US 1942863 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 9, 1934. J. JOHNSTONE MEANS FOR FIXING FURNACE LININGS Filed Jan. 19, 1951 INVENTOR James one Patented Jan. 9, 1934 UNITED STATES PA'T'ENT OFFICE The objectof my invention is to provide simple and efiicient means for tying the lining of a fire box to the bounding walls thereof in such a manher that the periodic expansion and contraction 6 of the lining and thepermanent relative elongation thereof can be accommodated without imposing a strain upon the bounding walls.
The bounding or outer walls of a fire box are subject to substantially less variation in temlo perature than is the lining thereof, the latter being an effective insulating element. To further produce such insulating factor, the lining is preferably spaced from the bounding walls a substantial distance and to maintain such spacing and to provide support for the lining, connecting or tying elements extend across such space. Because of the fact that the lining is subjected to substantial variations in temperature, it expands and contracts over a wide range and in proportion to the temperature of the fire within the lin ing. Further, I have noted that the lining, because of the high temperatures to which it is subjected, takes on 'a permanent elongation due, probably, to the flux and consumption of the lining by such intense heat, which causes the lining in use togrow upwardly from'it's foundation. For example, in fire walls eight feet high, it is common to have such lining increasein overall height as much as an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half between the time it is installed and the time it is consumed and must be necessarily replaced. If the tying elements across such spacing between said walls are firm and rigid, such growth or permanent elongation sets up stresses in the walls respectively, which fre quently cause fracture in the outer' or bounding walls.
My invention contemplates the use of members which hold the walls in fixed, spaced relation with respect to each other, but which are designed to permit such relative lateral elongation of such walls with respect to each other without permitting such fracturing strains to be set up.
The details of my invention and the application to a fire box are hereinafter described with reference to the accompanying drawing, in which:
Fig. l is a plan view or" one of my connector elements shown as engaging a portion of one of the units comprising the fire box lining;
Fig. 2 is a vertical section taken on the line 2-2 in Fig. 1; and
Fig. 3 is a substantially diagrammatic illustration of a portion of the fire box embodying my invention.
It is common in the present art to provide tiles or fire brick made of fire clay, which have a T- shaped'notch extending inwardly from one edge in the manner shown in Fig. 1, such units being referredto by reference character a. My invention is susceptible of use with a unit of tile such as this. Such units are arranged in predetermined, spaced relation throughout the fire wall when it is built, such notches a facing the space d between the fire wall or lining b and the bounding wall 0. When a unit of tile such as this is used, it is preferable that the courses or horizontal layers of brick be staggered with respect to each other, as is shown in Fig. 3, so that the parting line between the courses in one wall will be arranged substantially in the middle of a course in the other wall. Thus, one-half of the connector unit embodying my invention can be mounted between the bricks in the bounding wall and the other half can engage centrally one of said tiles.
. In thisembodiment of my invention, the half e which extends between the courses of brick is rel.- atively thin and fiat, being substantially the thickness of the mortar normally placed between the bricks. Such portion comprises two diverging legs e joined by a lateral element 63 spaced from a pivot connection e2. A triangular space e4 is arranged therein, which is adapted to be filled with mortar, which serves as a key to prevent the lateral displacement of such portion e.
The other portion of the connecting element is relatively T-shaped in section, both in vertical section and in plan, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, and terminates in a protuberance f adapted to seat in the recess a in the tile a. The neck portion I2 is relatively narrow and fits between the bifur- 'cated portion c2 of the other half of the connector element. Such neck portion i2 is preferably of uniformcross-section throughout and thus such connecting element is adapted for varying spaces between the walls by providing elements j of the proper length.
Slotted eyes e5 and f3 are arranged in the connector halves respectively, and a tying element 9 passes thru. sucheyes. Such slots are elongated, the .minor. dimensions being substantiallythe same as the diameter of the tying element g, thereby preventing elongation of the connector elements and corresponding variation in the spacing between the walls connected together by such element. The connector elements are elongated in the major direction of said slots a distance corresponding to one-half of the total predetermined, permanent elongation or growth of the lining. The bifurcated connecting porrivet having a cotter pin it passing thru the endof the rivet away from the head thereof and provided with a washer i for preventing the dis engagement of said parts.
The permanent elongation or growth of the fire lining b is usually wholly upwardly because of the fact that the fire lining rests upon a firm, sound foundation 7' and thus the units or tiles in the upper portion of the wall have a-greater relative movement than those in the lower por tion. To secure uniformity in the connecting elements, the slots f3 and e5 respectively are'proportioned to permit the greatest elongation-encountered, inasmuch as they will not permit variance of the wall spacing, because of "the close fit between the sides of the slotted eyesand the tying elements g. The connecting elementf also is quite loosely fitted in the recess a" and thus some auxiliary movement is permitted because of such loose fit and independent movement of the pivotal connection between the halves.
Although this invention is shown as .including a tile having a recess formed therein, I do not wish it to be so limited. In some installations it is desirable that the courses of the two walls of the fire box be maintained in alinement and in such event it is possible to use halves of similar form. That is, two halves such as e might be connected together, or two halves such' as f, and they might be mounted in identical places in respect to the courses of the walls in which they are embedded. Further, the exact forms of of such halves, although desirable, are not the only forms which may be used. The ultimate ends in mind are to maintain thetwo walls a fixed distance apart but adapting them-to shift with relation to each other, and those ends set out in the claims which form a part of this application.
I further utilize the space (1 between the lining b and the bounding wall '0 as a passageway thru which a draft of air is directed. This can either be forced draft from a fan, or if the height of the wall permits, the stack effect can be used.
Directing a draft of air in this mannerpermits the heated air to be used in the combustion. of the fuel and permits the utilizationof the heat transmitted thru the lining, which would other.- wise be lost by radiation of the bounding'walls'c.
1. A connector element of the. character .described comprising two portions each'terminating in an enlarged protuberance, and provided with mutually engageable pivotal connections, onefof said pivotal connections being bifurcated -and the other lying between said bifurcated Iportions, said connections including two vertically slotted eyes having a tying element loosely mounted and held against lateral movement therein, said connections in primary position being located so that said tying element passes thru said eyes, engages the upper portion of one eye and the lower portion of the other being thereby adapted to prevent movement of such connections-in one direction and to permit increased movement'thereof in the opposite direction.
2. A connector element of the character described comprising two portions each terminating-inan enlargedprotuberance, one of said portions being relatively flat and provided with a lateral central pivotal connection. said pivotal connection being offset to a predetermined degree, the other portion of said connector element also=being..provided with a pivotal connection engageable with the first-mentioned connection, said connections including two vertically slotted eyes having "tying elements loosely mounted and heldagainst lateral movement therein.
3. A connector element of the character described comprising two portions-each "terminat- 'ing 'in-an enlarged protuberance, one of *said portions comprising two diverging legs joined together'at a lateral'central pivotal connection, the diverging :legs of said portion'being joined together furtherat a pointspaced from said'pivotal connection, the other-portion of said *connector element also being provided with a pivotal connection engageable with the first-mentioned connection, 'said connections includingtwo vertically slotted eyes' having "tying "elements loosely'mounted and held against lateralmovement therein.
4. In a furnace wall, a lining,and a bounding wall, means for maintaining the two walls'spaced apart a fixed distance, and permitting lateral relativeshifting, said means comprising a plurality'of spaced elements secured "by their ends to said jwalls and spanning the space between saidwalls, each element comprising two parts pivotally secured together by tying elements extending through relatively 'alined apertures 'of a width longitudinally ofsaid' connector elements corresponding to the thickness of said tying elements, and of a length laterally a distance sub.- stantially in excess of the thickness of said tying elements.
5; In a'furnace wall; a lining, anda bounding wall; means for maintaining the two walls spaced apart a fixed distance, and permitting lateral relative shifting, said meansicomprising a plurality of spaced elements secured by their'ends to said walls and spanning. the space between said walls, each element comprisingtwo .parts loosely secured together .by tying elements extending throughrelatively alined apertures ofa width longitudinally of said connector. elements corresponding tothe thickness of said tying elements, andof a length laterallyja distance substantially in excess of the, thickness of said tying elements.