US 1944385 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 23, 1934. H. T. WHEELER 1,944,385
FLAME EXTINGUISHER FOR STUFFING BOXES Filed Nov. 7, 1930 eets Sheet l /8 I INVENTOR. 13 4 .2
Jan. 23, 1934. H T. WHEELER 1,944,385
FLAME EXTINGUISHER FOR STUFFING BOXES Filed Nov 71 5930 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 39 33 .34 I 23 Igg 4 37 22 3 INVENTOR.
Jan. 23, 1934.. H. T. WHEELER FL1 \ME EXTINGUISHER FOR STUFFING BOXES Filed Nov. 7, 1930 5 Sheets-Sheet 15 IN VEN TOR.
Fatented Jan. 23, 1934 oarrso srxrss P T-stir FLAME EXTINGUISHER FOR STUFFING BOXES This invention relates to certain new and use ful improvements in stufiing-box packing for high temperatures and refers particularly to the power packings of gas engines, and its chief ad- 5 vantage resides in its capability of extinguishing the flame which exists during the propelling stroke, reducing the latter to a hot non-burning gas before it comes in contact with the packmg.
A further advantage is that the moving element in contact with the flame contains a means for extinguishing the flame by reducing its temperature and a method of stopping axial movement of the flame along the rod.
Another advantage is a series of connected chambers equipped with fine heat absorbing screens which permit equal pressure on both sides of the moving element. a o
A still further advantage is the absence of any '20 springs on the moving element exposed to the high temperatures, the weight and position of the moving element beingcontrolled by counterbalancing weights.
A still further and important advantage is the means used to remove carbon from the extinguisher without cessation of operation.
With the foregoing advantages in view, other objects and advantages of construction will become apparent as the description proceeds, accompanied by the drawings, wherein:
Figure 1 is a cross-sectional view of a gas engine stuffing-box extinguisher constructed ac-- cording to this invention.
Figure 2 is an elevation of the primary extinguishing screens.
Figure 3 is a perspective 'of a section of the moving member in crosssection.
Figure 4 is an elevation of the moving element in its housing.
Figure 5 is a plan view various cross-sections.
Figure 6 is a perspective view of the floating composite member and the counter-balancing weights. V
Figure 7 is an elevation of the secondary extinguishing screens.
Referring now especially to Figure 1, the engine cylinder-head contains the stufling-box chamber for the packing and the extinguisher assembly; the packing cage 3 is held in place by several threaded bolts 2, 2, and the packing gland 4 adjusts the fibrous packings rings 8 around rod 7 by means of the nuts 6, 6 on the studs 5, 5. Between the packing cage 3 and the bottom of the stufiing-box is the extinguisher asof the extinguisher in sembly; the primary screen compartment 16 contains the screens 15, the composite floating ring operates in a housing 14, and the secondary screen compartment 10 contains the screens 9. The extinguisher compartments have pressure- 0, tight ground joint faces, so that when the packing cage 3 is drawn down tightly by the bolts 2, 2, a gasketl'i prevents any pressure from leaking by and around the stuffing-box walls.
The usual form of firing cage, or power pack- 5 ing, is a series of sectional jointed rings in a multiplicity of compartments, the leakage along the rod from one compartment to another reducing the pressure by steps and at the same time the flamefrom explosion is cooled by the suc- 7o cessive expansions until the pressure in the last compartment .is zero. In the packing and extinguisher built according to this invention, the
flame of explosion is guided thru the passages. filled with line screens of heat-absorbing materials, so made and arranged that the flame is gradually cooled without expansion until it. is below the kindling temperature of the mixed gases. As each stratum of mixture attempts to ignite the vmixture between adjacent screens, the 30 screens absorb the heat and so retard flame propagation. In passing thru a series of screens, flame propagation is prevented in any desired degree. By means of this invention the flame is first cooled by an extinguisher made of heatabsorbing materials and the packing joint is easily held by a special fibrous packing, it not being the purpose of this specification to dwell on the latter.
A further dampening of flame propagation thru the screens and along the open points of the screen assemblies is secured by the burned mixtures of preceding explosions remaining in the screen chambers, this mixture being composed of carbon oxides, nitrogen, and practically no free oxygen. Referringnow especially to Figure 1 it may be observed, that as the gasket 17 prevents passage of the flame and the pressurearound the stufling-box walls, the flame is restricted to propagation and passage along the rod 7 and the rib of the compartment 16, being free to pass into screens 15, and alsoalong the rod and between the rib of compartment 14. Referring to Figure 2, that part of the gas and flame under pressure, progresses outwardly thru screens 15 until restrained by the outer wall of compartment 16 and is cooled by the screens thru which it passes. That part of the flaming mixture which passes by the wall of compartment 14 may pass thru the moving screens 13, or attempt to pass between the wearing rings 12 and the rod '7. To make apparent the passage of the gas at this point, Figure 3 represents the screens 13 riveted by pins 24 to the wearing ring 12, the fire section blocks 11, 11, being of suitable materials to dampen and cool any flame that may pass under the Wearing ring 12. Housing strip 21 maintains alignment of the composite screens, wearing rings and fire blocks, and any gas that passes thru screens 13 may go thru the holes 25 and into the open chamber of compartment 14.
The compartment 14 houses the floating member of the extinguisher as will be seen by reference to the elevational view of Figures 4 and 5. The weight of the floating composite member is counterbalanced by weights 35 and 36 to remove any downward weight on the rod '7. The floating member is composed of screens 13, the wearing sections 12, 26, 2'7 and 28 and the series of fire blocks 11, 11, etc. The wearing ring joints are cut on lines parallel to tangents at the rod surface at the open points of the ring sections. The joints are stepped to assist in assembling, and to allow for wear. The joints of the upper section 28 are out so that they overlap the joint faces of both adjacent sections 26 and 2'7, thus transferring most of the weight of section 28 to the side sections 26 and 2'7, the latter sections in turn bearing on the flexible housing 21. The joint surfaces of the bottom section 12 are lapped inside the joint surfaces of sections 26 and 27, so that the weight of section 12 is transferred to the latter sections. Referring now especially to Figure 6, the housing 21 is a flexible strip having anchor brackets 23 and 34 attached to each end at the bottom opening. Housing 21 is perforated around its circumference 'over thescreens 13 to permit free passage of the gas outwardly from rod '7. Chain 33 is attached to counterweight 35, then passed upwardly over shive pulley 4'7, passes over pulley 19 and downward over pulley 48 and around housing 21, crossing the open end of the latter and is attached to anchor bracket 23. Chain 22 is attached to counterweight 36, passes upwardly over pulley 29, passes over shive pulley 18, and downward over pulley 31, around housing 21 and across the open end of the latter to be attached to anchor bracket 34. Pulleys 31 and 4'7 are rotatable on pin 32: pulleys 18 and 19 are rotatable on pin 20, and pulleys 29 and 48 are rotatable on pin 30. Pins 20, 30 and 32 are securely attached to housing 14.
Referring now especially to Figures 4 and 5: holes 37, 38, 39 and 40 are made thru the wall of compartment 14 to bypass any pressure from compartment 16 thru and into compartment 10, thereby removing any side pressure against the moving member, or composite ring which is composed of the screens 13, Wearing ring sections 12, 26, 2'7 and 28 and the fire block sections, 11, 11, etc. Passages 37a, 38a, 39a and 40a connect the respective by-pass holes to the outer chamber of compartment 14, thereby assuring equilibrium of pressure in all of the screened passages and compartments.
Figures 1, 4 and 5 plainly show a'system of injecting vapour producing liquids into the screen sections, the use of which will be explained under operation. Referring then especially to Figure 1, the pipe 43 is connected to a source of liquid thru valve. 49 and extends thruthe packing cage 3, thru screens 19 and the wall of compartment 10, then thru the wall of compartment 14 to enter the screens 15 in compartment 16. A plan view of the location of this liquid carrying line is shown particularly in Figure 5, and an end elevation in Figure 4 shows the series of openings 41, 43, 44 and 46 which are used for the same purpose.
In operation, as the explosive mixture is being compressed, the screens in compartments 16 and 10 and the moving screens 13 are filled with the mixture owing to the open nature of all passages, and by means of the by-pass holes 3'7, 38, 39 and 40, as well as passages 41 and 42 which act as bypasses. At the time of ignition, flame propagation proceeds along the rod '7 and enters the ex tinguisher thru compartment 16, screens 15 and moving screen 13. The flame is gradually cooled by coming in contact with the successive parts and layers of the screens until the temperature is reduced below the kindling point, or that point at which burning will exist; a hot gaseous mixture is the result. As the source of the flame is in the cylinder, the flame cannot propagate thru all of the screens, and that part of the mixture close to the fibrous is not ignited. The soft packing rings 8 make a very tight joint on the rod, preventing any pressure escape which would carry streams of flaming mixture along the rod by which the mixture could be ignited in all parts of the extinguisher; the flame is therefore confined to the extinguisher compartments. The flaming mixture is cooled below the kindling temperature and a hot gas comes in contact with the soft fibrous rings 8.
A further feature of operation which makes the extinguisher very efficient is that'after the first few explosions, burned gases are left in the screen chambers and as the soft packing rings 8 prevent any circulation of air or addition of fresh mixture during the scavenging stroke, the burned gases persist in the screens and dilute the fresh mixture forced in on the compression stroke. This mixing of fresh gases and burned, dilutes the gases below that point necessary for burning or ex plosion, so that there is little or no flame propagation past the first screen layers. An effective amount of unburnable gas is therefore at all times in front of the soft packing.
A still further feature of operation which distinguishes this invention is the removal of carbon and foreign matters. In the usual metallic ring construction, lubrication of all moving parts during operation is a necessity: any operation Which would remove the lubricant from the rod would permit cutting of the packing rings. The problem of removing carbon always has been diflicult, not being possible during operation as kerosene, gasoline or some light oil must be used to soak the carbon loose, therefore necessitating a shutdown and frequent dismantling of the packing to scrape the deposits. In this invention, however, the removal of carbon is best done during operation, utilizing the highest temperature of the explosion. Vapour producing liquids, such as water, carbon tetrachloride, etc., are injected thru the pipe 43, and as they come in contact with the hot screens, penetrate the cracks in the'c'arbon coatings. The vapour between the screen and the carbon is expanded and contracted by the intermittent heating and cooling of the screens, the carbon flakes are quickly pried loose and is blown out thru the openings 41 and 42. Thus it is possible to maintain this type of screen extinguisher for long periods of operation, the only attention being that applied externally and without stopping the machine or opening the packing.
As concerns the'operation of the extinguisher device when exposed to' intermittent" flashes of high temperature gases having no flameysuch as superheated steam, the screens 1 can be arranged to reduce'thetemperature a desired amount i'n a given period of time, so that lubrication can-be maintained in'the main 'packingwithout carbonization. And as further concerns the use of screens before -a soft packing in conditions that the expansion produces freezing of the element in the packing, the relation of the surfaces of the screens may be reversed so that they store heat during the compression stroke, and radiate during the expansion, thus providing warm gases for the packing.
A further application of this device has been discovered, that when liquids, or a mixture of liquids and vapours, or vapours with gases are injected into the compartments intermittently, that a lowering of temperature occurs, the construction being altered to permit the device to function properly.
As may readily be seen the construction of the compartments and cages is such that the respective parts may be removed for cleaning and repairing.
It is believed that the operation and many advantages of this invention will be understood readily, also that the design may be altered considerably to meet local conditions without departing from the spirit of the invention, which I do define under the following claims:
I claim: 7
1. In a stufling-box containing a rod exposed to high temperature gases and vapours subjected to pressure, a plurality of L-shaped cups forming a series of compartments, an outer case containing packing which seals said rod, said cage bearing against said cups, a porous heat absorbing screen structure positioned in each of said compartments of such a porosity that increase of pressure will cause said gases and vapours to penetrate said structures, said structures absorbing the heat from said gases and lowering their temperature.
2. In a stufiing-box containing a rod intermittently exposed to high temperature gases, a plurality of metallic wire screen structures housed within a series of cups held pressure tight against the bottom of said stuffing-box by an outer cage having means to seal said rod, said screens absorbing heat from said gases during increase of pressure and rediating heat to said gases during decrease of said pressure.
3. At the bottom of a stufling-box member containing a rod intermittently exposed to high temperature gases and vapours, a primary and a secondary compartment formed by cups held pressure tight against said stuffing-box walls, a porous reticulated heat absorbing structure positioned in said primary compartment thru which said gases and vapours must pass to enter the outer portions of said secondary compartment, absorption of heat during said passage reducing the temperature of said gases and vapours to a desired degree.
4. In a stufling-box containing a rod intermittently exposed to mixtures of high temperature gases and vapours, having a series of cups held pressure-tight against said stufling-box walls, a primary compartment having means to reduce the temperature of any gases which penetrate therein, a secondary compartment formed by said cups with radial walls between which is positioned a. composite movable member in close contact with said rod and movable radially with said rod thereby deflecting said gases away from the surfaceof said rod, that part of said'composite member adjacent to thesourceof said gases being comprised of a porous heat absorbing structure thru which said gasesmay passafter being deflected to enter the outer portions of said secondary compartment, the temperature of saidgasesbeingreduced to a desired degree by said' pass'agel v 5. In a stuffing-box containing a rod intermittently exposed to high temperature gases and vapours and having a series of cups held pressure tight against said stufling-bo-x walls thereby forming a series of compartments, a primary compartment at the bottom of said box having means to reduce the temperature of any gases which may pass thru it, a secondary compartment containing a composite movable member in close contact with said rod and movable radially with said rod, said composite member consisting of a porous annular ring adjacent to the source of said gases, a segmental annular wearing ring and a trailing segmental ring of suitable material, said porous ring being a metallic screen wire structure thru which said gases may pass outwardly to reduce their temperature when deflected by said wearing ring which is comprised of a plurality of tangential jointed segments, said trailing ring being comprised of a plurality of segments dovetailed to said wearing ring segments, said composite member thus formed being housed by a flexible strip, the entire weight of the composite assembly being counterbalanced by weights attached tosaid flexible strip.
6. In a stufling-box containing a rod intermit tently exposed to high temperature gases and vapours, a series of cups forming primary, secondary and succeeding compartments and held pressure tight in said stufling-box by an outer cage containing means to seal said rod, said primary compartment having means to reduce the temperature of gases which may pass thru it, said secondary compartment having means to deflect gases away from the surface of said rod coincident with means to reduce the temperature thereby, said succeeding compartment housing a heat-absorbing structure which absorbs heat from such gases as may pass into it from the primary and secondary compartments, said gases and vapours being cooled to a desired degree before coming in contact with the sealing means in the outer cage.
'7. In a stufling-box member intermittently exposed to high temperature gases and vapours, a plurality of interconnected compartments, means therein to reduce the temperature of any gases and vapours which may pass thru said compartments, a passage enclosed in the walls of said compartments, and opening inwardly into said compartments, the outer end of said passage being connected to a source of vapour producing materials.
8. In a stuffing-box member intermittently exposed to explosive carbon depositing gaseous mixtures of the character used in gas engines, a plurality of interconnected compartments, and means therein including metallic straining ma terial, to reduce the temperature of any gases and vapours which may pass thru them.
9. In a stuffing-box member held pressure tight in said box by an outer cage having means to seal said rod against intermittent high temperature liquids and vapours under pressure, a plurality of interconnected compartments having means to reduce the temperature of any of series of cups forming chambers about said rod, a packing assembly adjustable to hold said cups in position, foraminous, porous, heat absorbent layers of material in said cups, said layers acting to absorb heat from said gaseous mixtures to lower the temperature thereof and protect said packing assembly.
HARLEY T. WHEELER\