with reference to Figure 2. The superposed illustrated in Figure 2 is self-sustaining, as the blocks constituting each face are laid up in the manner heretofore described'with the webs '2 of the blocks in the upper coursescoinciding with the webs 2 of the blocks in the lower courses and extending in the same direction against the several insulating strips 11. Alternate rows have the blocks reversed in endwise positionto break joints. It has been found that by constructing building blocks in the'mann er herein described, that is, the webs positioned at apoint substantially one-quarter of the length of the blocks from, an end, the blocks may be reversed in endwise position and still have the webs coincide vertically with the outer faces ofthe block breaking joints in an orderly symmetrical manner.
Whenever it is necessary to insert a joint block, such as indicated at 13, the blockis-made'of the same plastic material as the blocks 1 and set in position and fastened to the ends of adjacent blocks by mortar bond inthe recesses 6. It is impossible to insert insulation between the joint blocks 13 and the ends of the adjacent building blocks, as these frames must be securely tied in position. The absence of insulation, however, does not effect heat interchange to any appreciable extent.
There are many and several ways of constructing the corners of walls laid'up with blocks of the present invention. Figure 3 illustrates one manner of constructing a comer.
A special corner block 14 is formed arranged in all respects like the block 1 heretofore described except that at one end it has an enlargement 15 for meeting the end of the adjacent blocks 1 in the outer face D near the corner. The length of the block 14 may be as described to produce. any lateral dimension. Another specialv corner block 16 is formed of less length than the block 14 and this, like block 14, is provided withan enlargement 1'7 at an end for increasing the strength of the block at this point for load carrying purposes.
The block 14 is provided with the usual web 2 which is separated from the special corner block 16 by an insulating strip 11. The blocks 14 and 16 are tied to adjacent blocks by mortar-inserted in the recesses 6 as heretofore described.
An added heat insulating feature may be em-' ployed with the corner construction just described, which consists of sheets 18 of wallboard suitably disposed within the spaces between the inner and outer faces of the wall as added heat insulation means. a
A door joint 19 may be inserted in the manner illustrated in Figure 3 and is-inserted in the same manner as described with reference to the joint block 13.
Blocks embodying the principles of the present invention may be utilized in connection with a Flemish bond front.
A Flemish bond surface is laid up by alternating bricks of full length and half lengths, the half length effect being acquired by placing bricks endwise in the wall so that an end of a block or brick is exposed to the exterior.
The blocks heretofore described have been solid blocks.
It is, however, within the contemplation of the present invention to make these blocks hollow as illustrated in Figure 6.
The hollow blocks constructed in accordance with the principles of this invention comprise bodies 20 and webs 21. The block bodies 20 have outer surfaces and inner surfaces 22 with cross ribs 23 disposed at intervals in the length of the bodies for strengthening purposes. The hollow-blocks thus are'pro'videdwith spaces 24 between the outer andinner faces of the blocks. The webs 21-extend perpendicularly to the bodies 20 and'in like manner have air spaces 25 and may have an intermediate strengtheningrib26, if desired. The web 21 of the hollow block construction is disposed at about a quarter of the length of the blocks from the adjacent ends of the same. The end margins'of the blocks may be recessed at 27- so that when the blocks are'laid up in a wall, binder 28, such as mortar or the like, may be interposed for locking the blocks together. V
Figures 5 and 6 illustrate one manner of constructing a Flemish bond wall utilizing building blocks constructed in accordance'with the present invention. 1
Figure 6 illustrates a sectional view taken substantially in the planeof lineVI-VI of Figure 5 and shows an inner wall F'and an outer wall G.
The inner wall F is constructed of blocks embodying the present invention and, in the present instance, is illustrated as hollow with the'hollow bodies20 .and the hollow webs 21.
The outer wall G .is constructed of bricks 29 laid lengthwise in the wall with intermediate bricks 30 laid. endwise to the face of the wall. There arealternate rows of these endwise dis-= posed bricks or bats giving the appearance illustrated in Figure- 5. The endwise laid bricks 30 are the same as the bricks 29 except that theyare laid endwise in the wall so that these bricks 30 then extend rearwardly towards the inner wall F. Insulating strips 31 are interposed betweenv the ends of the endwise laid bricks 30 and the adjacent faces of the blocks 20 of the inner wall F. Wherever a bat comes opposite a web 21 such bat is broken at 32 to provide a space between the bat and the adjacent edge, of the web 21 whereuponan insulating strip 33 is interposed between viding air spaces 34between the inner wall F and the outer'wall G, which spaces may be left as said air spaces or else filled with suitable insulating material. 7
The bricks 29 and 30 employed in the construction of the Flemish bond walls are for the mostpart extruded with the ends of the bricks cut oif by wire. Theextrusion of bricks in this manner leaves the side surfaces smooth while the wire cutting of the ends leaveszthe ends rough,
so that the Flemish bond wall is composed of bricks having the side surfaces smooth and the bats having the end surfaces rough; and generally of different colors due to the cutting with the wire.
The invention has been described herein more or less precisely as to details, yet it is, of course, understood that the formation of walls and partitions may be varied over a wide range in construction, arrangement and size, and that the solid blocks or the hollow blocks might be utilized as desired. All of these modifications and changes together with the substitution of equivalents and arrangement of parts come within the scope and spirit of the present invention.
The invention is claimed as follows:
1. A wall construction comprising a plurality of blocks forming an outer face and another plurality of blocks forming an inner faceof the wall, every block having a single laterally projecting web nearer one end of the blockand an insulating strip recess nearer the-other end of the block, the webs of the blocks in the outer face aligning with the recesses in the blocks of the inner face, the Webs of the blocks of the inner face aligning with the recesses in the blocks of the outer face, insulating strips insaid recesses to space the adjacent webs from the blocks having the recesses, the webs of the several courses being in vertical alignment, the webs of the blocks of the outer face alternating with the webs of the blocks of the inner face to form a plurality of air spaces between the wall faces,,and all of the blocks of one face being insulated against heat interchange with respect to the blocks of the other face.
2. A self-sustaining wall construction comprising similarly shaped andsized fiat blocks laid edgewise, every block having a lateral web, there being a single web to a block, said web being disposed near one end of the block, the blocks in one course being reversed in endwise position with respect to the blocks in an adjacent course to bring into vertical alignment the webs of the blocks of the several courses and to break joints in the wall face, said blocks'having vertically disposed recesses in the inner surfaces of the same for receiving insulating strips, the said recesses being aligned vertically when the blocks are laid in a wall in reversed courses, and insulating strips in said recesses, said strips extending vertically across more than a single course of bricks for vertically aligning the several courses.
3. A double-faced self-sustaining wall comprising a plurality of similarly shaped and sized blocks, every block having a single lateral web disposed nearerv one end of the block, every block having a single vertically disposed recess nearer the end of the block farther from said webs, the blocks-in one face of a course being reversed in endwise relation to the blocks in the other face of said course and laid in edgewise position with the webs of the blocks extending inwardly of the wall faces to align the webs and recesses and break joints in the wall face, and insulating strips between the ends of the webs and the adjacent surfaces of the blocks, the ends of the blocks being mortised to provide mortar receiving spaces, and the tops and bottoms of the webs being mortised for like purposes, the blocks in each wall surface being tied together by binding material, and each surface being selfsustaining with respect to the other.
MOTT X. CORCORAN.