|Publication number||US1946278 A|
|Publication date||Feb 6, 1934|
|Filing date||Sep 22, 1931|
|Priority date||Jun 10, 1931|
|Publication number||US 1946278 A, US 1946278A, US-A-1946278, US1946278 A, US1946278A|
|Inventors||Martin Elfving Thore|
|Original Assignee||Martin Elfving Thore|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (15), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Feb. 6, N34. T, ELFVING 1,946,223
WASHING MACHINE Filed Sept. 22, 1931 THORE MARTIN ELFVING INVENTOR BYMU/IMVQ ATTORNEYS atenterl Feh; 5, 19%
WASHING Mao Thore Martin Eli'ving, Stockholm, Sweden Application September 22,
1931, Seriai No.
564,330, and in Sweden June 10, 1931' 12 Claims.
The present invention relates to washing machines exclusively operated by heat. More par ticularly it relates to such washing machines in which the mechanical washing power is derived from intermittent pressure variations caused by intermittently cooled condensers disposed in the vapor space of a boiler. Such pressure variations will in turn compel the washing liquid to perform a reciprocating flow through or past the articles to be cleaned. In such machines it is a known measure to use the washing liquid proper as a medium for vapor development and tostore the vapor .iormed in closed chambers disposed above the washing liquid level and provided with condensers. Such machines are described inthe rU. S. application. No. 523,143. This known ar-' rangement has, however, the inconvenience that if the washing liquid communicatesdirectly with the atmosphere it will require a temperature or about one hundred degrees centigrade to start boiling. This temperature is often most unsuitable, particularly in case silk or woolen clothes have to be washed which require a considerably lower washing temperature.
The present invention has for its object to bring about the desired pressure changes in the apparatus without the necessity of heating the washing liquid proper to the boiling point. This is brought about by separating the vapor generator or boiler proper from the liquid in the washing chamber by means of a movable, yield mg heat insulating partition whereby the vapor developed never will contact with the washing liquid or the washing chamber walls. The yieldling partition may have various forms, it might,
by way of example, consist of a diaphragmof rubber or any other suitable flexible material. In any case, this partition will serve the'same purpose as a piston in a steam engine, on the one side of which an excess of pressure or a vacuum is exerted by the vapor generated in the boiler. The load on this piston is then constituted by the washing liquid and the articles disposed therein on the opposite side of the partition.
' In washingapparatus operated by a periodical a minimum and at the end of this period ain restored to its normal value. brought about by letting the gas supply be con= trolled by the motions of the movable diaphn. in shifting between the positions taken up d1n'-= ing the pressure and condensing periods respectively, or by the provision of means iorcontrolling the gas supply in dependency of the period= ical water supply to the condenser. Both em bodiment's will be more closely described in the following. v
It is of importance to provide a reliable device for the periodical supply of cooling water to the condenser and such a device is therefore also within the scope. of this invention. Ac cording to the invention a siphon is adapted to draw cooling liquid from a liquid container to the condenser. Said container is provided with inlet means for the continuous supply of liquid, the input capacity oi the inlet means being, however, considerably lessthan the output capacity of the siphon, whereby the container will be periodically emptied through the siphon whereby the condenser in the boiler is cooled intermittently.
In case the yielding partition between the washing chamber and the boiler is constituted by a diaphragm it is or great importance to avoid the occurrence of excessiv pressures endangering the strength of the diaphragm. Therefore the invention provides for a safety device adapted to shut oil? the supply of gas to the burner in case the cooling water becomes scarce so that dangerous pressures in theboiler' are avoided. There are also provided automatic shutting oil means controlled by the pressure in the boiler so as to operate upon the pressure exceeding a predetermined value. By these means the gas is automatically restricted both in case the intervals oi time between the cooling periods be too great or in case the cooling water supply should fail.
The ilWEnfiOll will be more closely described with reference to the accompanying drag showing an embodimentoi the invention.
The machine comprises a was chamber l. having a bottom 2 preferably convex. on its outside, from which the washing chamber co i cates with the boiler or steam generator 8. The boiler is provided with a heating surface ljen= 'larged by corrugation or in other suitable more ner. The boiler is provided with a valve 5 disposed somewhat above the pattern of the boiler so that upon openmg said valve a certain omen This can be Nib ice 7 tity of liquid is retained in the boiler. The boiler is heated by a gas burner 6 or any other'suitable heating means. Above the bottom of the washing chamber 1 there is disposed a tightly sealing yielding diaphragm '7 of rubber or the like which in its normal position conforms with the convexity of the washing chamber bottom. Above,
the yielding diaphragm separating the bottom 2 from the washing chamber proper there is disposed a detachable lid 8 having an opposite.convexity to that'of the washing chamber bottom 2. This lid 8 is provided with passages or apertures for the washing liquid so that said liquid may perform a reciprocating flowing through the lid without displacing the washing articles 35. The lid 8 is detachably mounted by means of known fixtures 9, such as bayonet clutches or the like, so that the lid upon being turned a fourth of a revolution may be detached from the washing chamber. The washing chamber is in open communication with the external air or atmosphere and is provided with a draw oif valve 10. Washing liquid and the articles to be washed 35 are put into the washing chamber 1 the articles or washing clothes being then carried by the lid 8 and preferably held in position by means of a perforated lid 11 disposed above and resting upon the articles during the washing. The boiler is lled with a small quantity of liquid which must not necessarily consist of water but may be any suitable evaporable liquid;
It has to be particularly noted that steam development and condensing in the boiler for generating mechanical washing power accordingly takes place quite independently of the temperature of the washing liquid. The boiler can thus fers mechanical motion to the washing chamber through the intermedium of a yielding diaphragm. Above the liquid level the boiler is provided with a condenser coil 12 which through a funnel 13 .is periodically supplied with cooling water from a siphon device 14 known per'fse which periodically draws water from the container 15. The container 15 is provided with an inlet pipe 16 communicating with the water main" and supplying a continuous inflow of water into the container the quantity of which is preferably restricted by means of the choke cartridge 17. The condenser coil has an outlet 18 for the waste water.
The washing chamber proper may be provided with a surrounding covering 19 for conducting the combustion gases from the gas burner around the washing chamber thereby preventing the cooling of the washing liquid during the washing procedure. Themachine is supported on a base 33. a. The gas burner 6 is supplied with'gas through the gas pipe 20 having a number of regulating valve devices for controlling the gas supply so as to prevent the occurrence of excessive pressures in the boiler and to bring about an economical operation.
There is thus disposed a receptacle 21 communicating, on the one side, with the two ends 36, 37' of the gas pipe-and, on the other, with a pipe 24 connecting the receptacle with the interior of the boiler 3. Fixed to the walls of the receptacle there is disposed a diaphragm 22 preferably of rubber which normally takes up the position shown on the wing. Upon an increase in the boiler pressure, however, the diaphragm 22 will expand to the left on the drawing while restricting the pipe opening 36. An excessive boiler ing manner.
pressure will thus rediice the fuel supp y to the burner 6. There is also provided a narrow bypass 38 to keep the gas'fiame alive always.
Through the float device 25 disposed in the water storing container 15 a gas valve 27 is operated by the arm 26 in such a manner that the full gas current is let through. during the movement of the float from its lowermost to its uppermost position. when the liquid in the container 15 has risen to a certain'level as indicated in full lines the valve 27 is shut and opened again when the float 25 during the discharge through the siphon 14 has sunk to a certain low level as indicated in dash and dot lines. During this period of restriction a certain small gas quantity will, however, pass through a by-pass 28 of suflicient section to maintain the gas burner burning all the time.
A similar type of regulating device cooperates with the gas valve 29-included in the same gas pipe 20. The valve 29 is, however, here operated by the arcuate rod 31 cooperating with the arm 30. The rod 31 is secured to the yielding diaphragm and participates therefore in its movements. The connection is here adjusted in such a manner that the gas supply is shut off in the upper position of the diaphragm but again opened as soon as the diaphragm has reached its lower position. Also in this casethe gas-valve 29 is provided with a by-pass 32 through which a Attention is particularly called to the fact that arms 26 and 30 preferably are provided with.
lost motion devices 39 and 40 respectively to render possible the operation above described.
The washing machine operates in the follow- The steam generator or boiler 3 is from the beginning filled with a small quantity of evaporable liquid, such as water, and also preferably evacuated so that the greater portion of the'enclosed air is removed. The quantity of liquid in the boiler is preferably so small as possible to obtain the shortest possible heating period and to reduce as 'much as possible the heat losses during'the alternate periods of steam development and steam condensing. The washing articles and the washing liquid having a as the pressure increases in the boiler the yielding diaphragm 7 is forced from its lower position 7 to its uppermost position 34 indicated in dash and dot lines. The diaphragm 7 then pushes the portion of the washing liquid confined between the positions '7 and '34 upwards and forces it to pass the articles or otherwise bring about powerful currents in the -..Washing chamber whereby a mechanical cleaning effect is obtained. As soon as the container 15 is filled with cooling water the siphon 14 starts operation and draws cooling water to the cooling coil 12 whereby condensing of the steam takes'place in the boiler 3, On account of the rapid reduction in pressure in the boiler caused thereby the rubber diaphragm 'l is retracted to its position 7 which results in a violent liquid current in the washing chamber in opposite direction. As soon as the cooling water supply has ceased on account of the siphon 14 having emptied the container 15 a steam development period starts again and so on. The immediate output capacity of the siphon is essentially greater than the input capacity of the described inlet valve. This condition is quite positive as otherwise a periodical emptying action of the siphon would be impossible. If for example the output capacity of the siphon were equal or smaller than the input capacity of the inlet valve, the water level in the vessel 15 would remain stationary or rise respec-- tively in proportion to the difference between input and output. The flow through the siphon would then never cease. If now the inlet valve is restricted to just such an extent that'the in-- put through the valve falls slightly below the output through the siphon, the water level will fall in proportion to the difierence between the output and, the input until the mouth of the siphon 14 in the vessel 15 is reached or passed, when the flow through the siphon will at once cease. As there is no output, the inlet valve will now prevail and fill the vessel to the higher level indicated on the drawing, whereupon the emptying operation of the siphon again starts automatically, and so on.
in the manner described above, a powerful reciprocating how of washing liquid is obtained in the washing chamber. This reciprocating pumping of liquid is caused by the alternate excess of pressure and vacuum respectively in the boiler whereby it is rendered possible to producevery great forces and a very strong mechanical washing action. On account of the heat in-. sulating properties of the diaphragm the washing liquid in the washing chamber must not necessarily have the same temperature as the boiling temperature of the liquid in the boiler. If;
water is used both as washing liquid and as evaporable medium in the boiler it has been found that the temperature of the washing liquid may be down to thirty or forty degrees centrigrade without obstructing the steam development in the boiler normally taking place at a temperature of one hundred degrees centigrade. The machine is therefore particularly suitable for washing sill: and woolen articles. The advantages are also enhanced by the fact that the washing method is very harmless for more delicate articles as no hard mechanical parts work thereon. The power developed by the boiler in the reciprocating movement of the rubber diaphragm may be utilized in various manners in the washing liquid. Thelid 8 may thus, by way or example, be provided with nozzles through which the water is pressed in powerful jetsin which case the kinetic energy developed may be used tor washing purposes.
During the condensing period the gas burner should, of course, not operate with a full gas current as the heat then,supplied only obstructs the condensing desired. The gas quantity supplied to the burner should therefore be regulated in time with the intermittent cooling so that the gas current during the flow of water through the condenser coil is restricted to a minimum amount and increased as, much as possible during the period oi steam development during which period the cooling coil is empty. This may take place by means. of the regulat ing device above described in which the float 25 in the water container 15 regulates the gas quantity in time with the cooling water supply whereas another device by means of a gearing 30, 31 motion from the yielding diaposition.
phregm 'l to a valve 29 to regulate the gas quantity in correspondence to the diaphragm The latter device is very important as at the same time security against overheating is obtained in case the cooling water supply for any reason should fail. If the cooling water supply is shut oii the gas development will take place until the diaphragm '7 is forced up to its upper position 3a in ,which. however, the gas supply is choked by means of the valve 29 so that the steam development stops. There is also another safety device which starts operation upon the failure of cooling water, i. e. the device 21 shutting oii the gas supply upon the pressure in the boiler 3 reaching a certain predetermined value which dependsupon the dimensioning or the diaphragm 22 and should be selected higher than the pressure required for developing normal washing effect.
In a washing apparatus of the kind above described a very powerful reciprocating motion of washing liquid is obtainable whereby an efiicient mechanical washing action is obtained without using any movable parts which may wear or destroy the clothes. It is possible to let the boiler. operate as a steam engine with a high efliciency at about atmospheric pressure and at a temperature corresponding to that of the boilingliquid, while at the same time a lower or higher temperature of the washing liquid is maintained, without disturbing the boiler operato obtain the best possible economy with the heat supplied. Further the condenser surface should have a certain relation to the steam quantity developed so that an efficient condensing takes place with the least possible water quan-- tity. The condenser should therefore have the greatest possible surface for bringing about the strongest possible pressure variation. The bottom of the washing chamber constituting at the same time a wall of the boiler must be insulated from the other parts of the washing chamher which preierably may be done by clamping the edges or the rubber diaphragm between the chamber wall and the bottom as may beseen from the drawing.
By a boiler entirely separated from the washing chamber and operating with a very small liquid quantity a very short starting time and very small operating losses are obtained. On account of the pressure variations in the boiler the boiler liquid will, of course, change its boiling point which results in a loss or liquid heat for each stroke being equal to the liquid quantity multiplied by the variation in boiling temperature in degrees centlgrade. If the liquid quantity in the boiler is maintained very small this loss may therefore be reduced to a negligible quantity in comparison with radiation losses etc.
By ,the present invention a very satisfactory gas operated washing machine is brought about which is suitable for all kinds of washing articles and which possesses a very high fliciency referred to the heat supply. By the above described safety devices a complete security is obtained that no mistakes inmanipulating the machine, or any failure in the'water supply may cause any accidents in operation.
lclaimz- I l. A washing machine having a washing chamber adapted to contain a washing fluid, a boiler disposed below said chamber. liquid tight yielding partition separating said washing chamno V 'said heating means, and operable means conber from said boiler and forming the bottom of the former, means fonheating said boiler,
to form vapor therein to cause the partition to move, and means for intermittently condensing the vapor formed.
2. A washing machine having a washing chamber adapted to contain a washing fluid, a boiler closed to the atmosphere, by a liquid tight yielding partition separating said washing chamber from said'boiler, means for heating said boiler to form vapor therein in order to cause the partition to move and means for intermittently condensing the vapor formed.
3.-A washing machine having a washing chamber adapted to contain a washing fluid, a boiler closed to the atmosphere, by a liquid tight yielding partition separating said washing chamber from said boiler, means for heating said boiler to form vapor therein'in order to cause the partition to move, means for intermittently condensing the vapor formed, and means for holding the articles to be washed in definite positions in the washing chamben' 4. A washing machine having a washing chamber adapted to contain awashing fluid, a boiler in .said machine which is closed to the atmosphere, by a liquid tight yielding partition separating said washing chamber from said boiler, means for heating said boiler to form vapor therein in order'to cause the partition to move, means for intermittently condensing the vapor formed, a cooling liquid container having inlet means for providing a continuous supply of liquid, and a siphon adapted to draw cooling liquid intermittently from said container to the condensing means, the immediate output capacity of the siphon being essentially greater than the input capacity of the inlet means in order to ensure a periodical emptying action of said siphon.
5. A washing machine having a washing chamber adapted to contain a washing fluid, a boiler in said machine closed to the atmosphere, by a liquidv tight yielding partition separating said washing chamber from said boiler, heating means for heating the boiler to form vapor therein in order to cause the partition to move, means for condensing the vapor formed, means for intermittently passing cooling liquid through said condensing means, a heating energy supply valve for controlling the amount of heat developed by trolled by the cooling liquid for intermittently shifting said valve according to the cooling liquid flow.
'6. A washing machine having a washing chamber adapted to, contain a washing fluid, a boiler closed to the atmosphere, by a liquid tight yield- ,7. A washing machine having a washing cham-' ber adapted to contain liquid, a boiler closed to the atmosphere, by a liquid tight yielding partition separating said washing chamber from said boiler, heating means for heating the boiler to form vapor therein in order to cause 'said partition to move, means for intermittently condensing the vapor formed, a heating energy supply valve for controlling the amount-of heat developed by said heating means, and means connected with the yielding partition for shifting said valve intermittently according to the partition movements.
8. A washing machine having a washing chamclosed to the atmosphere, by a liquid tight yielding partition separating said washing chamber from said boiler, which is yieldable between expanded and retracted positions, heating means for heating the boiler to form vapor thereinin order to cause the partition to move, means for intermittently condensing the vapor formed, a heating energy supply valve shiftable into restricted and open positions for controlling the amount of heat developed by said heating means, and means connected with said yieldable partition for holding the valve in a restricted position in the expanded position of the partition and in open position in the retracted position of the partition.
' 9. A washing machine having a washing chamber adapted to contain washing liquid, a boiler bar adapted to contain washing liquid, a boiler closed to the atmosphere, by a liquid tight yield-- ing'partition separating said washing chamber from said boiler and yieldable between expanded and retracted positions, heating means for heating the boiler to form vapor thereinto cause the partition to move, means for intermittently condensing the-vapor formed, a heating energy supply valve shiftable into restricted and open positions for controlling the-amount of heat developed by said heating means, and operable means connected with the partition to shift the valve device into restricted position during and before the end of the expansion movement of the partition and 12- ber from said boiler, heating means for heating the boiler to form vapor therein in order to cause condensing the vapor formed, a heating energy supply valve for controllin the amount of heat delivered to the boiler by sa' heating means, and valve operating means communicating with the boiler for restricting the ripening of the valve at excess pressures in said boiler.
11.- A machine having a chamber adapted to contain a fluid, a boiler closed to the atmosphere,
the partition to move, means for intermittently,
by a liquid tight yielding partition separating the interior ofrsaid chamber from said boiler, means for heating said boiler-to form vapor therein in order to cause the partition to move,'means tor intermittently condensing the vapor formed.
12. A machine having a chamber adapted to contain a fluid, a boiler closed to the atmosphere,
by a liquid tight yielding'partition separating the interior of said chamber from said boiler, means order to cause the partition to move, means for -for heating said boiler to form vapor therein, in
intermittently condensing the vapor formed, and.
THORE MARTIN ELFVING.
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|U.S. Classification||68/192, 68/15|