US 1940936 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 26, 1933. E, R BLACK 1,940,936
BUILDING COVERING Filed Dec. 28, 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 Dec. 26, 1933. E. R. BLACK Y BUILDING covERIYN'e 5 Sheets-Sheet '2' i Filed D60.' 28. 1929 aal/M15. zadc; W f 7m W ,Mg/5,
Dec. 26, 1933.
E. R. BLACK BUILDING COVERING Filed Dec. 28. 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 io 5Y 5 'lll/lll Dec. 26, 1933. E, R BLACK 1,940,936
BUILDING COVERING Filed Deo. 28. 1929 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Dec. 26, 1933.
E. R. BLACK BUILDING COVERING Filed Deo. 28. 1929 5( Sheets-Sheet 5 Patented Dec. 26, 1933 1,940,936 BUILDING COVERING Edward R. Black, Chicago, Ill.,
Systems Inc., Illinois assigner to Black a corporation o! Application December 28, 1929. Serial No. 417,202
My invention relates that is, to the weatherproof protective coverings that are applied to the outside walls and roofs of buildings, usually in the form of individual or multiple shingles or in strip `form, such as the so-called froll roofing or as siding.
Such types and forms otbuilding coverings, usually made from flexible waterproof material consistingr of asphaltumv compound impregnated paper stock or feltsometimes with and sometimes without a protective and decorative coat of crushed stone or other resistant materialhave been in popular and increasing favor for some years. Up to the present time, however, the application or laying of such types and forms of coverings has been fraught with diniculties and expense. The time `consumed. and the labor involved in applying the coverings have been excessive, and the desired and proper results are often missed, even aftervthe closest attention and inspection. In difficulties heretofore encountered have been due to the fact that the progressive application or laying oi covering units was gauged or determined wholly or partly by units that had been laid or placed and, in consequence, even slight variations in the size or shape of units might and often did, become cumulative. Thus, for example, the manufacturing tolerances that must be permitted in the economic production oi covering units from such materials as are ordinarily used are so great that, while individually they are of no consequence whatever, still, ii they cumulate because of the position oi one unit depending upon the next immediately preceding it and that preceding one upon the one before and so on, the final result may be so ineiiective or unsightly that the whole job may have to be done over or else a dissatisiied customer is created.
One oi the objects of my invention is to cheapen and facilitate the application of building covering units made from ilexible prepared rooilng materials of ordinary andapproved types.
Another object is to provide a method oi applying building covering units wherein variations in dimension oi the units or in their locations do not become cumulative and thereby bring about either appearance or operation that'is objectionable.
Another object is to rangement whereby a may be applied simultaneously in tive relation.
Another object is to provide improved equipprovide a method and arplurality of vcovering units proper relato lbuilding coverings;`
large measure the ment for properly positioning and holding a plurality oi units upon a building structure.
Another object is to provide a method and equipment for applying building covering units.
Another object is to provide an improved building covering unit particularly adapted for, although not exclusively useful with, my improved method and equipmen Other objects and advantages will hereinafter appear. i v 65 Several embodiments of equipment suitable for carrying out the above objects are disclosed in the accompanying drawings wherein:
Fig. 1 is a top plan of a series of shingle units coordinated in my preferred way `i'orsimultane-Y?G ous application to the building;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged section on of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a rear plan view of` the preferred embodiment of my invention; 'I5 Fig. 4 is a plan oi a unit in the term of a roofing shingle of my preferred embodiment, as cut from a sheet of prepared roofing material;
Fig. 5 shows a plan of the shingle of Fig. 4 with the lower corner turned under preparatory to assembly with other similar units before appli` cation to the building;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged perspective of a small portion of the positioning and anchoring strip whereby a plurality of units may be applied to and anchored upon the building structure;
Fig. '7 shows a plan oi a roof illustrating the application oi.' units in the form of shingles and their appearance when laid;
Fig. 8 is a similar view of the application to the side of a building of units in the form oi strips or' siding;
Fig. 9 is a front plan of a modified arrange@- ment for assembling and sin'uiltaneouslyl applying a. plurality of units in the form of shingles:
Fig. 10 is an enlarged section on the line iii-10 of Fig. 9;
Fig. 11 is a rear elevation of lthe arrangement illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10;
Fig. 12 is an enlargedfperspective o! a portion of the positioning stripshown in'Flgs. 9, 10, and 11; v
Fig. 13 is n. section on the line 1.8-13 of Fig. 12;
Fig. 14y isanother modified amusement for assembling'and simultaneously applying a plurality of units in the form of shingles; i
Fig. 15 is a section on the line 15--15 of Fig. 14:
Fig. 16 is a rear elevation of the modification shown in Figs. 14 and 15;
Fig. 17 is an enlarged pers the "line 2M? tive ofa portion of the positioning strip shown in Figs. 14, 15 and 16;
Fig. 18 is a front elevation of another modified arrangement; and
Fig. 19 is a section on the line 19-19 of The term unit as hereinafter employed embraces all of the usual basic forms of building coverings, such as individual, multiple and strip shingles, so-called roll roofing and siding. 'Ihe term aggregate as hereinafter employed contemplates a plurality or series of such units positioned in proper vertical overlapping relationship by one or more gauging strips. Although, as just stated, my invention is applicable to a much broader field, the accompanying drawings and following description will be largely coniined to the showing and explanation of the invention as employed in the covering of a building with units in the form of individual shingles. From such a showing and explanation the underlying principles of my invention will be more readily understood and their applicability to and utilization with the other forms of coverings will be at once apparent to those skilled in the art.
Referring to Figs. 1 to 6, the aggregate comprises a plurality of units in the form of individual shingles 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, etc. and a positioning and anchoring strip 30 to which the units are attached as will be presently explained.
The preferred form of shingle unit is shown in detail in Figs. 4 and 5, although, of course, other forms may be used. It is cut in substantially square shape, as shown in Fig. 4, from a strip of ordinary prepared exible roofing material of the desired thickness, character and nish. In the cutting process the upper corner is removed and a small notch 31 is made in the upper at or tip edge of the shingle unit. In the vertical central region near the lower corner a U-shaped slit 32 is cut through theshingle, the ends of the two parallel branches of the slit terminating at the fold line a-b. Then the lower corner 33 is turned under along the fold line a-b. When the lower corner has been thus turned under the small tongue 34 formed by the slit 32 remains projecting downwardly in its original position' in the Vplane of the unit body and the iinished shingle assumes the form illustrated in Fig. 5. At the same time, the folding of the shingle on the line a-b leaves a small recess 35, the complement of tongue 34, in the underturned corner or tab 33, such recess opening at the butt of the shingle and lying wholly in the plane of the underturned tab. Thus the butt recess extends inwardly from the fold forming the butt edge of the unit and is exposed at the rear surface of the unit for ready application to the anchorage (such as the positioning and holding strip hereinafter described) although it is unexposed at the front surface of the unit. With this butt recess so formed and positioned the tab of the shingle may be quickly hooked to and engaged by a very slightly elevated projection merely by sliding the shingle thereagainst. The lower edge or butt of the shingle is therefore of double thickness,-a characteristic that is highly desirable in improving the appearance of a nished roof and in strengthening the exposed lower or butt edge of the shingle units.
The positioning and anchoring strip 30 may be formed in various ways and from a variety of materials but I prefer to use galvanized iron of about 26 or 28 gauge and 1A to 1/2 inch wide. It may be long enough to reach frQm the eave t0 the ridge of a building roof but I prefer to form it of uniform lengths of aboutI eight or ten feet, or even smaller, whichmay be joined in any suitable manner to reach from the eave to the ridge. By using such uniform or standard lengths, manufacture, packing, shipping and fabrication are facilitated and the completed aggregates are of a size that is easy to handle on the job where application is to be made.
At regular recurring intervals strip 30 is bent into a downwardly opening loop 36 and an upwardly directed hook 37, the lower or open end of each loop lying to the rear of the lower or closed end of a hook. The loops 36 are for receiving the upper ends or tips of the shingle units while the hooks 37 are for anchoring and gauging the positions of the lower ends or butts of the shingle units. Each hook 37 terminates in an inwardly and downwardly directed barb 38. A shingle unit is positioned and anchored on the strip 30 by forcing its tip or upper edge upwardly into a loop 36. When the tip reaches its proper position the end of the loop is received in notch 31 of the shingle tip and the upper end of the shingle unit is held against lateral displacement by the engagement of the edges of notch 31 and the closed end of a strip loop 36. With the shingle in this position it is slightly ilexed and recess 35 in the tab 33 is brought into register with the open end of hook 37. Thereupon when the shingle straightens out so as to lie fiat against the strip, the hook 37 enters recess 35 in the butt of the shingle and the shingle may be pulled downwardly very slightly until barb 38 snaps behind the edge of tab 33, as most clearly shown in Figs. 2 and 6, whereupon the shingle is rmly anchored and locked in position on the strip, its tip being held in one of the loops 36 thereof and its butt held by the next lower hook 37. In like manner the placing and anchoring of shingles to the strip continues until the desired aggregate is produced, each aggregate consisting of a series of shingles attached to a positioning and anchoring strip in the vertically overlapping relationship assumed when in final position on the roof.
Although, as will be obvious, strips 30 may be rst attached in proper position on the building to be covered and the units subsequently positioned and anchored thereto as previously described, I contemplate that the units may be associated with their anchoring and positioning strips prior to the application of the latter to the building; the aggregate thus produced being placed as an entirety. This latter method of procedure will now be described.
Fig. 7 illustrates the method of applying the aggregates of shingle units to the roof of a building and the appearance of the roof after the shingles are laid thereon. The covering is begun by. applying an eave or starting strip 40 along the eave of the roof in the usual way. Ordinarily this strip is composed of and cut from a sheet of material similar to that composing the shingle units and it may be anchored in place by any of the usual approved ways, as by roofing nails. The shingle units of the rst or left hand aggregate are cut vertically along or adjacent their median lines so as to present vertical edges of approximately half the lengths of the shingles along the left hand or beginning vertical roof edge. Then the .although, if the aggregates are half the maximum lateral shingle width. These marks serve to locate or gauge the proper positions of the top and bottom ends of the aggregate holding and positioning strips 30 throughout the subsequent laying of each vertical row or group of shingle units. The necessary vertical displacement or stepping of the units of adjacent vertical groups or aggregates is effected by positioning the anchoring hooks of alternate strips vertically midway between the hooks of the adjacent strips.
In applying the roof covering the aggregates or vertical shingle unit groups are shown as being positioned successively from left to right, the upper and lower ends of each holding and positioning strip being properly located horizontally by the successive gauge marks along the starting strip and ridge and vertically by the staggering of the hooks. Thus the workman locates an entire vertical row of shingle units simultaneously, all of the shingles constituting each row being vertically overlapped in precisely the relationship assumed thereby when in final position on the roof. If the vertical length of the roof is not excessive each aggregate may constitute a single length of gauging and holding strip and associated shingle units extending from eave to ridge, fabricated in standard lengths as previously explained, several may be joined together to span the distance from eave to ridge, particularly if that distance is so great that the aggregate, if fabricated as an entirety, would be unwieldy. The horizontal overlap of the shingle units of adjacent vertical rows or aggregates is properly and very accurately determined individually for each vertical row by fastening the gauging and anchoring strips to the roof framework in the locations determined by the gauge marks along the eave and ridge.
pose. If the space from eave to ridge is very short no intermediate fastening of the gauging and anchoring strips may be necessary. However, it will be an easy matter for the workmen to raise the butts of shingle units wherever desired and provide whatever intermediate fastenings may seem to be required, by nailing to the roof framework the strip or some part of the under lying shingle that' will be covered when the temporarily raised shingle butt is again hooked down' by its associated hook 37. As the succeeding vertical rows or aggregates are located and anchored in proper horizontal overlapping relation or, if desired, after the entire or any desired amount of the roof covering has been applied, the shingles of immediatelyv preceding rows or aggregates may be slightly elevated to permit the placing thereunder of the lateral edges of the shingle units of succeeding rows thaty should be overlapped in the nished roof. It will, of course, be understood that the aggregates may be equally well applied from right to left.
When the shingle units are in proper position upon the associated locating and anchoring'strip 30 the lower bends 39 of hooks 37 serve as shoulders to prevent the shingles from becoming vertically displaced. This condition is very clearly illustrated in Fig. 2. In this condition the small projecting tongues 34 extend downwardly beyond the lower ends 39 of hooks 37 and serve to insure that the hook is adequately covered and concealed.
From the foregoing description it will be obvious that I have provided a highly advantageous method and arrangement for quickly and inexpensively and properly applying a building. coveach shingle unit is ering. The units are laid in groups wherein, either at the factory orL at the job, the proper vertical spacing for insuring the desired vertical overlap is very accurately and positively obtained. There is no necessity for the workman to measure or use his judgment in `spacing the shingle units to insure the desired vertical voverlap. Likewise the. desired horizontal overlap may be very quickly and accurately determined and, when the proper gauge marks have been laid out at the ridge and eave portunity for error. 'I'he gauge marks may be laid out by the foreman or other skilled workmen and thereafter the proper positioning of the shingles is practically automatic and requires no exercise of judgment or skill. The position of the units is not determined by units previouslyI laid, either vertically or horizontally, so that variations in size cannot become cumulative. And the lock or anchorage between each shingle unit and its associated positioning and anchoring strip permits enough movement to take care of expansion and contraction due to heat and cold. This movement will be extremely small because it is eiected only by the contraction and expansion of a single small unit, each unit being absolutely independent of all the others. The method and equipment lends itself admirably to the laying of color designs on the roof with no reasonable chance of mistake because units of the desired color and in proper relationship may be associated with the proper positioning and anchoring strips. This assembly of aggregates to give any desired color scheme or design may be done entirely at the factory or on the ground at the job by a skilled workman, after which no particular skill about the desired result in the roof. All it is necessary to do is to insure that the workmen on the roof receive the aggregates or vertical group in the proper sequence.
Fig.'8-shows how my invention is applicable to covering units in the form of siding strips. The lower edge of each siding strip 45`is turned under and back, the strip having been slitted before turning, as previously explained 'in connection with a shingle unit, to provide the necessary and properly spaced recesses for receiving the hooks 37 on positioning strips 30. These strips, at properly gauged intervals are nailed to the side Wall framework of the building structure and, in consequence, the siding strips which are anchored thereto in proper vertical overlapping relationship, are properly and practically automatically positioned on the wall in the de'- sired positions.
Figs. 9 to 13 show a 'modified arrangement of shingle units and associated locating and anchoring strip for producing the aggregates. According to this arrangement the shingles 45, 46, 47,
48, etc. are in effect hung upon shoulders provided at equally and properly spaced distances along a positioning and anchoring strip 49. At the proper intervals along the strip hooks 50 are struck up therefrom to shoulders 51 which support the shingle units. A short distance below each hook 50 a vertically or longitudinally arranged n 52 is struck up from strip 49. Each shingle unit may have its upper and lower corners cut of! Figs. 9 and 11, although if desired the lower corner may be turned back and under to provide a double thickness butt as previously described. Near the upper horizontal or tip edge provide the holding e provided with a substan-v there is practically no opis required to bring as clearly indicated in tially T-shaped slot or slit having a transverse branch 53 for receiving the corresponding hook 50 of the associated aggregate locating and anchoring strip 49 and a vertical branch 54 adapted to receive the corresponding vertical fin 52.
In assembling an aggregate according to this modification of my invention the requisite number of shingles are threaded upon hooks 50 whereby the units are located and anchored upon the strip in the desired vertical overlapping relation to be assumed by the units when `in position on the roof. At the same time the vertical ns 52 of strip 49 are inserted through the vertical slits 54 and thereby the shingles are held against lateral displacement.
The aggregates or vertical shingle groups, after being properly assembled in accordance with this modification, may be applied and anchored to the roof framework of the building in precisely the same manner as hereinbefore described. If it is desired to use the strips merely to locate the shingles and not permanently to anchor them in place, the shingles may be permanently nailed or otherwise secured to the roof the anchorage for each shingle being located far enough above the butt to be adequately covered by a unit of the next higher course or horizontal Y row, and then the strips removed by drawing them out downwardly toward the eave. The strips may then be used again temporarily to form other aggregates for subsequent application further along the roof. The slight tearing or cutting of the shingles where the hooks 50 are pulled through the small margins of material between slits 53 and the upper edges of the shingle units is of no consequence.
Figs. 14 to 17 illustrate another modified arrangement wherein it is unnecessary to perforate the shingles and the anchoring hooks in the positioning strip are dispensed with. According to this arrangement the positioning strip is bent upon itself at regularly recurring and properly spaced intervals to provide loops or sockets 50 into which the tips of corresponding shingles 51, 52, 53, 54, etc. may be inserted and frictionally held in position While being applied to the roof frame work. The closed ends of the loops serve as the unit locating shoulders whereby, when the units are forced into position to the limit of their movement they are arranged in proper vertical* overlapping relation. With this arrangement the locating strip anchors merely the upper edge oi.' each shingle and only frictional engagement is depended upon to hold the shingle against vertical displacement. Consequently when this modified arrangement is employed it will be necessary or advisable, ordinarily, to nail each shingle to the roof independently of its associated positioning strip. This can be read- 'ily done by merely slightly and temporarily elevatingthe lower or butt ends of the overlying shingles while nails are driven through 'the underlying course or overlapped shingles in locations that will be covered when the superposed shingle is permitted again to lie at upon the roof.
This modification readily lends itself to the application of inexpensive coverings where the expense of permitting the locating strips permanently to remain in position might be prohibitive. Thus, after several aggregates with their associated vertically overlapping shingles are laid and nailed in position, the holding strips, having served their purpose of properly gauging the vertical overlap oi adjacent shingle units in the vertical rows, may be removed by pulling them out upwardly toward the eave of the roof. Thereupon the locating strips may have additional shingle units applied thereto and be used againI to form aggregates further along the roof.
Figs. 18 and 19 illustrate a still further simplified arrangement wherein the aggregates may be formed by securing the shingle units in proper vertically overlapped relation merely by fastening the same to the associated strip by such simple means as nailing, riveting orV adhesion. Thus the locating and anchoring strip 55 has the shingle units 56, 57, 58, 59, etc. attached thereto along their median lines and in proper vertically overlapped relation merely by the application of a proper adhesive between the strip and the shingle units. The strips forming the aggregate foundations may be made of metal, as in the case of the arrangements previously described, in which event it may be the better plan slightly to step or corrugate the same, as clearly indicated in Fig. 19, so that the plane of the upper surface of a shingle tip will substantially correspond to the plane of the lower side of the overlapping shingle. The several bends or steps 60 likewise 100 serv-e as shoulders for determining accurately each shingle unit to insure the proper overlapping relationship. This arrangement readily` lends itself` to the use of such inexpensive materials as the rooiing material or other fabric or even heavy paper for the making of the locating and holding strips.
Having thus illu'strated and explained the nature and several typical embodiments of my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by United States Letters Patent is as follows:
1. A building covering aggregate comprising a metallic strip having a series of equally spaced loops for receiving the tips of covering units and a series of equally spaced hooks for engagement with the butts of shingles, the spacing between loops and between hooks being such as to hold a plurality of covering units in the overlapping relationship to be assumed when positioned on a roof, and a plurality of building covering units i910 made of flexible prepared roofing material, each such unit being held to the strip by one of the loops and one of the hooks.
2. A positioning and anchoring strip for receiving and holding a plurality of independent building covering units whereby the same may be simultaneously applied to a building in proper overlapping relation, comprising a metallic strip formed with a plurality of unit engaging shoulders spaced apart sumciently to locate adjacent units in proper vertically overlapping relation.
3. A positioning and anchoring strip for holding a plurality of building covering units in the vertically overlapping relationship to be assumed when in position on the building and whereby such units may be simultaneously applied to the building, comprising a metallic strip formed with a plurality oi hooks and a plurality of open loops, all of the loops and all of the hooks being equally spaced at distances insuring the overlap of units applied thereto, and a barb for each hook to lock against displacement the unit engaged by the associated hook.
4. A building covering comprising a plurality of vertically arranged holding strips provided with unit holding hooks arranged at spaced intervals therealong; and a series of covering units for each such strip, each unit comprising a sheet of iiexible rooiing material folded along one edge to form a turned-under tab, the turned-under tab l5(` having a recess opening into-the junction between such tab and the body of the sheet whereby one of said hooks may engage the tab to anchor the unit to a strip.
5. The method of applying to a building structure a covering composed of separate independent units of covering material, which includes the steps of first forming an aggregate by hooking a plurality of the units to a positioning strip in the vertically overlapping relation to be assumed thereby when nally positioned on the building, then applying to the building structure a plurality of such aggregates.
6. The method of applying to a building structure a covering composed of separate independent units of covering material, which includes the steps of first forming an aggregate by applying a plurality of the units to a positioning strip formed to gage the vertically overlapping relation the units are to assume when finally positioned on the building, and then applying to the building structure a plurality of such aggregates' with the units of adjacent aggregates horizontally overlapping.
7. A building covering aggregate for simultaneously applying a plurality of building covering units, comprising a positioning and anchoring strip provided with a plurality of unit holding hooks, the spacing between adjacent hooks being such that units held thereby are associated in the vertically overlapping relation to be assumed vthereby on the building, and a separate independent unit of roofing material held by each hook.
8. A building covering unit comprising a sheet of weatherproof covering material having one edge folded under the body thereof and having an aperture in the folded under portion. said aperture opening into and extending inwardly from the fold.
9. A building covering comprising a plurality of anchoring strips each having a loop and a hook spaced apart to receive and anchor respectively the tip and butt of a covering unit, and a plurality of weatherproof covering units held by the loops and hooks of the anchoring strips.
10. A building covering comprising a plurality of holding strips, each holding strip having a series of equally spaced loops and equally spaced hooks along one surface thereof, to receive and covering units in proper and a series of covering each unit comprising having a hook hold a plurality of overlapping relation, units for each such strip, a sheet of weatherproof material receiving aperture extending inwardly from one edge thereof.
11. A building covering comprising a plurality of holding strips, each holding strip having a series of equally spaced hooks for anchoring the butts of covering units applied thereto, and a series of covering units for each such strip, each unit comprising a sheet of weatherproof material having an aperture extending inwardly from one edge and unexposed at the face thereof, the aperture serving to receive a hook of a holding strip and thereby anchor the butt of the unit without exposing the anchor strip.
12. A building covering aggregate comprising a holding strip provided with equally spaced means for engaging and anchoring the butts of a plurality of covering units applied thereto, and a series of covering units for said strip, each unit comprising a sheet of weatherproof material having an aperture extending inwardly from one edge and unexposed at the face thereof, the aperture serving to receive one of said spaced means on the holding strip and thereby anchor` the butt of the unit without exposing the strip.
13. A building covering unit-comprising a sheet of weatherproof covering material one edge of which forms the butt edge of the unit, said unit having an aperture in its under surface opening into said butt edge and extending inwardly from said edge.
14:. A building covering unit comprising a sheet of weatherproof covering material having one edge folded under the body thereof and having an aperture in the folded under portion, said aperture opening into and extending inwardly from the fold, and a tongue extending outwardly from the body of the unit in line with the aperture.
15. In combination, a flexible shingle having a bent under corner flap with an aperture at the lower edge of said flap, a fastener having a hook portion adapted to hook into said aperture, the hook portion being offset from the body of the fastener and the body of said fastener being adapted for attachment to a building to be covered.
16. In combination, a building covering unit formed from a sheet of covering material having a bent under apertured flap at one edge thereof, and a fastener having a hook portion adapted to hook into the aperture of the flap, the hook portion being offset from the `body of the fastener and the body of the fastener being adapted for attachment to a building to be covered.
EDWARD R. BLACK.