US 1948388 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 20, 1934. F. LIBERSON AUTOMATIC DISPLACEMENT SYRINGE Filed July 11, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENT OR ra/ML 2661:5072
' ATTORNEY WITNESSES Feb. 20, 1934. F. LIBERSON AUTOMATIC DISPLACEMENT SYRINGE Filed July 11; 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Q i N Ra n Q m M v Nfi mwN iw J R r E IlI/Ill N T Q a 8 m I I. 7. Q 9* F B k N 1 Q ww & Q a N N S Nu mm III/I WITNESSES ZM a Patented Feb. 20, 1934 l UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE AUTOMATIC DISPLACEMENT SYRINGE Frank Liberson, Brooklyn, N. Y.
Application July 11, 1932. Serial No. 621,965 9 Claims. (Cl. 128-234) This invention relates to automatic displacenumerals, 1 indicates a needle of a desired kind ment syringes and particularly to a syringe for which is adapted to be inserted through a demedical purposes for removing small quantisired opening in the cranium or into the spinal ties of fluid from different parts of the body column as illustrated in Figure 11. This needle and substituting air or other gas therefor. is frictionally connected to a hollow discharge 00 An object of the invention is to provide an member 2, the same being preferably connected improved automatic displacement syringe which by friction, though other connections may be is particularly adapted for removing liquid from used without departing from the spirit of the the spinal column or from the brain and subinvention.
stituting air or gas therefor. The discharge member 2 forms part of what 5 3 Another object of the invention is to provide may be termed an adaptor 3, which adaptor is an automatic displacement syringe for medical really an especially formed valve. A cylinder 4 purposes which when used to withdraw fluid is mounted on the casing 5 of the adaptor 3 from a lumbar puncture will overcome the danand held in place by adhesive, metal or other acre associated with sudden changes in intramaterial 6. Arranged in the barrel 4 is an in- 70 cranial and intraspinal pressures during the proner barrel 7 which is secured to the casing 5 cedure of substitution of gas for the cerebroin a similar manner as the barrel 4:. These barspinal fluid for the purpose of encephalography. rels are concentric and are open at the outer In the accompanying drawings,- end so that there will be a central chamber 8 Figure 1 is a longitudinal vertical sectional and a circular or outer chamber 9. A pistonor I5 view through an automatic displacement syringe plunger 10 is provided with a central plunger disclosing an embodiment of the invention, the section 11 and an outer annular plunger section same being shown ready for use. 12. These sections merge together into a knob Figure 2 is a view similar to Figure l but 13 whereby the plunger 10 may be moved in showing the plunger in an extreme outer posiand out as desired. 80
tion. As it will be hereinafter noted the plunger 10 Figure 3 is a fragmentary sectional View when pulled out acts to draw in air to the outer through Figure 1 on line 33. chamber 9 and to draw fluid into the central or Figure 4 is a side view of the reversing rod inner chamber 8. Also, the parts are so prodisclosing certain features of the invention. portioned that the adaptor or valve 3 is reversed 85 Figure 5 is a view similar to Figure 4 but as soon as the plunger 10 has been moved out showing the rod and associated parts in a reto its extreme outer position and then moved in verse position. a very short distance toward its inner position.
Figure 6 is a view similar to Figure 1 but When the adaptor 3 is reversed and the plunger showing a modified construction wherein a 10 is forced inwardly the air in the outer cham- 90 single piston or plunger is used but divided into her will be forced through the outlet member 2 two parts. and the fluid in the central chamber will be Figure '7 is a fragmentary view similar to one discharged out through the fluid discharge memend of the structure shown in Figure 2 but ilber 14 and guided by a suitable flexible pipe 15 lustrating the position of the parts when the to a desired point or to a suitable container. 95
plunger has been moved outwardly for its full It will be noted that from the outer chamber stroke. 9 a single passageway 16 leads, while from the Figure 8 is a fragmentary sectional View inner chamber 8 two passageways, namely, pasthrough Figure 6 on line 8-8. sageways 17 and 18, lead. A valve key 19 is Figure 9 is a View similar to Figure 6 but rotatably mounted in the casing 5 and is pro- 100 showing a modified construction. vided with passageways 20, 21, 22 and 23.
Figure 10 is a view similar to the left-hand When the device is in the position shown in end of the structure shown in Figure 6 but with Figures 1 and 11, the first outward movement the plungers and associated parts in their outer of the plunger 10 will draw in fluid through positions. the outlet 2 through passageways 22 and 16 into 105 Figure 11 is a side view on a reduced scale chamber 9. At the same time air will be drawn of the structure shown in Figure 1 as the same in from a suitable container or filter, or some will appear when in use, the syringe being shown other supply, through the flexible pipe 24 in connection with part of a spinal column. through the hollow projection 25 and through Referring to the accompanying drawings by passageways 20 and 18 into the central chamber 119 8. The sucking action of the plunger will continue until the parts have been moved to their extreme outer positions. As soon as moved to the outer position the direction of movement of the plunger is reversed, and, as hereinafter fully described, will rotate the key 19 so that it will assume the position shown in Figure 2, whereupon the air in the central chamber 8 would be forced out the passageway 17 through passageway 21, through the outlet member 2, and thence into the spinal column to take the place of the fluid that has been withdrawn therefrom. At the same time that the air from the chamber 8 is forced into the spinal column thefluid in chamber 9 is forced out through the passageways 16 and 23 into the hollow projection 26, and from thence through the pipe 15 to a container or suitable device for the reception of the fluid.
As the plunger completes its full inward movement the bar 29 and associated parts, as hereinafter fully described, will function and cause a reversal of the key 19 so that it will reassume the position shown in Figure 1, and at the second outward movement of the plunger, will again draw in the fluid into the outer chamber 9 and air into the inner chamber 8. This action is repeated as often as desired to secure the amount of fluid necessary.
Heretofore, it has been customary to draw out somewhere from 5' to 10 0.0. upon each aetuation of the syringeand'then later inject the same amount of air into the spinal canal. This is more or less objectionable as it first reduces the pressure appreciably in the spinal canal and then increases the pressure. It will thus be seen that by removing large quantities of the fluid from the spinal canal and then substituting thereafter large quantities of air will necessitate an appreciable time interval between the removal of the fluid and the supply of air. This interval is the time necessary to withdraw the fluid, eject the fluid from the syringe, draw in air and then inject the air into the spinal canal. During this interval the brain andspinal cord are trying to adjust themselves to diminished pressure but by the time they have adjusted themselves to this diminished pressure, they have to re-adjust themselves again to an increased pressure by reason of the injection of the air. This, therefore, makes a constant back-and-forth or see-saw movement in the spinal canaland brain as the increased and decreased pressures take place, the same lasting by the method heretofore used from one to three minutes. This causes objectionable and severe reaction in the patient in the way of headaches and other. reactions. In order to obviate the major part of the interval of diminution of pressure and the see-saw movement of the pressure in the intraspinal and intracranial cavities, the present invention enables the operator to-save at least one-half of the time of the total procedure, and thus save the patient a major part of the see-saw movement of the pressures, and it avoids removing large quantities of fluid at one time.
In the syringe shown in Figure 1 very small quantities of fluid may be removed on each actuation of the device and the device, of course, may be actuated as many times as desired to secure the full quantity necessary for a given purpose, as, for instance, for a test or to relieve pressure produced by an accident on the spinal column or produced by some other. cause. The
syringe is adapted to draw one, two or more 0. cs. on each outward movement and inject on each inward movement the same volume of air, thus destroying the diminution of pressure almost as soon as it has been created. By the automatic shifting of the key 19 the plunger 10 may be moved back and forth regularly and comparatively fast without injury to the patient so that in the reduced time interval 5 or 10 c. cs. could be removed but at no time could there be more removed than a very small quantity, as, for instance, 2 c. cs.
As illustrated in Figures 1 to 5 inclusive, it willv be seen that the key 19 is held against movement in one direction by the screw 27 and in the opposite direction by the screw 28 acting in connection with a reversing bar 29 and certain associated parts. The reversing bar 29 is connected by screw 30 to a clamp 31 which through the use of a screw 32 is clamped firmly' tothe plunger 10 so that the bar 29 will reciprocate with the plunger 10.
The bar 29, as shown in Figures 4 and 5, is provided with an enlargement 33 which has a slot 34 in which the reduced extension 35 of key 19 fits. This extension is provided with a pin 36 adapted to be struck by the respective projections 37 and 38 as the rod 29 functions. As shown in Figure 1, the extension 38 is struck and caused to swing over the pin 36 and the key 19 to the position illustrated in Figure 1. When the plunger moves outwardly for its full distance on the last part of its travel, the lug 3'? strikes the pin 36 and swings this pin and the key 19 to the position shown in Figure 2, whereupon the ports in the key 19 are reversed. If it should be desired at any time to remove the key 19, the screw 30 could be removed and screw 28 also, as well as screw 27. The key 19 could then be slipped out of the casing 5 and replaced whenever desired. However, immediately before the plunger 10 moves to its extreme outer position, the rod 29 causes the abutment or lug 37 to rotate the key 19 to the position shown in Figure 2, and immediately before the plunger 19 has moved to its extreme inner position the abutment 39 begins to function and functions to reverse the ports of the key 19. This action is automatic and does not require any particular attention by the person using the i device. It will thus be seen that as the plunger 19 is moved back and forth slowly the device functions to draw in air and fluid on the outward stroke and force the air and fluid outwardly on the inward stroke, the fluid passing to a desired container and the air passing back through the needle 1 into the place from which the fluid has been drawn. By this construction and arrangement there is no time lost in shifting valves and providing a four-cycle action instead of a two-cycle action.
In Figures 6 and '7 a slightly modified structure is shown to that illustrated in Figures 1 to 5 inclusive. In these two figures modified structures will be given separate numbers and the remaining structures will use the numbers shown in Figures 1 and 2.
As shown in Figure 6, the casing 5 is provided with a division plate 39 so that the plunger 40 must be provided with a slot 41 for accommodating this division plate. As illustrated in Figure 8 a division plate 39 extends from one side to the other of the cylinder 12, and, therefore, the sections 43 and 14 of the piston 40 act kids as separate plungers so that the chambers 45 and .45 will act as the chambers 8 and 9. It will be understood that this form of the invention, as well as the form shown in Figure 1, may be made from any desired material or a combination of material without departing from the spirit of the invention.
In Figure 6 the parts are shown ready for an outward movement for drawing in a quantity of fluid. In Figure '7 the parts are shown in their reversed positions so that when the piston has moved back to its inner position air will be forced into the spinal column, while the fluid previously drawn in will be forced into the container.
In Figures 9 and 10 a further modified form of the invention is shown and additional numbers will be given for the modified structure. The casing 5 in this form. of the invention is provided with internally threaded bosses 4'7 and 48 for receiving the threaded extensions 49 and 50 of the respective cylinders 51 and 52. These cylinders are provided with plungers 53 and 54 which are connected to a suitable clamp 55, said clamp in turn being secured by a screw 30 to the rod 29. The plungers 53 and 54 are ready to move outwardly and draw in a supply of; liquidinto the cylinder 52 and a supply of air into the cylinder 51.
Figure 10 shows the same structure as illustrated in Figure 9 but with the plungers in their outer positions and starting inwardly. As the plungers move inwardly the air previously drawn into chamber 51 would be forced out through the discharge member 2 into the spinal column and the liquid from the cylinder 52 would be discharged through the pipe 15 to the container provided to receive the same.
It will be seen that in all forms of the invention the same rod 29 is used and also the same adaptor 3 for providing a switching of the fluid and air upon the return movement of the respective plunge-rs. Also, in all forms of the invention the parts are automatic throughout and after it has once been placed in position, as illustrated in Figure 11, it is only necessary to pull the plunger outwardly and then force the same inwardly a desired number of times to secure a desired volume of fluid and replace the fluid with an equivalent in air.
1. An automatic displacement syringe including a pair of chambers, means in the chambers acting as plungers, a valve connected to said chambers, said valve having a key provided with four passageways and a casing having a center and two side discharge members and three passageways, two of said passageways continually registering with one of said chambers and the other of said passageways registering with the remaining chamber, said key being positioned so that the passageways therein when in one position will register with two of said passageways, said central discharge member and one of said side discharge members, and when in a second position the other two passageways in the key will register with said central discharge member and the other of said side discharge members, and means for automatically rotating said key as said plungers move from one extreme position to the other, all of said passageways being so arranged that when said plungers are moved to their extreme outer positions matter will be drawn into one of said chambers from the central discharge member and matter will be drawn into the other of said chambers through one of said side discharge members, and when said plungers are moved to an inner position the key will be changed to permit the matter previously drawn in to be discharged through the central discharge member and the other of said side discharge members.
2. A displacement syringe comprising means forming two chambers, a plunger arranged in each chamber, said plungers functioning as one, a valve connected to said chambers and means for shifting said valve automatically as the plungers move to an extreme outer position and an extreme inner position, said valve being provided with ports to draw in a supply of fluid from a source to one of said chambers as the plunger moves outwardly and at the same time draw in air to the other of said chambers, said valve being also constructed with ports so that when said plungers are moved inwardly the fluid drawn in will be discharged out of a different passageway and the air drawn in will be simultaneously discharged out through the fluid port so as to furnish a displacing agent for the withdrawn fluid.
3. A displacement syringe of the character described including a pair of simultaneously operating pump structures, each of said pump structures having a pair of passageways acting respectively as an inlet and an outlet, a rotatable valve constructed with ports so positioned that when said pump structure functions the fluid drawn in will be discharged out of a different passageway, and the air drawn in will be simultanecusly discharged out through the passageway through which the fluid has been drawn in so as to furnish a displacement agent for the withdrawn fluid, and means operated by part of the pump structures for automatically actuating said valve for changing the ports thereof at the respective extreme positions of the pump structures.
A displacement syringe include means presenting a pair of pump structures, said pump structures operating simultaneously, a valve connected to said pump structures, said valve having a casing provided with a central outlet member and two side outlet members, said casing also being provided with three ports leading from the res ective chambers of the two pump structures, two of said ports leading from one chamber, a valve key provided with four ports arranged so that two will connect the central outlet and one side outlet at one time with the respective chambers of said pump structures and the other two at a second setting to connect the respective pump structures with the central outlet and the other side outlet, said means connected to the pump structures for actuating said hey at the beginning of each stroke.
5. A displacement syringe for medical purposes adaped to r move spinal fluid from the spinal canal and substitute air comprising two cylindrical members open at both ends, a valve having a casing, said cylindrical members having one end embedded in said casing, said cylindrical members being arranged concentrically, a plunger having an inner tubular section fitting within the inner cylinder, an outer annular section fitting within the outer cylinder and exteriorly of the inner cylinder, and means actuated by said plunger for shifting the ports of said valve so that on the outward stroke fluid from the spinal canal will be drawn into one of said cylinders and air will be drawn into the other and upon the inward stroke the fluid drawn in will be discharged at a given point andthe air drawn in will be forced into the spinal canal.
6. A displacement syringe for medical purposes adapted to remove spinal fluid from the spinal canal and substitute air therefor comprising a cylinder, a valve connected to one end of said cylinder, said valve having a division plate extending therefrom merging into said cylinder whereby said cylinder for the length of said division plate is divided into two chambers, a plunger formed with a bifurcated structure of a shape to fit into said chambers and means connected with said plunger for automatically shifting the ports in said valve whereby when said plunger is moved outwardly spinal fluid will be drawn into one of said chambers and air into the other and when the plunger is moved inwardly the drawn-in spinal fluid will be discharged at a given point, and the drawnin air will be forced into the spinal canal, said air and fluid being of the same volume.
'7. A displacement syringe for medical purposes adapted to remove spinal fluid from the spinal canal and substitute air therefor comprising a pair of cylinders, a single valve connected to both of said cylinders, a plunger arranged in each cylinder, a clamp for connecting said plungers so they will work in unison, and means actuated by said clamp for causing said valve to shift its ports as said plungers move to their respective extreme positions whereby when said plungers move outwardly spinal fluid will be drawn in one of said cylinders and air of the same volume into the other cylinder and when said plungers are forced inwardly said air will be forced into the spinal canal and the fluid will be forced out through a discharge point.
8. A displacement syringe of the character described including a pair of simultaneously operating pump structures constructed so that each pump structure will draw in the same volume of matter on the intake stroke each of the pump structures having a pair of passageways respectively acting as inlet and outlet openings, a valve having four ports, there being one port for each of said passageways, said ports being so positioned that when said pump structures function, one pump structure will draw in fluid through one of said passageways and one of said ports, While another pump structure will draw in air through a second passageway and a second port, said pump structures when functioning on the return stroke acting to force the air previously drawn in out through a third passageway and a third port and into the space from which the fluid has been drawn so as to furnish a displacement agent for the withdrawn fluid and simultaneously discharge the fluid previously drawn in out through a fourth passageway and a fourth port, and means operated by part of the pump structures for automatically changing the ports of the valve at the respective extreme positions of the pump structures.
9. A displacement syringe for medical purposes including means for substituting air in the spinal canal for the spinal fluid, including a pair of reciprocating pumps each having an inlet and an outlet passageway and a rotatable valve having a port for each of said passageways functioning to cause the spinal fluid to flow out of the spinal canal through one of said ports and one of said passageways into one of the pumps on the outward stroke of said pump, and an equal volume of air to flow into the spinal canal through a second passageway and a second port from the other pump on the return stroke of said pumps, the first mentioned pump discharging the spinal fluid on said return stroke through a third passageway and a third port.