US 1938849 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 12, 1933. H. H. MAXIM ET AL 1,938,849
EXHAUST WASHER AND SILENCER Filed May 13, 1932 III/1' I I INVENTOR5 H/RAM HMAx/M anaszlifimn/arr Lin/E E Km PP ATTORNEYS. I,
Patented Dec. 12, 1933 J 1 UNITED STATES PATENTOFFICE EXHAUST WASHER AND SILENCE]! Hiram H. Maxim, George H. Herrlott, and Leslie E. Knapp, Hartford, Conn., assignors to The Maxim Silencer Company, Hartford, Conn., a
corporation of Connecticut Application May 13, 1932. Serial No. 611,158 8 Claims. (Cl. 183-21) This invention relates to devices for silencing flange 30 through which pass a circumferential the noise incident to the exhaust of internal cornseries of bolts 31. Upon these bolts are strung bustion engines and for removing from the exannular plates 32, 33, and 34, an intermediate anhaust gas any solid matter carried by it, parnular plate 35 surrounding the series of bolts beticularly any such matter as may be in incantween plates 32 and 33. Plate 34 is supported by 60 descent form. v nuts 36 on the bolts 31. Plate 33 is maintained One object of the present invention is to imin spaced relation above it by a series of spacing prove prior devices in which water has been tubes 37, each slipped over one of the bolts, and is mixed with exhaust gases, particularly in respect formed at its inner circumference with a fillet to improvements in the manner in which the ex- 38 (Fig. 3) supporting a packing 39 making a n5 haust gases and the water are carried together water-tight joint against the exterior of the conthrough the device so as to secure a maximum duit 19. At its outer circumference this plate silencing as well as cleaning effect of the water. has a depending flange carrying a plurality of A further object is to eliminate any danger of helical vanes 40 which permit the gas and water water being drawn back into the cylinders on to pass downward with a whirling motion. The 70 stoppage of the motor. A further object is to plate 35 is of an external diameter such as to fit provide for a complete mixture of the exhaust snugly within the casing 10 and of an internal gases and the water during their passage through diameter large enough to form an annular pasthe device, and for their complete separation as sage 41 between it and the conduit 19. It issupthey pass out of it. Additional objects will apported upon the plate 33 by a circumferential 7'5 pear from the following description and claims. Series of radial lugs or vanes 42 which could be Referring to the drawingformed on either member but are here shown as Fig. 1 is a central sectional elevation of a decarried on plate 35. The topmost plate 32 fits vice constructed in accordance with the invensnugly against the conduit 19 but forms an annution; lar passage 43 between it and the inner wall of Fig. 2 is a section on line 2-2 of Fig. 1; the casing 10. This plate is supported by a cir- Fig. 3 is a detail on an enlarged scale of parts cumferential series of radial vanes 44 carried by shown in Fig. 1; and it and resting on plate 35. The upper surface 01' Fig. 4 is aperspective view, partly broken away, the plate 32 rests against the under side of the 30 of the complete device. flange 30, so that the bolts 31 hold the entire in- The silencer is contained within a cylindrical ternal assembly in place upon the header 15. By casing 10 having slotted lugs 11 around its lower ov g t header the parts l n e edge to assist in securing it to any suitable bed. may all be removed at once from the casing for At its bottom the casing is formed with a prefcleaning.
35 erably integral closure 12 having a central aper- The passage of the exhaust gases and the water ture 13 surrounded by a boss 14 to which'a Water through the silencer will now be considered. outlet pipe may be secured. The top of the cas- Coming through the port 22 the exhaust gases ing is closed by a header 15 secured by bolts 16 from the engine meet the water delivered through and a packing 1'7 to a flange 18 on the casing. pipe 25, the water being forced across the path of 40 At its center this header is formed with a conthe gases in a sort of vertical curtain by the flatduit 19 extending into the casing, a boss 20 surtened end 26 of the pipe. The gases thus become rounding the central passage 21 thus formed to commingled with the water and till the upper permit the attachment of a suitable pipe for conannular chamber 50 formed by the casing 10, veying the exhaust gases away from the device. header 15, plate 32, and conduit 19. The only 5 The gases are admitted through a'port 22 in the outlet from this chamber is through the relaupper side wall of the casing, this port being fitted tively constricted annular passage 43 between with a boss 23 to which the pipe 24 connecting the the plate 32 and the casing. This passage the silencer to the engine may be attached. Water, gases and water traverse together, meeting imconveniently from the engine cooling system, is mediately the upper side of plate 35 which closely 50 admitted to the casing through a pipe 25 having a abuts the casing, causing an abrupt change in vertically flattened end 26 best seen in Figs. 1 direction with a resulting turbulence and further and 4. For cleaning purposes a hand hole, promixing of the gases and water. The fluids pass vided with the usual closure 27, is preferably between the lugs 44, down the annular passage formed in the lower side wall of the casing. 41, out between lugs 42, and down between the 55 The conduit 19 is provided with an external helical vanes 40.
Emerging from between these helical vanes the now thoroughly commingled fluids enter a lower chamber 51 formed by the casing 10, the closure 12, and the plate 33. Since the gases and water are given a whirling motion by the helical vanes 40 the water and the solid particlesare swept down and to the outside of the chamber 51, gradually approaching the outlet 13 as their velocity decreases. The water loses its velocity rather rapidly, owing to the relatively large volume of the lower chamber 51, this action being assisted by vanes 52 hanging down below plate 34 and any large accumulation of water in the chamber thus prevented.
Since the gases are whirling within the lower chamber, there might be induced at times a sort of whirlpool or water-spout action which, if not broken up or prevented, might be the cause of water being sucked up the central conduit 19 and so discharged along with the exhaust gases. This would of course be objectionable. In the form of the invention shown this action is effectively broken up by the plate 34 and vanes 52.
The attenuation of the sound waves comprising the exhaust noise is very marked in devices constructed in accordance with the invention. The excellent results attained in practice with this form of apparatus are largely due to the use of relatively large chambers connected by means'of passageways of relatively small crosssectional areas through which the gases and the water pass together in intimate relation. The
irregular and inconstant path thus presented to the sound waves oiTers both high acoustic resistance and high acoustic impedance, causing attenuation both by friction and by change of acoustic impedance along the main acoustic channel. I An important feature of the invention is the protection afforded against the possibility of flooding the engine with water should the drain opening 13 become clogged while the engine is running. Should this happen, and not be detected at once, the water level in the lower compartment would rise until it reached the bottom end of the conduit 19, when it would be blown out through the conduit by the exhaust gases. If the engine is stopped under these conditions, the level of the water within the device is initially considerably below the inlet 22 and no water can flow back into the cylinders until the level has been still further built up. An ample period is thus allowed for the water to be shut off manually before this happens, in case the water supply is not automatically shut off with the engine. In any event the reduced pressure in the exhaust system due to cooling of the engine after it is stopped will not be able (if the water is shut ofi) to cause the accumulated water to be drawn back through pipe 24, since the level of water will not rise higher than the bottom of conduit 19 during the running of the engine. With the accumulated water at this level the suction-resulting from cooling would be satisfied by the drawing of atmospheric air back through the conduit 19. I
The device is preferably made of cast-iron, a material well known for its permanence and its ability to resist the corrosive action of hot exhaust gases and water, especially sea water. In cases where extreme light weight is a requirement, as in certain marine installations, the device is readily fabricated from corrosion resisting alloys. The details of the illustrated form of the device have been described fully in the interest of clearness. It will be understood, however, that the invention may be embodied in various specific forms, and that it is not restricted to the" details here shown except as specifically pointed out in the following claims.
1. An exhaust silencer and washer comprising a casing divided into an upper compartment and a lower compartment, means in said upper compartment for effecting the entrance of exhaust gas and water, means in said lower compartment for efiecting the separate discharge of said exhaust gas and water, said upper compartment communicating with said lower compartment through a series of annular slots.
2. An exhaust silencer and washer in accordance with claim 1 in which said annular slots are disposed in vertical space relationship one with the other and are alternately of substantially different mean diameter.
3. An exhaust silencer and washer in accordance with claim 1 in which said upper compartment communicates with said lower compartment through a tortuous passageway comprising a series of radially disposed passageways alternating with 'a series of interposed annular slots of alternately different mean diameter and a plurality of angularly disposed vanes whereby said gases and water are given a whirling motion within said lower compartment.
4. An exhaust silencer and washer comprising a casing divided into an upper compartment and a lower compartment, means in the upper compartment for efiecting the entrance of exhaust gas and water, means in the lower compartment for effecting the separate discharge of said ex-- haust gas and water, said upper compartment communicating with the lower compartment through a tortuous passageway comprising a series of radially disposed passageways alternating with a series of interposed annular slots of alternately different mean diameter and a plurality of angularly disposed vanes whereby the gases and water are given a whirling motion within the lower compartment, a centrally disposed exhaust conduit positioned within the upper compartment and opening into the lower compartment, and a bafile plate positioned in the lower compartment in line with and below the entrance to the exhaust conduit, said series of passageways and slots being positioned exteriorly of and concentrio with the lower end of said upwardly extending exhaust conduit. 5. An exhaust silencer and washer comprising a cylindrical casing having a removable top header and a bottom header, a centrally disposed exhaust conduit affixed to said upper header, and depending therefrom into the volume of said casing, a series of battles to form a tortuous passageway aflixed to the lower end of and supported by said exhaust conduit, whereby the volume of said casing is divided into an upper compartment of annular shape and a lower compartment of cylindrical shape, openings in said upper compartment for the introduction of exhaust gas and water, an opening in said lower compartment for the discharge of water and means for preventing water spray from entering said exhaust conduit.
6. An exhaust silencer and washer in accordance with claim 5 in which water is introduced into said upper compartment in a spray directed across the stream of incoming exhaust gases;
7. An exhaust silencer and washer in accordance with claim 5 in which said means for pre-- venting water spray from entering said exhaust conduit comprises a bame plate, supported by said exhaust conduit, and positioned within said lower compartment in line with and below the entrance to the conduit, said baille plate having one or more vertical webs afl'ixedthereto.
8. An exhaust silencer and washer comprising a cylindrical casing having a removable top header and a bottom header, a centrally disposed exhaust conduit amxed to said upper header and depending therefrom into the casing, a series of homes to form a tortuous pasageway amxed to the lower end of and supported by the exhaust conduit to divide the casing into'an uppemcompartment oi annular shape and a lower conipartment of cylindrical shape, said batlles including a series of annular slots of alternately different diameter and a series of radially disposed passagethe casing and the centrally disposed exhaust conduit, the lowest of said slots being provided with a plurality of angular-1y disposed vanes whereby the commingled exhaust gas and water is given a whirling motion as it enters the lower compartment, openings in the upper compartment for the introduction of exhaust gas and a spray of water, an opening in the lower compartment for the discharge of water, and a baflle plate supported by the exhaust conduit within the lower compartment and in line with and below the entrance to the conduit, said baille plate having one or more vertical webs afilxed thereto.
HIRAM H. MAXIM. GEORGE H. HERRIO'IT. LESLIE E. KNAPP.
ways extending between the cylindrical shell of