US 1947777 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 20, 1934.
W.-J. HUFF ET AL FILLING UNIT Filed April 24, 1930 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Feb. 20,1934. I -F ETAL 1,947,777
FILLING UNIT Filed April 24, 1930 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Feb. 20, 1934. w, J, HUFF T AL 1,947,777
I FILLING UNIT I Filed April 24, 1930 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Feb. 20, 1934.
w. J. HUFF ET AL 1,947,777
FILLING UNIT Filed April 24, 1930 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Feb. 20, 1934 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Wilbert J. Hufl, Oscar W. Lusby, and Lloyd Logan, Baltimore, Md.
Application April 24, 1930. Serial No. 446,930
The present invention relates to forms adapted for use as filling material in reaction, heat exchange, or absorption chambers.
The object of the invention, in general, is to provide a form for the above mentioned purposes that is highly efiieient in action, strong and durable in construction, and that can be manufactured at moderate cost. For the attainment of this general object the invention provides a form consisting of a hollow body having interior and exterior partitions or walls which reinforce the body and provide additional contact surfaces, and which are so constructed and proportioned that the forms may be placed side by side to produce laterally inclosed spaces having their volumes respectively proportional to the areas of the enclosing walls, and with a substantially constant and fixed relationship existing between the respective areas and volumes, which'fixed rela- 20 tionship is exhibited by all the various passages and spaces so that the contact surfaces of the various spaces or passages are rendered substantially proportional to the volumes of the gases or other fluids acted upon, thus effecting substantial uniformity in the work done by all contact surfaces. Incidental and more particular objects of the invention will be brought out in the following detailed description of certain specific embodiments and applications of the invention.
Referring to the accompanyin drawings:
Fig. 1 is a sectional elevation of a superheater in a carburetted water gas machine showing forms embodying the invention supp rted in the upper part thereof;
Fig. 2 is a. side elevation and Fig. 3 is a bottom plan view of a. form of preferred construction;
Figs. 4 and 5 are side and bottom plan views, respectively, of a support for the forms;
Fig. 6 is a plan view of a number of the forms crowded together;
Fig. 7 is a side view showing the forms stacked on the support;
Fig. 8 is a sectional detail on line 8-8 of Fig. '1;
Figs. 9 and 10 show in bottom plan and side elevation, respectively, a form of modified construction;
Fig. 11 is a sectional elevation of an absorption or scrubbing chamber partly filled with forms constructed in accordance with the invention;
Fig. 12 shows in plan a rectangular grid-like form emboying the invention; and Figs. 13 and 14 are plan and side views, respectively, of a still further modification.
One of the important applications'of the forms embodying the invention resides in their use as carriers of active material in processes involving chemical or catalytic reactions. A specific application of this character,-which has been practised on a large scale, is the use of the forms in a process of purifying combustible gas, such as described in the copending application of Huff, Logan and Lusby, Serial No. 447,228, filed April 25,1930. Fig. 1 illustrates the use of the forms in a particular process-of this character; viz, in a process of purifying carburetted water gas. For this purpose the forms A may be supported in the upper part of the superheater of a carburetted water gas machine, as indicated, the forms being coated with active materials of the character set forth in said application.
1 The operation of a carburetted water gas machine, as is well understood, comprises alternate make and blast periods, the combustible gas being generated in the make periods and the fuel bed in the generator and the checker brick in the carburetter and superheater being brought up to proper temperatures in the blast periods. During the make periods, the manufactured gas passes 8 through the forms A supported on top of the checker brick in the superheater and thence through the wash box 20 by way of the gas on?- take pipe 21, while in the blow periods the blast gases pass out of the stack 22 to the atmosphere as or through a connection at 23 to a waste heat. boiler.
The active materials coated on forms A are effective to absorb, or fix, the sulphur impurities in the manufactured gas as the gas sweeps 7 through the forms in the make periods, while in the blow periods the blast gases, to which air is added, are effective to revivify said materials by oxidizing the sulfur compounds formed therewith. As fully disclosed in the application referred to, the active materials efiective to fix the sulfur impurities of the .gas comprises mixtures of at least one metal, or oxide of a metal, included in the fifth, sixth, or seventh group of the periodic system of elements with at least one metal, or oxide of a metal, included in another group. Typical combinations which have been found to be especially satisfactory are: 80% copper and 20% vanadium, 80% copper and 20% chromium, 80% copper and'20% uranium, 80% copper, 10% uranium and 10% chromium. These metals, preferably in the form of their oxides, in finely divided condition and mixed with a binder,
are coated on the forms by any suitable method,
as by dipping the forms in the coating material paint gun. Wherever in these specifications or claims the term metal is used in referringto an active material, it is intended also to cover compounds of the metal, such as the oxide.
Figs. 2 and 3 show in side elevation and bottom plan view, respectively, a form embodying the invention. It will be observed that this form comprises a hollow thin-walled cylindrical body interiorly divided by partitions, or walls, 24 which are equi-angularly spaced and convergent at the axis of the cylinder, thus dividing the interior of the cylinder into five equal spaces having a segmental form in cross section. The form further comprises exterior wedge-shaped fins 25 projecting from the periphery of the cylindrical body in the planes of the interior walls 24, respectively. The cylindrical body at its lower end is cut away between the fins, as indicated at 2,6, for the purpose of providing lateral gas passages when the forms are placed in stacked relation, as shown in Figs. 1 and 7. The body may be made polygonal in cross-section instead of cylindrical, if desired.
Preferably the diameter of the forms is relatively small, so that it is desirable to provide a base orsupport on which the stacked forms may securely: rest. A supporting member suitable for this purpose is illustrated in Figs. 4, 5 and 7. This member consists of a rectangular body having a relatively small depth as compared with its breadth and length and provided with integral longitudinal and transverse bars 27 and 28 forming with the body a grid, the inclosed spaces of which are smaller than the diameter of the forms, so that the latter cannot fall through said spaces. The side walls of the supporting member are cut away between the bars 28, as shown at 29, to provide suitable lateral gas passages.
The supporting members or grids are laid loosely side by side on the toplcourse of the checker brick, spanning the spaces between the bricks and covering substantially the entire top course. The forms are then stacked loosely on the supporting members, preferably. in superposed relation, as indicated by the drawings, rather than in staggered relation. Preferably the forms are arranged side by side with a definite orientation, as shown by Fig. 6. so that the spaces b formed by juxtaposed walls and fins of any three forms are similar in outline and have the same area, the volumes of these spaces of course being proportional to the areas of their enclosing walls. That is to say, the ratio of volume to wall area is substantially the same in the case of all the spaces 1: formed by the external walls of the formsand is moreover substantially equal to the fixed ratio between volume and wall area in the case of the internal spaces a. of theforms.
The forms are preferably composed of clay and are made either by extruding plastic clay through temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere to ren-- .der them hard and resistant, care being taken to avoid temperatures sufiiciently high to injure or by applying the materials to the forms with a the active materials. Two or more forms may be joined together by placing them in superposed position prior to drying and baking, as indicated by Fig. 8, thus producing a larger unit, which is not so likely to be blown out of place by high velocity gases, such as the blast gases in a water gas machine.
Figs. 9 and 10 illustrate a slight modification in the form above described. form A is similar to the previously described form except that its interior is divided in half by a single diametrical partition 30. The form and arrangement of the exterior fins and the gas passage 26, however, are exactly similar.
When the forms are used merely to provide heat exchange surfaces or surfaces for the formation of liquid films, in gas and liquid contact apparatus, they will not ordinarily be coated. For ex-' ample, coated or uncoated forms may be used as filling material for the carburetter and superheater of a carburetted water gas machine in place of the usual checker brick or to provide heat exchange surfaces in regenerators and the like.
Fig. 11 illustrates the use of the forms as filling material of an absorption or gas scrubbing chamber or tower. The forms A are stacked in the chamber, as indicated. A connection 31 at the bottom of the chamber provides for inlet of the gases while a connection 32 at the top provides for their exit after having been brought into contactwith the liquid films flowing down along the walls of the passages, through and between the stacked forms. Liquid is sprayed on top of the stacks by any suitable liquid spray 33. Due to proportionality between the volumes and wall areas of the passages through and between the stacks, the work performed by the liquid films will be rendered substantially uniform, effecting a very high efliciency in the operation of apparatus of this character.
Theoretically, the most efficient form for use as filling material in reaction, heat exchange, absorption chambers, or the like, is one that will provide a filling having, first, a total maximum contact area for a given volume of material and having, second, a constant ratio of'volume to wall area for all of its multiplicity of fluid passages.
The maximum contact area obtainable for a given volume of material is, of course, limited by practical considerations of use and manufacture. The form has to be of sturdy construction and adapted to be manufactured at reasonable cost.
The form above described has a construction which renders it very highly efficient as a filling material. Its equi-angularly spaced radial partitions and wedge-shaped exterior fins provide strong uniform reinforcement for its cylindrical body, rendering it feasible to make the walls relatively thin without sacrificing strength and thereby making possible a very large superficial area or contact surface as compared with the total volume of the material. As pointed out above,
forms of this construction can be so arranged that the ratio of volume-to-wall-area is constant for all the exterior passages formed by juxtaposed walls of adjacent forms and is also equal to the volume-to-wall ratio of the internal passages of the forms, thus providing a filling in which the work done by the various contact surfaces is uniform. Finally, the form is adapted to be menu faotured by the ordinary pressing methods. j
Figs. 12, 13, and 14 show forms of radically different construction fromthe cylindrical form, and
extrusion, molding, or
yet having the characteristics in common therewith that they present a large contact surface for a given volume of material and form when placed side by side in stacks a multiplicity of gas passages, the volumes of which are respectively proportional to the areas of their enclosing walls.
Fig. 12 shows a grid-like form having a rectangular body divided into three equal rectangular spaces 36 by partitions 37, and having two fins 39 projecting from one end and two fins 38 projecting from one side. As clearly shown, when the forms are placed end to end and side by side, the spaces enclosed by the end fins 39 and the opposed ends of the rectangular bodies are equal to the spaces formed by .fins 38 and the sides of the bodies and these spaces are equal to the interior rectangular spaces 36. That is, when the forms are arranged as indicated, all of the open spaces have rectangular cross sections which are exactly equal.
The form shown by Fig. 13 is also of rectangular grid construction. It has a rectangular body 42 divided into equal rectangular spaces 43 by par-.
titions 44. From both-ends of the body 42, short fins 46 project in the planes of the sides of the body and from both sides longer fins project in the planes of the partitions 44 and the end walls of the body, respectively. When the forms are placed as illustrated, all of the rectangular spaces 47 and 49 bounded respectively by the end fins 46 and the side fins 45 are equal to each other and equal to the interior spaces 43. Thus, in the filling produced from either of these rectangular forms, all of the free spaces have their volumes exactly proportional to the areas of the enclosing walls and in every filling developed from multiples of a given unit the ratio between the volumes of each free space and the respective wall area is the same as that existing in the other .i'ree spaces. As indicated in Fig. 14, the grid form illustrated in Figs. 12 and 13 is cut away at its lower edge between the side fins 45, as shown at 50, to provide passages between the interior and exterior spaces.
Forms embodying the invention are adapted for numerous other specific applications than those mentioned. Minor changes can, of course, be made in the specific constructions described without varying the principles of the constructions and without avoiding the scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. The forms may be made of various 'materials other than clay where the conditions of use make the materials suitable. For some purposes, various molded compositions, wood, glass, stoneware or metal may be employed.
What is claimed as new is:
1. A fillingiunit consisting of a hollow thinwalled body open at both ends and divided interiorily by partition walls extending parallel to the axis of the body and having exterior fins extending in the planes of said partitions so formed that a number of the units may be placed side by'side to form laterally enclosed spaces, said spaces and the interior spaces of the bodies having their volumes respectively proportional to the respective areas of the enclosing walls, and
with the numerical relationship between each volume and wall area being substantially the same for all respective volumes and areas.
2.'A filling unit comprising a hollow body open at both ends having interior partitions and exterior fins extending longitudinally of the body, said fins being so arranged and proportioned that wall area being substantially the same for all respective volumes and areas.
3. A filling unit comprising a hollow body open at both ends and having a plurality of partitions dividing the interior of the body into equal spaces, and having exterior fins projecting respectively in the planes of said partitions, said fins being so proportioned that a number of the units may be placed side by side in contact to form spaces enclosed by the fins and exterior surfaces of the bodies, the volumes of all of said spaces being proportional respectively to the areas of the enclosing walls, and with the numerical relationship between each volume and wall area being substantially the same for all respective volumes and areas.
4. A filling unit comprising a hollow body open at both ends and having a number of partitions subdividing the interior of the body into spaces each having the same ratio between its volumne and the area of its enclosing walls, said body having exterior equi-spaced fins so proportioned that a plurality of the units may be placed side by side to form laterally enclosed spaces having substantially equal ratios between their volumes and wall areas, which ratios are substantially equal to said first mentioned ratio.
5. A filling unit consisting of a hollow thinwalled tubular body open at both ends and divided interiorly by partition walls extending parallel to the axis of the cylinder'and having exterior equi-spaced longitudinal fins, said walls and fins being so constructed and disposed that a number of the units maybe placed side by side to form laterally enclosed spaces, the ratios of the volumes of which to the respective areas of the enclosing walls are substantially equal and substantially equal to the volume-to-wall-area ratio of the interior spaces 01' the units.
, 6. A filling unit composed of baked clay consisting of a hollow thin-walled tubular body open at both ends and having five equi-angularly spaced walls converging at the axis of the body and having five exterior fins wedge-shaped in cross section extending in the planes of said walls respectively, said body being cut away at the bottom between said fins to provide lateral gas passages, the dimensions of said fins being such that a number of the bodies may be placed side by side to -form' laterally inclosed spaces the ratios of the volumes of which to the respective areas of the inclosing walls are substantially equal and are substantially equal to the volume-to-wall-area ratio of the interior spaces of the bodies.
'7. A filling unit composed of clay and consisting of a hollow thin-walled cylindrical body open at both ends and divided interiorly to form a plurality of longitudinal passages and having equi-angularly spaced longitudinal wedge-shaped fins, the volume of each longitudinal interior passage bearing the same ratio to its wall area as the volumes of the laterally enclosed exterior passages made by placing the forms closely together and resting on the same plane may make with their respective wall areas.
8. In a chamber partly filled with checker brick, in combination, refractory supports of a grid-like form placed side by side on the top course of said checker brick and forms loosely stacked on said supports, said forms each consisting of a thin-walled body open at both ends and divided into a plurality of longitudinal passages and having exterior longitudinalfins.
'9. A refractory support for filling units consisting of a rectangular body and integral longitudinal and transverse bars dividing the space enclosed by said, body into a plurality of relatively small rectangular spaces, the side walls of said body being cut-away to provide'passages opening into said spaces.
10. A support for filling units composed of baked clay and consisting of a rectangular body having a relatively small depth as compared with its length and breadth and of integral longitudinal and transverse bars dividing the space enclosed by the body into a plurality of relatively small rectangular spaces, the side walls of said body being cut away toprovide passages opening into said spaces.
11. A filling unit comprising a hollow body open at both ends and having a number of partitions subdividing the interior of the body into spaces each having the same ratio between itsvolume and the area of its enclosing walls, said aaaavvr body having exterior projections so proportioned that 'a plurality of the units may be placed side by side to form laterally enclosed spaces having substantially equal ratios between their volumes and wall areas, which ratios are substantially equal to said first mentioned ratio, said unit bearing active material comprising an intimate mixture of one metal or oxide of a metal belonging to the fifth, sixth, or seventh group of the periodic system of elements and at least one metal or oxide of a metal belonging to another group.
12. A filling unit as described in claim 5 hearing an intimate mixture of copper and vanadium compounds.
13. A filling unit as described in claim 5 composed substantially of clay and bearing incorporated therewith an intimate mixture of metals comprising at least one metal belonging tothe fifth, sixth, or seventh group of the periodic system of elements and at least one metal belonging to another group.
WILBER'I J. HUF'F. OSCAR W. LUSBY. LLOYD LOGAN.