US 1946454 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
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Patented Feb. 1934 UNITED STA 1,046,454 FLUID-Moron DEEP WELL PUMP Clarence J. Coberly, Los Angeles. Calif.. assigner to Kobe, Inc., Huntington Park, Calif., a corporation of Galilornia Application February 16, 1927. Serial No. 168,516
2o claim. (u. 121-150) My invention relates to deep well pumping apparatus and more particularly to fluid-motor deep well pumps.
This type of pump includes a iuld motor and a pump associated therewith, and is adapted to be disposed in the lower end of the oil string' o! a deep well. A string of pump tubing is extended downward through the oil string and connected with the pump. A motor operatingfiuid, vusually clean oil, is forced downward, preferably between the tubing and the oil string, this iiuid operating the motor so as to cause the pump to force well oil, mixed with exhausted operating fluid, upward through the pump tubing.
In fluid-motor deep well pumps, it is extremely important that the motor cylinder have as large a diameter as possible. This diameter has been limited in these pumps, as previously made, because fluid conducting pipes, valves, or other parts of the mechanism have necessarily been disposed betweenthe motor cylinder and the oil string. The inside diameter of the oil string usually being small and rarely exceeding six inches, the diameter of the motor cylinder was thus correspondingly limited.
It is an object of my invention to provide a fluid-motor deep well pump in which no parts of the pump are required to be disposed between the outer wall of the motor cylinder and the inner wall of the oil string, thus permitting the motor cylinder to be made of a maximum possible diameter.
It is in the interest of economy and correspondingly an object of my invention to provide a fluid-motor deep well pump in which small groups of parts, which slidingly interact, may,
p when worn, be replaced by new parts so that no new part will have to slidingly interact with an old worn part retained in the pump.
It is still another object of my invention to provide a fluid-motor deep well pump in which operating fluid is admitted to the opposite ends of the motor cylinder by individual valves which may be individually replaced when worn.
In most fluid-motor deep well pumps previously manufactured the parts have beencomplicated and diiiicult to produce, thus making the pump very expensive and reducing its commercial possibilities.
It is another object of my invention to produce a Huid-motor deep well pump in which the parts are relativeiy simple to produce and which can therefore be constructed at a comparatively low cost.
The large number of parts which have previously been used in the construction of fluid-motor deep well pumps has required a large stock of parts to be kept on hand by users of these pumps for the purpose of repair.
A further object of my invention is to provide a uid-motor deep well pump in which a considerable number of parts are interchangeable duplicates of each other, thereby reducing the number of different kinds of spare parts needed to be kept in stock for repairing pumps in service.
The main operating fluid valve in some of the previously produced uuid-motor deep well pumps is shifted by operating iiuid under the control of' an auxiliary valve, the latter comprising a member shifted by contact with the piston of the mo. tor during a certain portionnf its travel.
It isa still further object of my invention to eliminate the auxiliary valve without losing its function, thus simplifying the pump and decreasing its cost without loss in eiiiciency.
When a fluid-motor deep well pump is installed in the bottom of a well, the space between the lower end of the pump and the o il string is shut off by a packer or by engagement of a surface on the pump with a valve seat provided in the lower end ofthe oil string. When it is desired to draw the pump from the well, as for the purpose of repairs, the initial lifting of, the pump tubing raises the pump from its seat or displaces the packing in a. manner to allow the operating uid 86 between the pump tube and the oil string to drain downward into the well. The pump tubing, however, is iilled with oil being pumped to the surface of the ground and if this oil is allowed to remain in the tubing during its withdrawal from the well, 90
the oil gushes from each stand of tubing as it is uncoupled and causes what is called a wet job.
It is therefore a further object of my invention to provide a fluid-motor deep well pump in which the initial movement of the pump tubing in the withdrawal of the pump from the bottom of the well causes the oil in the pump tubing to bleed into the well.
Through the introduction of gummy substances into the pump at the bottom of the well the valves of the pump sometimes are caused to operate slower than their normal speed, thus causing a knocking of the piston against the heads oi' the motor cylinder.
It is a still further object of my invention to provide an oil cushion for the pistonat the ends of its stroke so as to prevent any possibility Vof the piston knocking against the body of the pump.
In order that a fluid-motor deep well pump may attain the highest possible emciency it is desirable that the ow of oil exhausted from the pump be as nearly uniform as possible.
It is therefore another object of my invention to provide a uid-motor deep well pump in which the fluctuations in velocity of the pumped oil are compensated for so as to produce a substantially continuous flow of oil from the pump.
Further objects and advantages will be made manifest in the following description and in the accompanying drawings, in which -2 Y Loman Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of a well and shows a preferred embodiment of the pump of my invention installed therein.
Fig. 2 is adiagrammatic vertical sectionalview of the pump of my' invention.
Figs. 3 to 'l inclusive are vertical sectional views which, when placed one beneath theother in consecutive order, provide a complete vertical sectional view of the pump of my invention and illustrates the preferred manner in which this pump is constructed. The sectional views of these iigures are taken o n the lines A-A of Figs. 8, 9 and 10.
Figs. 8, 9 and 10 are transverse sectional views taken on the correspondingly numbered lines of- Fig. 5.
Fig. 11 is a perspective view of a complementary pair of valve body members partially broken away to illustrate the structure thereof and disposed in the proper relation for assembling.
1. Fig. 12 is a fragmentary perspective view of one of the valversleeves of my invention.
Fig. 13 is a fragmentary perspective view of a portion of the piston plunger of my invention, showing connecting pockets formed in the outer surface thereof.
Referring to the drawings in detail, Fig. l shows an oil well 20 having an outer casing 21, the casing 21 being provided at its upper end with a casing head 22 for the purpose of conducting gas from the well through a pipe 23.
A string of oil casing 24 is disposed throughout the length of the well 20 inside the casing 21 and terminates at its upper end. within the casing head 22 so as to connect with a pipe 25. A pump tubing 26 passes downward through the casing head 22 making a fluid-tight t with the upper end of the oil string 24. The pump tubing 26 extends downward into the oil string so that a fluid-motor deep well pump 30 which isvconnected upon the lower end of the pump tubing 26 is disposed in the bottom of the well 20. A derrick floor 31 is disposed about the upper end .of the well 20 and supports a pump 32 having a power cylinder 33 and a pump cylinder 34, the intake of the pump being connected to the pipe .35 and the pressure side of the pump being con- 'nected to the'pipe 25.
The fluid-motor deep well pump 30 which is secured to the lower end of the pump tubing 26 :includes the following members which are con- -nected consecutively from the upper to the lower end of the pump in the order named:
A pump tubing bleeder 39, a sand valve unit 40, an upper pump shell 41, an upper valve shell 42, a motor cylinder 43, a lower valve shell 44, a lower pump shell 45, a standing valve and oil string -bleeder 46, a.hook` wall packer 47, and a pump intake pipe 48.
Referring to Fig. 3, the pump tubing bleeder 39 includes a connecting collar 54 which is threadedly connected to the lower end of the pump tubing 26. The lower portion of the collar 54 is belled so as to form a cylindrical cavity 55. The cavity 55 is provided with threads 56. A bleeder valve seat member 5'? ,has an upper externally threaded sleeve 58 which is adapted to be screwed into the threads 56 so that the upper end 60 thereof is disposed in spac'ed relation with the upper end of the cavity 55. Lugs 61 are provided upon the upper end of the sleeve 58 in uniform spaced relation from each other, as shown. The bleeder valve seat member 57 is provided with a valve seat 62 about the lower mouth thereof and has a cylindrical bore 63 which is ground t9 an exact size, for a purpose to be described later. Prior to the introduction of the sleeve 58 into the cavity 55a locking tube 64 is adapted to be A extended into the cavity 55, the tube `64 having an annular head 65 provided upon its upper end so as to project outwardly therefrom. Recesses 66 are formed in the llower edge of the annular head 65 at proper intervals so that when' the sleeve 58 is screwed into the threads 56, the lugs 61 may enter the4 recesses 66 in a manner to lock the tube 64 against rotation relative to the sleeve 58 and the collar 54.
-An outer surface 680i the tube 64 is ground so as to make a fluid-tight sliding iit with the bore 63. Holes 70 are provided in a wall of the tube 64 opposite the bore 63 just above the valve seat 62, and the lower end of the tube 64, below the hole 70, is threadedly received into the internally threaded valve head 74 of a sand valve sleeve 75 of the sand valve unit 40. ,The valve head 74 has a face 76 which is complementary to and adapted to seat upon the valve seat 62 when the lugs 61 are disposed downward a given distance out of the recesses 66 in the manner illustrated in Fig. 3.
The sand valve sleeve 75 has a bore I7 which is provided with an internal annular shoulder '18 at the lower end thereof. A sand valve seat ring is adapted to rest upon the shoulder 'I8 and be held in place by a spider sleeve 81 which is contacted at its opposite ends by the ring 80 and the lower lend of the tube 64. The spider sleeve 81 has arms 82 extending inward at the upper end of a hub 83 which is adapted to guide the stem 84 of a sand valve 85 so that the latter may-freely rise from or seat upon a suitable seat provided upon the ring 80 according to the resultant force of hydraulic pressure applied thereto. An annular shoulder 88 extends outward from the outer surface of the sand valve sleeve '15, and the lower end of the sand valve sleeve below this shoulder is threaded so as to be threadedly received into the upper end of the upper pump shell 41 until the shoulder 88 rests against the end of this shell. Prior to the introduction of the lower threaded end of the sand valve sleeve 75 into the shell 41, a threaded supporting ring 90 of a gas cushion bell 91 is screwed into the upper threaded end of the shell 4l so as to be trapped therein by the sand valve sleeve '15. The ring 90 has lantern legs 92 which extend downward therefrom and are secured to a head 93 of the bell 91 in a manner to support this bell centrally within a chamber 94 of theupper pumpshell 41. Lugs 95 are provided externally upon the lower end of the bell 91 so as to center this in the chamber 94.
The lower end of the upper pump shell 41 extends downward below the lower end of the bell 91 and is threadedly received in the upper end of the upper valve shell 42. The valve shell 42 has a cylindrical valve chamber which extends downward into the shell 42 a greater portion of the length thereof. The valve chamber 100 is restricted at its lower end by an inwardly projecting annular shoulder 101 which provides an internal cylindrical valve seat 102. The valve seat 102 ends at the lower end of the valve chamber 100 where a counterbore 103 extends into the lower end of the valve shell 42 so as to form a shoulder 104. The mouth portion of the counterbore 103 is threaded as at -105 and the remainder of this counterbore is carefully ground to size for a purpose to be described later.
The interior surface 108 of the shell 42 which d adjacent the internal threads prois dispose upper end of the chamber 100 1s carevided at thi to size for a purpose to be described fully gro annular channel 109 is formed in the lefgce 10s and holes 110 communicate through fha Wall of the shell 42 between the channel 109 and the exterior of the shell, as clearly shown in Fig. 5. Intake holes112 are formed through the thickened portion 101 of the walls of the shell 42, as shown. for a purpose to be described later.
The upper and lower valve shells 42 and 44 are identical to each other and are adapted to be connected to the upper and lower ends of the motor 'cylinder 43 in inverted position relative to 'each other in a manner which will be described later. 'lhe motor cylinder 43 has a ground internal cylindrical surface 113 which enclosesa motor piston chamber 114. Racial end faces 115 of the cylinder 43 are ground perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder. surfaces 116 are provided on the extreme end portions of the cylinder 43 and external threads 117 are cut into the cylinder adjacent-to these sur.
' Hardened pistonstop rings 118 are ground externallyso as to accurately fit into the bores 103 of the valve shells 42 and 44. The end faces of each ring 118 are ground perpendicular to the axis of the ring, and the ring is provided with a tapered internal surface, the juncture of which with opposite end faces of the ring forms shoulders 119 and 120 for purposes to be described later.
A ring 118 is adapted to be placed in the bore 103 of each of the valve shells 42. and 44, as shown in Figs. 5 and 6. An end of the cylinder 43 is then inserted into each of the bores 103 so that the threads 117 engage with the valve shell threads 105 and draw the valve shells and piston cylinder together. The external surfaces 116 of the cylinder 43 accurately fit the ground bores 103, and the radial end faces 115 of the cylinder are forced into contact with radial faces of the rings 118 so that the cylinder 43 is held in accurate A piston 139 is slidably disposed in the piston chamber 114. The piston 130 includes a shell 131, the exterior surface 132 of which is ground to a true cylinder to make a fluid-tight sliding t with the ground inner surface 113 of the cylinder 43. The shell 131 has an interior bore 134 having threads at its lower end, and which connects with a bore 135 of a less diameter at the' upper end of the piston so as to provide a shoulder 136. The bore 135 is ground to a true concentric cylindrical surface. The extreme upper end 138 of the shell 131 is of such outside diameter as to pass freely into the adjacent ring 118 as the plunger nears the upward extremity of its stroke. The end portion 138 has a base shoulder 139, the shoulder 139 being adapted to closely t into the lower portion of that ring 118 so as to form a pocket 140 between the shoulder 120, the cylinder 43 and the'piston shell 131 for a purpose to be described later. An extension 141 is formed upon the lower end of the shell 131 to provide a recess 142 which is adapted to function when the piston is at the lower end of its stroke for the same purpose as the shoulder 139 formed at the upper end of the shell 131 functions when the piston is at the upper end of its stroke.
An upper pump plunger 145 has a long plunger tube 146 which extends upward from a cylindrical base 147, the outer surface of which is ground to a cylinder co-axial with the tube 146 and which External cylindrical aligning' alignment with each of the valve shells 42 andv fits the surface 135 of the-shell 131. The base 147 has a lower portion 148 of increased diameter which abuts against the shoulder 136 of the shell 131.
`Upper and lower series of inlet pockets 149 and 150 are formed in the outer surface of the upper plunger tube 146 in such position and for.
a purpose to be described later. A series of upper exhaust pockets 151 are formed in the It is preferable, for a reason to be explained later,
that the number of pockets in each series be odd, and for the purpose of illustration each of these series is shown as consisting of five pockets. The
exhaust pockets 151 and 152 are equal in length andthe inlet pockets 149 and.150 are also equal in length, but the inlet pockets are considerably longer than the exhaust pockets.
A series of exhaust pockets 152 When the upper plunger 145 has been assembled with' the shell 131, as shown in Fig. 5, a
working valve seat 156, a working valve sleeve 157, a spider 158 and the valve 159 are inserted into the bore .134 in the position as shown, these parts being identical in structure and assembled inthe same manner as corresponding parts of the sand valve described above. '.I'he lower portion of the bore 134 is ground to a true cylindrical surface.`
The cylindrical base portion 160 of a lower pump plunger 161 is provided with a ground outer surface 162 which is adapted to snugly these plungers forming tubular extensions from this piston. A lower plunger tube 166 extends downnfrom the base 160 through the gland 163.
Upper and lower series of inlet pockets 167 and 168 respectively are provided in the outer surface of the lower plunger tube 166. These pockets are equal in length to the inlet pockets 149 and 150 lof the upper plunger tube 146 and are disposed the same distance apart axially on the lower plunger tube 166 as the inlet pockets 149 and 150 are disposed apart axially on the upper plunger tube 146. A series of upper exhaust pockets 169 is provided in the outer surface of the lower plunger tube 166 just below the upper inlet pockets 167. A series of lower exhaust pockets 170 is provided in the outer surface of the lower plunger tube 166 just above the lower inlet pockets 168. The exhaust pockets 169 and 170 are equal in length to each other and to the exhaust pockets 151 and 152 of the upper same manner as to 152 inclusive of the upper An upper valve mechanism 173 is adapted to be in the upper valve shell 42 and is retained in this shell by contact of its upper and lower ends respectively with the upper plunger shell 41 and the shoulder 119 of the upper ring 118. This upper valve mechanism forms an upper head which defines the upper end of the motor piston chamber 114.
An accurately ground pump chamber 174 is provided to pass axially through the valve mechanism 173, the chamber 174 making a fluid-tight sliding nt with the outer surface of the upper plunger tube 146.
described for the pockets 149 plunger tube 146.
A lower valve mechanism 175 is retained in al similar manner within the lower valve shell 44,
thus forming a lower head which defines the' lower end of the piston chamber 114. The lower valve mechanism 175 has an accurately ground pump chamber 176 which is adapted to slidably receive and accurately nt the exterior surface of the lower plunger tube 166 which, as previously mentioned, is of greater diameter than the upperplunger tube 146.
The upper valve mechanism 173 includes a valve body 180, which is formed of male and female body members 181 and 182, and a valve sleeve 183. The lower valve mechanism 175 includes a valve body 185, which is formed of male and female body members 186 and 187, and a valve sleeve 188. While the upper and lower valve shells 42 and 44 are identical they are secured to opposite ends of the cylinder 43 so as to be inverted relative to each other. Due to the difference in diameter of the upper and lower plunger tubes 146 and 166 the valve mechanisms 173 and 175, which are disposed between the tubes 146 and 166 and the valve shells 42 and 44 necessarily differ in radial thickness. Aside from this difference, however, the upper and lower valve mechanisms 173 and 175 are identical in structure and operate in exactly the same manner. The valve mechanisms 173 and 175, however, are inverted relative to each other in the same manner as the valve shells in which they are enclosed.
The valve sleevesLl83 and 188 are interchangeable as also are the valve body female members 182 and 187. Due to the practically identical nature of the valve mechanisms 173 and 175, a detailed description of the latter will sumce for both.
Referring to Figs. 6 and 1l, the male member 186 is tubular in form and is provided internally with the ground cylindrical surface 176 previously mentioned. Near its upper end, the member 186 is provided externally with an annular channel 190 which is connected with the upper end of the member 186 by longitudinal grooves 191, thus forming a series of radial lugs 192 projecting outward from the upper end of the member 186. The upper portions of the lugs 192 are provided with surfaces 193 which are adapted to flt the outer end portion of the surface 102 of the valve shell 44. Formed on the lugs 192 below the surfaces 193 are valve sleeve supporting surfaces 194.
- Cylindrical valve engaging surfaces 195 and 196 are provided upon the member 186 below the channel 190, the surfaces 195 and 196 being of the same radius as the surfaces 194. The surfaces 195 and 196 are separated by a shallow external annular channel 199. A radial surface 200 projects inwardly from the lower edge of the eight in number, pass through the tube 202 at the upper end thereof, adjacent to the radial surface 200, these holes corresponding in number and being axially aligned individually with the holes 205. Other series of holes 207 and 208 are provided substantially in the middle portion of the lower tubular portion 202 of the member 186 and are axially aligned respectively with each other and with the corresponding ones of the holes 205 and 206. A series of holes 210 is formed in the tube 202 substantially intermediate of the radial planes of'the series of holes 206 and the series of holes 207. The holes 207 and 208 constitute the primary pair of holes, and the holes 206 and 210 constitute the secondary pair of holes. which are utilized during the travel of the piston towards the holes 206 and 207, 208 and\210. The primary holes 207 and 208 provide for the discharge of fluid from adjacent one side of the annular sleeve piston 253, hereinafter described, of the-valve sleeve, and the secondary holes 206 and 210 provide a means of supplying the operating fluid to the other side of the annular sleeve piston 253. The holes 205 and 206, and the holes 207 and 210 constitute the tertiaryl and quaternary pairs of holes, respectively, which are utilized during the travel of the piston away from the holes, the tertiary holes 205 and 206 providing for the ldischarge of fluid from one side of the annular sleeve piston 253 of the valve sleeve, and the quaternary lholes 207 and 210 providing a means for supplying fluid to the other side of the annular sleeve piston 253. Narrow channels 212 are provided in the exterior surface 201, which channels communicate between the holes 208 and the lower end of the tube 202. Channels 213 formed in the surface 201 connect with the holes 210 and extend downward between adjacent pairs of holes 207 and 208 and terminate a given distance above the lower end of the tube 202.
The member 187 is provided with a. bore 220 which is adapted to make a press flt and is coextensive in length with the surface 201 of the tube 202. In Fig. 11, the member 187 is properly positioned relative to the member 186 so that when these members are pressed together they will properly form the valve body 185. The member 187 has a tubular jacket 221 which has a ground exterior surface 222 which is perfectly cylindrical in shape. A tubular portion 223, of largerdiameter than the jacket 221, is formed therebeneath and has an exterior ground cylindrical surface 224. An annular externally projecting head 225 is formed about the lower end of the member 187 and is separated from the lower end of the surface 224 by an annular grinding channel 226 which is provided for a purpose well known in the art. The head 225 has a ground cylindrical surface 228 in which a shallow annular external channel 229 is provided. An expansion ring channel 230 is provided in the surface 224 for the retention of an expansion ring 231.
Y A series of notches .236 is provided in the upper end of the jacket 221 so that one of the notches 236 will be disposed opposite each of the holes 206 of the member 186 when the members 187 and 186 are assembled. A series of holes 237 is formed at the lower end of the Jacket 221, these holes being adapted to communicate with the holes 207 of the member 186 when the member 187 is assembled thereon. Radial holes 240 are provided to pass through the head 225 and, when the body 186 is assembled, connect between the lower ends of the axial channels 213 and the annular channel 229. A series of holes 241 pass' obliquely through the head 225 vbetween theholes 240 and communicate between the upper and lower surfaces of the head.
Referring to Fig. 12, the valve sleeve 188 has upper and 'lower tubular portions 250 and 251 which are practically of uniform wall thickness. and an intermediate thicker tubular portion 252 which projects inwardly to form an annular sleeve piston 253. The inner surfaces 254, 255 and 256 of the sleeve portions 250, 251 and 252 are ground to accurate concentric cylindrical surfaces. The upper and lower faces 257 and 258 of the piston 253 are slightly bevelled, as shown, for a purpose to be described later. The tubular portion 250 is provided with two series of radial holes 260 and 261, of which series corresponding holes are in radial alignment, these holes being located and functioning for a purpose to be described later. An end portion 262 of the exterior surface of the valve sleeve portion 250 is accurately ground to a true cylinder for a purpose to be described later.
In the assembly of the valve mechanism 175, the valve sleeve 188 is placed, in the position in which it is shown in Fig. 12. downward over the valve body member 187. The expansible ring 231 is contracted by some tool devised for that purpose during this assembly. The internal cylindrical surface 255 of the valve sleeve is adapted to make a. fluid-tight nt with the external cylindrical surface 224 of the member 187. The surface 256 of the sleeve piston 253 is adapted to -make a iluid-tightsliding t upon the surface 222 of the valve body member 187. lThe valve body member 186 is now pressed downward into the member 187 when these parts are in the relative position in which they are shown in Fig. ll. As this assembly of the valve body 185 is being completed the upper end of the member 186 enters the upper tubular portion 250 and the surfaces 194, 195 and 196 of the member 186 are adapted to make a fluid-tight sliding t with the internal cylindrical surface 254 of the valve sleeve 188. When the valve mechanism 175 has been thus assembled it is ready for installation in the valve shell 44, as shown in Fig. 6 and as previously described. i
When the valve mechanism 175 is thus disposed in the valve shell 44, the radial end surfaces of the lugs 192 bear against the radial shoulder of the impact ring 118 disposed in the bore 103 of the valve shell 44, and the outer edge of the head 225, at the opposite end of the valve mechanism, is engaged by the upper end of the lower pump shell 45, thus retaining the valve mechanism 17 5 against axial movement within the shell 44. The cylindrical surfaces 193 of the' lugs 192 make a tight sliding contact with the upper portion of the internal cylindrical surface 102 of the valve shell 44. The ground cylindrical surface 262 of the valve sleeve 188 is adapted to make a fluid-tight sliding fit with the internal cylindrical surface 102 of the valve'shell 44. The external cylindrical surface 228 of the head 225 of the valve body member 187 is adapted to make a duid-tight fit with the internal cylindrical surface 108 of the lower end of the valve shell ,44.
The holes 112 now'communicate with the radial channels 191 when the valve sleeve 188 is in downward position, as shown in Fig. 6. The internal annular channel 109 of the valve shell 44 is disposed directly opposite the external channel 229 of the valve body head 225 so as to form a continuous annular passageway 265 which insures communication between the holes 110 of the valve shell 44 and the holes 240 of the valve body member 187. An annular passage 266 is formed by the free space between the sleeve .188 and the valve shell 44. The sleeve piston 253 is of such axial length that it may1 reciprocate between a lower position, in which it is shown in Fig. 6, and an upper position-in which the upper face 257 contacts with the radial surface 200 of the valve body member 186. This reciprocation is made possible by a supply of operating fluid alternately supplied to the opposite ends of an annular piston chamber in which the sleeve piston l253 operates, this piston chamber being defined between the tubular jacket 221 and the tubular portions 250 and 251 on the valve sleeve, and between the radial surface 200 and the radial surface adiacent the lro1es 237.
The construction and assembly of the members of the valve mechanism 173 being substantially identical with that of the construction and assembly of the valve mechanism 175, the reference shell 42 in the same manner as the passage 266.
Owing to the various portions of the walls of the male member 182 of the valve mechanism 173 being considerably thicker than the corresponding portions of the .walls of the male member 186 of the valve mechanism 175, it has been found advantageous to provide narrow, annular, internal channels 268 in the cylindrical pump chamber 174 of the valve mechanism 173 so that each of these channels connects the holes of one of the series 205, 206, 207, 208 or 210 of the male member 182 in which the pump chamber 174 is formed. These channelsdo not alter the manner in which these holes function in the upper valve mechanism 173 but merely permit the connecting pockets 149 to 152 to be made shallower. The latter is an advantage due to the necessary thinness of the wall of the upper plunger tube 146.
The lower plunger shell 45 extends downward a suitable distance to provide a lower plunger chamber 270 in which the lower plunger tube 166 may operate and threadedly receives at its lower end the upper threaded portion 271 of a standing valve sleeve 272. The standing valve sleeve 272 is identical and therefore interchangeable with the sand valve sleeve 75, previously described, but is disposed in inverted position rela- .tive thereto. A standing valve 275 is mounted ing elements of the sand valve unit 40. The valve sleeve 272 also has a valve head 278 which is provided with a valve face 280 and threadedly receives at 281 the upper end of the inner tube 282 of the hook wallpacker 47. The hook wall packer 47 is rictionally supported upon the outer surface of the inner tube 282 in a manner well known im the art and is provided with a head member 2 85 having a valve seat 286 upon which the valve surface 280 is adapted to seat when the hook wall packer 47 has been properly expanded within the be applied to corre- 6 'oil string 24. A coupling 290 is provided upon the' lower end of the inner tube 282 for connect- 'ing this tube to the pump intake pipe 48. Teeth 291 are provided upon the upper edge of the coupling 290 and are adapted to engage with teeth `292 of a lower member 293 of the hook wallpackf of the kteeth 291 with the er 47. The engagement teeth 292 permits the transmission of rotary motion between the pump tubing 26 and the hook wall packer 47 for the purpose of accomplishing the expansion of the latter in a manner well known to the art.
When the hook Wall packer 47 has beenexpanded the seating of the valve head 278 upon the valve surface 286 completes an effective seal between the lower end of the fluid-motor pump -30 and the oil string 24. It is desired to point out that the operation of the hook wall packer 47 by the rotation of the pump 30 through the pump tubing 26 is made possible by the fact that the lugs 61 in the pump tubing bleeder 39 are constantly disposed in the recesses 66 so that a rotation of the pump tubing 26 will be transmitted to the pump 30.
In the installation of the pump of my invention, the hook wall packer 47 is set in the manner previously referred to and the valve head 278 seated upon the seat 286 so as to effectively seal off the space Abetween the pump and' the oil string from the bottom of the well. The pump tubing 26 is also allowed to move downwardly a suflicient 74 of the sand valve unit 40 seats against the valve seat 62 of the bleeder 39. The fluid pump 32 is now put into operation and a clean operating uid is drawn from any suitable source of supply through the pipe 35'and forced through the pipe -25 intothe upperfend of the oil string 24. This operating fluid is preferably a light oil similar to the oil in the well and therefore when the space within the oil string 24, outside of the pump tube 26 and the pump 30, is filled with operating fluid, a considerable pressure can be imposed by the pump 32 upon this column of operating huid. As previously mentioned the piston 130 is adapted to reciprocate in the motor cylinder 43 and the upper and lower pump plunger tubes 146 and 166 respectively slide in their respective pump chambers and reciprocate with the piston 130. In both the diagrammatic view of Fig. 2 and the detailed structural views of Figs. 5 to 10 inclusive, the parts of the pump 30 are shown in their normal positions as the piston 130 nears the uppermost end of its upstroke. It will be noted at this time that the valve sleeve 188 of the valve mechanism 175 is disposed downwardly and thus a passageway is set up leading from the exterior of the valve shell 44 through the holes 112 thereof and through the axial channels 191 into the lower end of the motor cylinder 43. The space between the pump 30 and the oil string 24 being filled with operating uid under high pressure the iiuid is at this time entering through the passageway just described and forcing the piston 130 upwardly.
In Fig. 5, it is noted that the valve sleeve 183 of the valve mechanism 173 is likewise disposed in its lower position which causes the exterior cylindrical surface 262 of the sleeve 183 to close the holes 112 of the valve shell 42 and also causes the holes 260 of the sleeve 183 to be disposed opposite the channel 190 of the valve body 180. An exhaust passageway for the motor cylinder is thus opened leading from the upper end of the motor cylinder 43 through the axial chandistance so that the valve head' `sitioned to set up a -are closed and an exhaust passageway channel 190. the holes 260 and the holes 241. This passageway permits the exhaust of-operating fluid from the upper end into the lower end of tlieupper plungerl shell 41. When the piston 130 rises a slight distance above the position -in which it is shown in the drawings, the exhaust pockets 152 to position opposite the valve body 180 so as to set up an exhaust passageway for the valve piston chamber leading from the space above the piston 253 of the valve sleeve 183 so that used operating iiuid which may be disposed in that space may escape upward into the lower end of the tube 41. At the same time that the exhaust pockets 152 thus move into the position above described, the inlet pockets 150 move into such'position as to connect the holes 210 and 206 of the valve both! 180 soy as to form an intake passageway for the valve piston chamber and permit operating fluid from the exterior of the valve shell 42 to enter beneath the piston 253 of the valve sleeve 183 and force this valve sleeve into uppermost position. This lifting of the valve sleeve 183 will move the holes 260 out channel 190 of the valve body 180 and. close the communication between that channel and the space 267, and it will also form an intake passageway for the motor cylinder from between the exterior of the pump and the upper end of the cylinder 43 axial channels 191. Thus operating iiuld will enter the upper end of the motor cylinder 43 and move the piston 130 downward. Simultaneously with the arrival of the lowermost-pair of pockets 150 and 152 in the positions just described so as to cause an upward shifting of the valve sleeve 183,` the lower inlet and exhaust pockets 168 and 170 of the lower plunger tube 166 move into positionas follows:
The pockets 170 cover lthe holes 205 and 288 of the valve body 185 so as to form an exhaust passageway for the valve piston chamber and permit theA exhaust of operating fluid, which -is disposed above the piston 253 of the valve sleeve- 188, through the shallow channel 199, the valve sleeve holes 280 and281,- the passage 266 and the holes 241, into the upper end of the vlower plunger shell 45. The inlet pockets 168 are pocommunication. between the holes 210 and the holes 207 so as to admit operating fluid from the exterior of the pump into the space underneath the piston'253 of the valve nels 191, the annular the passage '267,
sleeve 188. The valve sleeve 188 is thus caused..
to shift from its lower to its upper position.
The positioning of the pockets 150 and 152 of the upper plunger 145 and the pockets-168 and 170 of the lower plunger 161, as above described, is so arranged as to cause the valve sleeves 183 to be shifted upward simultaneously. Therefore, at the same timeV the passageway is set up,v as
and 188 of the motor cylinder 43 will move irl-fv hOleS 208 8nd 207 Of the f of registration with the through the holes 112 and me previously described, which permits the entrance of operating uid into the upper end of the cylinder 43, the holes 112 of the lower valve shell 44 is set up leading from the lower end of the cylinder 43 through the axial channels 191 and the annular channel 190 of the valve body 185, the holes 260 of the valve sleeve 188, tween the valve mechanism and the shell 44, and the holes 241 of the valve body A185, thus permitting the used operating huid which is disposed in thelower end of the cylinder 43 to be exhausted downward into the upper end of the the passageway 266 bel tvc 9111111111611 15 as the vision 130 1s moved This shifting is accomplished by the positioning of these pockets as follows:
The exhaust pockets 151 connect the holes 206 and 205 of the valve body 180 so as to set up an exhaust passage vfrom beneath the piston 253 of the valve sleeve 183 which leads through the shallow channel 199 and the valve sleeve holes 260 and 261, the passage 266 and the holes 241 into the lower end of the upper pump shell 41. The pockets 149 connect the holes 210 and 207 of the 4valve body 180 so as to admit operating fluid above the piston 253 of the valve sleeve 183.
The exhaust pockets 169 are positioned so as to connect the holes 207 and 208 of the valve body 185 and set up an exhaust passageway leading from beneath the piston 253 of `the valve sleeve 188 through the channels 212 into the upper end of the lower pump shell 45. The inlet pockets 167 connect the holes 210 with the holes 206 of the valve body 18,5 so as to admit operating fluid above the piston 253 of the valve sleeve 188.
As can easily be seen a positioning of the series of pockets 149, 151, 167, and 169, as just described, results in the downward sluiting of the valve sleeves 183 and 188 to the positions in which they are shown in the drawings. Due to the high pressure of the operating oil the sleeves 183 and 188 are positively and rapidly thrown to their opposite positions when operating uid is admitted behind these sleeves by movement of the piston 130. With the valve sleeves 183 and 188 thus positioned the piston 130 will be moved upward on its upstroke until it reaches the positionin which it is shown in the drawings. Thus a complete cycle of the reciprocation of the piston 130 is completed and it is clear that with a continuous supply of operating uid under pressure between the oil string and the pump, this cycle will be repeated in a continuous reciprocation of the piston 130.
The standing valve 275 and the working valve 159 cooperate in the well known manner, due to the reciprocation of the piston 130, to draw o'il from the intake pipe 48 and force this oil upward into the lower end of the upper pump shell 41. The pumped well oil (plus the used operating fluid discharged downward into the lower pump shell 45) passes upward through the lower plunger 161, the piston 130, and the upper plunger 145 and is discharged from the upper end of the tube 146 thereof into a gas chamber 310 of the bell 91. This iuid then passes downward between the tube 146 and the bell 91 and upward between the bell 91 and the shell 41, through the lantern legs 92, and, lifting the sand valve 85, passes upward into the pump tubing 26.
In practically all oil wells'there is a. certain amount of gas present in the oil which tends to separate out in bubbles and rises to the surface of the oil. Thus a body of gas tends -to collect in the upper end of the chamber 310 within the bell 91. This body of gas acts as a cushion and harmonizes or rendersrmore constant the pulsating stream of oil flowing upward from the pump 30. Thus the loss of energy which would otherwise 7 0001111111@ to iluctuatlons 1n the velocity of the upowing oil are practically eliminated.
The expansive rings 231 of both the upper and lower valve mechanisms 173 and 175 are designed to frictionally bear against the valve sleeves 183 and 188 to prevent these valve sleeves settling by gravity or being moved by any other force than by the positive action of the operating fluid. The upper and lower faces 257 and 258 of the pistons 253 of the valve sleeves 183 and 188 are beveled so that there is at all times an open space adjacent to these faces against which operating fluid may act in order to shift these sleeves in the operation of the pump. The exhaust pockets of the plunger tubes are made considerably shorter than the inlet pockets thereof because it is necessary that the exhaust pockets pass over the ports singly which the inlet pockets immediately thereafter embrace simultaneously so as to connect.
In order to remove the pump from the well, as for inspection or repairs. the pump tubing 26 is withdrawn in the well known manner. The first lifting of the pump tubing 26 raises theo/alve seat 62 of the bleeder 39 from the valve head 74 of the sand valve sleeve 75. Oil within the pump tubing 26 is thus allowed to bleed out through the holes 70 into the space between the pump and the oil string. This space is as yet, however, sealed off at the lower end of the pump 30. Continued lifting of the pump tubing 26 raises the pump 30 so that the valve head 278 of the standing valve sleeve 272 (see Fig. 7) is lifted from the valve seat 286 allowing fluid in the oil string above the packer 47 to pass downwardly between the packer and its inner tube 282 into the lower portion of the oil string. The packer 47 is also dislodged by this lifting so that the pump 30 may be drawn from the well, the fluid in the pump tubing bleeding into the oil string above the pump 30 and that in the oil string above the pump 30 bleeding through the packer 47 into the .bottom of the oil string. Thus upon the withdrawal of the pump of my invention from the well, the fluid normally disposed in the oil string and pump tubing above the pump is all automatically permitted to bleed into the bottom of the well.
It is desired to point out that while the motor cylinder 43 is threadedly received into the ends of the valve shells 42 and 44, the cylinder might easily be of the same diameter as the valve shells and be connected to these elements by internal connecting nipples. Thus the diameter of the cylinder may be said to have a possible eter equal to the maximum diameter of the pump due to the novel construction disclosed herein.
The interchangeability of the parts which is made possible by the novel arrangement of this construction is a feature of great importance. In this regard, the interchangeable elements may be summarized as follows: The entire sand valve unit 40 is interchangeable with the standing valve unit 46. The valve, seat ring, and spider sleeve of-either of these units is interchangeable with corresponding working valve parts of the piston 130.V The upper and lower valve shells 42 and 44 are interchangeable; so are the valve sleeves 183 and 188, and also the valve body female members 181 and 187.
Thus I have produced an extremely simple fluid-motor deep well pump which is 'inexpensive to construct and extremely economical in operation.
I claim as my invention:
1. In a fluid-operated motor adapted. to be positioned in a well, the combination of: a cylinpiston slidable in saidcylinder by fluid pressure control valve means alternately supplied to opposite ends of -said cylinder; two extensions on said piston, one extension extending into one of said heads and the other extending into the other of said heads; means for supplying a motive iiuid to said motor; a iluid pressure-operated control valve means situated at one end of said motorfor controlling the ilow of motive'fluid into and' out of onelend of said cylinder; a second iluid pressure-operated situated at the other end of said motor for controlling the flow ofmotive fluid into and out of the,other end of said cylinder; and means controlled by theposition of said extensions to admit motive iiuid into` operating relation with said valve means.
2. In a fluid-operated motor adapted to be positioned in a well, the combination of: a cylinder; heads at opposite ends of said cylinder and'V providing openings; a piston slidable in said cylinder and providing a pair of. extensions ex- "a pair of sleeves telescopically tending respectively into said openings; a motive 'fluid supply means; a :duid-operated control valve in the-form of a sleeve 'surrounding one of said extensions; another fluid-operated control valve in the form of a sleeve surrounding the other or said extensions, said control valves being mechanically free to move independently of each other, and controlling the flow ci motive uid from said supply means which moves through said cylinder to reciprocate said piston; valve means formed on one oi -said extensions for controlling the ow of uid operating the control valve therearound; and valve means formed on the other of said extensions for controlling the flow of fluid operating the control valve therearound. l
3. In a iluid-motor adapted to be positioned in a well, the combination of: a pair ci heads in spaced relationship; a cylinder extending between said heads and providing a chamber; a
- piston reciprocable in said chamber by fluid presfree to move independently of each other, and' including means surrounding said motor to pro.- -vide a passage through which operating ,fluid may be supplied to said motor.
. '4. A huid-motor comprising: walls forming a cylinder; two heads, one closing one end of said cylinder and the other closing the other end oi said cylinder; means for supplying a motive iluid under pressure; a piston sliding relationship in said cylinder; an extension carried on one end of said piston and projecting in iluidtight relationship into one of said heads; another extension carried on the other end of said piston and projecting in duid-tight relationship into the other of said heads; a control valve controlling the admission and exhaust of fluid from one end oi said cylinder; a second control valve controlling the admission and exhaust of fluid from the other end oi said cylinder; and iluid passage means on said extensions for controlling the operation of said valves.
5. In a iluid motor, the combination of: a moably `disposed in said cylinder; and a head closing an end of said cylinder, said head including assembled to form in fluid-tight. `cylinder.
an annular piston chamber, "and-a sleevel valve.
retained in place upon said sleeves when thus assembled and having ing into said chamber, said valve controlling admission of motive iluid into an end `of said cylinder, there being means provided in said head for conducting motive iuid into the annular chamber thereof so as to move said annular valve piston therein and thus aotuate said valve, said means being controlled by the position or said piston.
6. In a fluid motor, the combination oi: a motive iluid supply means; a cylinder; a piston slidably disposed in said cylinder; a head closing an end of said cylinder, said head including a pair of members telescopically assembled, and a sleeve valve retained in place upon said members when thus assembled, said valve controlling aon ci motive fluid into an end of said cylinder, there being one means ier conducting motive uid into said cylinder and a separate means provided in said head for conducting tive relation with the valve thereof, said head including a shell surrounding said valve to form a uid passage communicating'between the lnterior of said valve and an end oi said head; and means carried by said piston ior causing said sleeve valve to be operated.
7. In a fluid motor, the combination ci: a motive fluid supply means; a cylinder; a piston slidably disposed in said cylinder; a head closing an end of said cylinder, said head including a pair of members telescopically assembled, and a sleeve valve retained in place upon said members when thus assembled, said valve controlling admissionof motive iluid into an end oi said cylinder, there being one means for conducting motive fluid into said cylinder and a separate means provided in said head for conducting motive iluid into operative relation with the valve thereof, said head including a shell surrounding lsaidjvalve to form a iluid passage communicating between said valve and an 'end of said head, said shell having a surface engaged by said valve in order to effect said control of admission of fluid into said cylinder;
. and means carried by said piston for causing said 10`. In a tive fluid supply means; a cylinder; a piston slidably disposed in said cylinder; a head closing an end oi said cylinder, said head including a pair of sleeves telescopically assembled to form an annular valve piston chamber, a sleeve valve reta* ned in place upon said sleeves when thus assembled, and having an annular piston extending into said chamber, and a shell surrounding said valve and co-axially positioned relative to said sleeves, said shell having a surface engageable by said valve to control admission of motive fluid to said cylin- V der; and an extension on said piston slidably ntsleeves, there being a pocket in said extension 'and holes in said head cooperating when said piston has a given position to supply motive iluid to said annular-slumber to actuate ting one of said an annular piston extend- Bti motive uid into operafluid motor, the combination oi a mo- Lacasse said valve to admit motive fluid into to move said piston.
11. A combination as in claim l0 in which another pocket in said extension `connects with other holes in said head, when said piston has another position, to supply motive fluid to said annular chamber to actuate said valve to stop a supply of motive iiuid to said cylinder and permit an exhaust of used motive iiuid therefrom.
12. In a fluid motor, the combination of a m0- tive fluid supply means; a cylinder; a piston slidable in said cylinder; -a head closing an end of said cylinder; an extension provided to move with said piston and slidably fitting said head; valve means for controlling the admission of motive fluid to said cylinder, said va'lve means being iiuid operated, there being two pockets of unequal length formed adjacent to each other in the sliding surface of said extension, and a primary and a secondary pair of holes formed in said head, each of said pairs being adapted to be connected by one of said pockets to set up passageways carrying iiuid to cause operation of said valve means, the holes in one pair being spaced differently from the holes of the other pair so that the shorter of said pockets may pass over the farther spaced pair of holes without connecting this pair.
13. In a fluid motor, the combination of an operating fluid supply means; a cylinder; a piston slidably disposed in said cylinder; a valve body lsaid cylinder situated at one end of said cylinder, said valve body having holes therein; a valve member associated with said valve body and being movable to admit or exhaust fluid from said cylinder; and an extension secured to and adapted to move with said piston and slidably tting said valve body,
said extension having pockets therein adapted to register with said holes in amanner to operate said valve member and thus control the admission and exhaust of said operating uid to and from said cylinder.
14. In a duid motor, the combination of an operating fluid supply means; a cylinder; a piston slidably disposed in said cylinder; a valve body situated at one end of said cylinder, saidvalve body having primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary holes therein; a valve member associated with said valve body and being movable to admit or exhaust uid from said cylinder; and an extension provided to move with said piston and slidably tting said valve body, said extension having two groups of pockets therein, one of said groups being adapted to register with said primary and secondary holes in a manner to control the admission of said operating fluid to said cylinder, and the other of said groups'of pockets being adapted to register with said tertiary and quaternary holes in a manner to operate said valve member and thus control the exhaust of said operating fluid from said cylinder. Y
15. A combination as defined in claim 14 in `which said two groups of pocketson said extension are similar in shape but inverted in sequence relative to each other.
16. In a uid motor, the combination of: an operatinguid supply means; a cylinder; a piston slidably disposed in said cylinder; a valve body at one end o1' said cylinder, said body having primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary holes therein; a valve sleeve slidable relative said valve body, said extension having pockets therein adapted to cooperate with said secondary, and tertiary holes, and primary and quaternary holes to substantially simultaneously complete intake and lexhaust passageways respectively from opposite ends of said 'valve piston chamber to shift said valve sleeve. 1
17. In a fluid-motor, the combination of: a cylinder; a head cooperating with said cylinder in dening a motor piston chamber; a uid operated piston in said chamber; a plunger on said piston and extending through said head; iuid actuated valve means surrounding said plunger for controlling the supply of operating fluid to said motor piston chamber to move said piston away from said head; and means independent of said valve means for returning said piston toward said head, said valve means controlling the exhaust of said operating uid from between said piston and said head.
18. In a fluid-motor, the combination of :l a cylinder; a piston reciprocable in a motor piston chamber of said cylinder; a valve body at each end of said cylinder and providing passages communicating with said motor piston chamber; and a fluid operated valve sleeve slidable relative to each valve body for alternately connecting each of said passages to a uid supply source and to exhaust.
19. In a huid-motor, the combination of: .a
cylinder; a piston reciprocable ina motor pis-` 'body and said valve shell defining an annular Valve cavity communicating with said passage,
with said uid passage, and with an intake hole formed in said valve shell; and a valve sleeve slidable relative to said valve body to extend Variable distances into said valve cavity for alternately connecting said passage with said iiuid passage and with said intake hole.
20. In a duid-operated motor adapted to be positioned in a well, the combination of: a cylinder; a piston reciprocable in said cylinder by uid pressure alternately supplied to opposite ends of said cylinder; a uid-operated control valve positioned at each end of said cylinder;
walls defining an annular fluid passage around said cylinder and said control valves, said fluid passage communicating with opposite ends of said -4 cylinder through said control valves; and valve means above and below said piston and operated as a function of the position thereof, each valve means communicating with said annular fluid' passage and with one of said control valves for controlling the supply of iiuid from said uid passage into shifting relationship with said control valves. f
CLARENCE J, ooBERLY.