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Publication numberUS1948568 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 27, 1934
Filing dateApr 28, 1930
Priority dateApr 28, 1930
Publication numberUS 1948568 A, US 1948568A, US-A-1948568, US1948568 A, US1948568A
InventorsLeon De R Faber, Charles J Carroll
Original AssigneeFaber Engineering Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of treating textile materials and the like
US 1948568 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb. 27, 1934. L. DE R. FABER El AL 1,943,563

METHOD OF TREATING TEXTILE MATERIALS AND THE LIKE Filed April 28, 1930 3 Sheets-Sheet l F VENTORS kiw fliww 411m ATTORNEY.

Feb. 27, 1934. DE R FABER AL 1,948,568

METHOD OF TREATING TEXTILE MATERIALS AND THE LIKE Filed April 28, 1930 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS if. 24m. 7 m M Feb. 27, 1934. :5 R, FABER ET AL 1,948,568

G TEXTILE MATERIALS AND THE LIKE 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 METHOD OF TREATIN Filed April 28, 1930 INVENT RS pm w M W M34 aw 35 said.

' Patented Feb. 27, 1934 PATENT OFFICE IWETHOD OF TREATING TEXTILE MATE- BIALS AND THE LIKE Leon De It. Faber and Charles J. Carroll, Philadelphia, Pa., assignors to Faber Engineering Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Delaware Application April as, 1930. serial No. 448,114

26 Claims.

Our invention relates to a method of washing, cleaning, scouring, degumming, dyeing, weighting, bleaching or otherwise treating textile materials and the like, including natural and artificial silk, wool, cotton, and other fibrous and hair-like materials, either singly or in combination or mixture, either in the raw state or in wholly or partially manufactured state, as in threads, yarns or skeins, in the form of cloth or piece goods or articles such as garments made therefrom, or in the form of fabrics or articles woven, knitted or otherwise produced therefrom, including hosiery, and including skins, chamois, leather, pelts, furs and the like; and,

in general, our method may be employed for treating material, in solid pieces or other form, having pores or interstices.

In accordance with our invention for treating the material, there is caused to contact therewith, and preferably to partially or completely penetrate the same, foam in finely divided state comprising bubbles of relatively small sizes, ranging in diameter from the order of inch downwardly to mist-like bubbles in- 5 eluding in some cases substantial or large quantities of mist particles or bubbles of microscopic dimensions. Further in accordance with our invention, the constituent bubbles and mist particles of the foam are preferably substantially or roughly uniform as to size, and are herein so designated when the greater part or substantially all of them lie within a range of diameters from V inch and preferably less than inch or inch down to the smallest afore- As to one of its aspects, our invention resides in a method of forcing the film material and gas of the foam bubbles, whatever their size, through the material under treatment, either by 40 applying the foam under suitably high pressure at the region of entrance into the material, or by reducing the pressure at, the region of exit, or both.

Furthermore, in accordance with one aspect of our invention, the foam bubbles are formed out of contact with or at a region remote from the liquid pool.

Further in accordance with our invention the bubbles or mist particles are formed of water or any other suitable liquid containing soap or equivalent having bubble-forming characteristics; and in solution or suspension in the liquid may be utilized dye, weight imparting material, chemical reagent, or any other agent to be de- 56 posited upon or within the material, or to effeet suitable treatment thereof without deposit -upon or within the same.

Further in accordance with our invention, the gaseous material within the bubbles, whatever their size, may be of any suitable character, such an as air or other gas, vapors, or a mixture of two or more of them; and more particularly, the gaseous material within the bubbles may be wholly or in part a gas or vapor of a character having chemical or other action upon the material treated. For example, the gaseous material within the bubbles may be wholly or in part hydrogen peroxide, chlorine gas,'or some other equivalent gas or vapor, for efiecting bleaching, it being understood, however, that our invention comprehends any gaseous material which may have either chemical, physical, mechanical or other effect upon the material treated. And in such circumstance, the liquid film of the bubbles may contain, in addition to w the soap or equivalent bubble-forming material, dye, weight imparting material or any other suitable or desirable material or reagent.

In accordance with our invention, each bubble constitutes a vehicle or medium for bring- 39 ing any suitable substance or substances into treating relation with the material, and the liquid film of each bubble, or the gaseous content of the bubble, or both, may produce a beneficial or desired effect upon the material to be treated.

In accordance with our invention, the foam comprising the small bubbles, including mist-like particles, may be formed by any suitable method of agitation, beating, blowing or the like, but preferably by delivering liquid, or air or other gas, through a nozzle and entraining or mixing with the resultant jet the air or other gas, or liquid, producing foam of the character aforesaid, which is then passed into contact with or through the material to be treated while either stationary or in motion, the path of the foam through the material preferably, though not necessarily, increasing in cross sectional area.

Further in accordance with our invention, the sizes of the bubbles and mist constituents of the foam are readily controlled by suitably controlling the pressure of the fluid delivered through the nozzle and by controlling the rate of flow to the jet of the fluid to be entrained thereby or mixed therewith in the formation of the foam.

Further in accordance with our invention, foam of the character aforesaid is utilized for washing or cleansing fabrics, garments, linen 119 and the like in either commercial or domestic laundries; or our method and apparatus may be employed in commercial and domestic dry cleaning by use of gasoline or equivalent.

In accordance with our invention, the material during treatment by the foam is preferably entirely out of contact with a body of liquid, though from some aspects our invention includes the case also where either before, during or after treatment, the material is to some extent or for some time directly subjected to a mass or pool of liquid.

By recourse to foam whose constituent bubbles and mist particles are of the low order and range of diameters aforesaid, the penetration into the material to be treated is greatly enhanced, yielding greater uniformity of treatment, materially decreasing the time of treatment, and in the case of materials easily chafed or otherwise damaged by handling or motion, or .deteriorating under prolonged application of temperature, as in the case, for example, of hosiery piece goods or garments of silk, our method of treatment yields a superior product.

While, as aforesaid, our method is advantageous for treating materials of the general character described, it is particularly advantageous in those cases where the pores of the material or the interstices between the threads, yarns or the like of manufactured articles as hosiery, piece goods, garments or the like, are small or fine, because the bubbles or particles of small dimensions themselves more readily penetrate or effect greater penetration of the liquid and gas into the pores and interstices, and in bursting, or in bursting reforming and bursting again, distribute the liquid and its contents and the gaseous content of the bubbles with far greater uniformity throughout the mass of material than in the case of bubbles of larger sizes, and the advantage of the small bubbles or particles, in accordance with our invention, is probably due to the fact that, in addition to more ready penetration, the ratio of liquid containing soap, dye or other treatingmaterial, to the air or other gas within the bubbles is of a higher order of magnitude.

Further in accordance with our invention, the foam may enter the material to be treated at sub-atmospheric, substantially atmospheric or superatmospheric pressure, and the pressure, where the foam, or liquid of collapsed bubbles, emerges from the material, may be atmospheric, sub-atmospheric or superatmospheric.

In accordance with our invention, the solution of soap or equivalent is converted into bubbles which are passed into or through the material to be treated, again eventually yielding liquid which is preferably returned to the body of liquid from which the bubbles are generated.

In accordance with one of the aspects of our invention by continuously recycling a soap solution of substantially fixed quantity the amount of solution necessary for treating a given-amount of material is minimized, the amount of soap, dye or other ingredients, and amount of gas within the bubbles, is minimized with a substantially perfect control of the amount of soap, dye or other ingredient applied to the material under treatment, and particularly in the case of dyeing there is effected a control which makes possible accurate matching of colors and shades.

Our invention resides in a method of the character hereinafter described and claimed.

For an understanding of our method, and for an illustration of some of the various forms our apparatus may take, reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional view, parts 'in elevation, of one of the forms our apparatus may take, and is illustrative of the practic l of a method in accordance with our invention.

Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view, parts in elevation, of another form of our apparatus, in which the material under treatment is rotated or rocked backwardly and forwardly during application of foam thereto. 1

Fig. 3 is an end elevational view, partly in vertical section, of apparatus shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4 is a fragmentary vertical section, on larger scale, taken on the line 44 of Fig. 2.

Fig. 5 Ba vertical sectional view, partly in elevation, of a modification corresponding in general to Fig. 2.

Fig. 6 is a vertical sectional view, parts in elevation, illustrating the treatment of skeins or the like.

Fig. 7 is a vertical sectional view, parts in elevation, illustrating the treatment of piece goods, cloth and the like.

Fig. 8 is a vertical sectional view, parts in elevation, illustrating the treatment of furs, pelts, skins, leather and the like.

Fig. 9 is a cross sectional view, parts in elevation, taken on the line 99 of Fig. 8.

For the production of foam, there is utilized with water or other liquid any suitable material, herein generically termed soap, conducive to the formation of froth or bubbles. In addition to soap, there may be used glycerine, glue or any other suitable material, which when desirable may impart to the film or wall of the bubble suitable strength or tenacity. The soap used will vary, as now understood in the art, with the material to be operated upon. It may, for example, be olive oil soap, or a boiloff oil, such as Turkey red oil, oleic acid, with an admixture of sodium silicate, which latter is a soap preferred in the treatment of silk hosiery; while the former is generally utilized for degumming or cleaning silk in skeins or in the form of cloth, fabrics and the like.

Whether or not the material is to be washed, cleansed or degummed, soap is utilized for producing the bubble structure which may then be utilized as a carrier for some other agent or material, including dye, to be applied to or to affect the material treated.

While water is generally used to form the bubbles, any other suitable liquid may be employed, including such as may have a chemical or other effect upon the material treated. And the gaseous material within the bubbles may be in whole or in part of a character to produce a chemical or other effect upon the material treated.

When the bubble structure is utilized to trans port dye to the material, there may be added to the liquid in question, in accordance with old practice, sodium sulphate or equivalent, particug larly for dyes of certain characteristics. When acid dyes are utilized, ordinary soaps will generally not be used for bubble formation, but any other suitable bubble forming agent which will not react with the acid dye may be utilized.

Referring to Fig. 1, within a housing or casing 1 of metal or other suitable material, is disposed a receptable or basket 2 whose side walls and bottom are perforated. Closing the casing 1 and the chamber 2 is the cover 3 hinged at 4,

" 1 and and held in place by the clamp 5. Communicating with the interior are the thermometer '1, pressure gauge G and pressure relief valve R.

Through the valve-controlled pipe 6 water or other liquid is delivered into the bottom of the casing 1 unt'l a suitable depth is reached, as may be indicated by a gauge glass, not shown. Through the funnel 7 is delivered the soap or bubble forming material in suitable quantity, and in addition, when desired, dye, bleaching agent, or any other ingredient to be applied *to the material to be treated. The and other ingredients are proportioned toithe batch of liquid L, contained in the housing 1, suitable for the purpose in view. The solution or liquid is when desirable heated by suitable means as, for example, by steam or any other heating medium passed through the valve-controlled heating coil 8.

, A valve-controlled pipe 9 is provided for draining the casing 1 as and when desired.

A pipe 10, whose opening is immersed at a suitably low level in the liquid pool L, communicates with the suction of a pump P, which delivers the liquid through the pipe 11, at suitable pressure indicated by the gauge G1, to the nozzle N of an injector, aspirator or ejector with whose chamber S, which may be termed for convenience the suction and/or mixing chamber, communicates the pipe 12 provided with the two-way valve V through which air is drawn either through the port 13 within the casing 1, or through the port 14, from the outer atmosphere, or through both in any desired proportions. The jet of liquid discharged by the nozzle N is projected through or beyond the chamber S through a mixing chamber, diffuser or nozzle M which may have a bore of any suitable type, which, in the example illus trated, is divergent.

It shall be understood that our invention is not limited to the particular structure of the injector or aspirator structure, but that any form may be utilized suitable for the purpose of pioducing the foam of small bubbles and particles.

In"any event, the structure is such that the liquid jet draws in through the pipe 12 air or,-in fact, any other gas which may be a gas or vapor, or a component of a mixture of gases or vapors, which may have some useful effect upon the material to be treated.

The effect of the interaction of the jet with the gas and/0r vapors delivered through the pipe 12 is the formation of foam whose constituents are very small bubbles and usually with an admixture of mist particles, which may themselves be particles entirely of liquid, or, in fact, extremely small bubbles. By preference, in accordance with our invention, as herein described, the bubbles are less than /2 inch diameter and preferably quite small indeed, as from a small fraction of an inch downwardly to those which are practically mist or microscopic in dimensions.

The bubbles are within a range, preferably below /2 or inch diameter, substantially uniform in size in the sense that while the bubbles may be of various sizes and some of them many times the diameter of others, the overall range of sizes is relatively small, or, in any event, the larger proportion or substantially all the bubbles of the foam are within the range of dimensions above given.

The size of the bubbles is controllable by control of the pressure of the fluid delivered through the pipe 11, and the amount of fluid drawn in through the pipe 12. The pressure of the fluid delivered through the pipe 11 may be controlled by a valve therein, or, as hereinafter described, by controlling a bypass from the pipe 11 back into the mass of liquid L.

While in this example liquid is delivered through the pipe 11 and gas through the pipe 12, it will be understood that, as in the case of Fig. 5, the fluid delivered under pressure to the nozzle N may be gas and/or vapor, and liquid drawn in through the pipe 12, which in-that case communicates with the pool L1 In general, the higher the pressure of the fluid delivered to the nozzle, as N, of the foam forming structure, the smaller will be the diameters of the resultant bubbles; and, ingeneral, the greater the amount of air or gas in proportion to the liquid, the larger willbe the bubbles.

By way of example merely, it may be stated that when liquid is delivered to the nozzle N, its pressure may range from a few pounds per square inch gauge to several hundred pounds per square inch, though ordinarily a pressure of the order of to pounds per square inch will suflice. And when elastic fluid, as steam, air or gas, is delivered to the injector nozzle, as N, the pressure there applied may lie within a range or have a magnitude similar to that aforesaid for liquid.

Where the motive fluid is liquid, the nozzle passage may be of any suitable type as to variation of cross section with length. For example, the bore of the nozzle passage may be uniform or it may converge to the discharge end of the nozzle, the latter being preferred, though even a somewhat divergent nozzle may be employed. When elastic motive fluid is employed, the nozzle passage may again be either of uniform bore or convergent, though preferably it is divergent or convergent-divergent. The suction chamber may be of any suitable shape, and the discharge tube of the injector or ejector structure may have a bore, which is either convergent, uniform or divergent, or convergent-divergent. Generally, it will be divergent at least at its discharge end, though where elastic motive fluid is delivered to the nozzle as N, it may also be convergent-divergent. Where steam is used as the motive fluid, relatively small amounts may be utilized, for steam is quite efficient in the bubble-forming operation. However, as elsewhere stated, the condensation of the steam varies the amount of liquid in the system, and this, in some instances, is undesirable.

While we have shown a single jet-producing nozzle, it will be understood a'plurality may be used to form a plurality of jets delivered into a common foam generator structure, or a plurality of single nozzle generators may be employed.

In general, it is sought to keep the ratio of liquid to gaseous material, such as air, gas, vapors, or a'mixture of them, within limits suitable to the production of bubbles of a given range of sizes, and to this end the parts of the injector or ejector structure will be suitably proportioned, and these proportions will be different where the motive fluid is liquid from the case where it is steam, air, gas or other elastic fluid.

The foam constituted of fine bubbles is delivclosure 16. The pipe 15 extends up well into the material which is placed around and above it The foam passes out through the perforations in the pipe 15 into the material, penetrating it partially or completely, and the emerging foam, or liquid, passes out through the perforations in the side walls and bottom of the basket 2 and drains back into the pool of liquid I The cross section of the path of the foam through the material, in the example illustrated, and preferably, increases from the pipe 15 outwardly. The small bubbles and mist-like particles penetrate the material quite thoroughly and uniformly, effecting treatment in an unusually short period of time and yielding a highly uniform product.

The liquid in the casing 1 may, if desirable, be raised to a temperature of from about 180 to about 205 degrees F for degumming and dyeing,

though this temperature may vary according to circumstances, and may be either substantially lower or higher than the aforesaid temperature, depending upon circumstances. In any event, the temperature of the liquid L may be such that the temperature within the basket, as indicated by the thermometer T, is that suitable or desirable for the particular operation involved.

The pressure within the basket, as indicated by the gauge G, may be either sub-atmospheric,

substantially atmospheric or superatmospheric, and when the pressure is superatmospheric, its rise beyond a predetermined limit is prevented by the relief valve R which discharges to atmosphere.

Other things being the same, the rate of flow or passage of the bubbles through the material to be treated depends upon the excess of pressure at the region of entry into the material over that at the region of exit, and, without auxiliary means, this-pressure difference is produced by the injector or ejector apparatus described. This rate of passage through the material may be increased, however, and the injector or ejector apparatus assisted, by reducing the pressure at the regibnof exit of the bubbles or liquid from the material under treatment, and this may be accomplished, for example, by a pump P1 which is of any suitable type, such as a vacuum pump or ejector, whose suction is connected through the pipe p with the interior of the casing 1 and which discharges through the valve-controlled pipe p1 to any suitable destination, as atmosphere, into the suction chamber of the injector or ejector apparatus,

either through a separate connection thereto, or, as indicated, by discharging into the pipe 12. The auxiliary pump or ejector P1 may cause within the chamber 1 a vacuum or sub-atmospheric pressure, if desired. In any event, however, whatever the pressure maintained within the chamber 1, the pump or ejector P1 assists the foam producing structure in forcing the foam through the material to be treated.

In addition there may be utilized a further pump or ejector, comparable to P1, having its suction communicating through a flexible hose and the valve-controlled pipe 0 with the upper end of the basket or chamber 2. Or a single pump as P1 may be utilized for both purposes, in which case the pipe 0 will connect with the suction of pump P1.

In lieu of air, or in mixture therewith, may be utilized a gas within the foam bubbles for treating the material, as for bleaching, or any other suitable purpose. For bleaching there may be used, for example, chlorine gas, hydrogen peroxide or equivalent, or suitable mixtures of them. The gas may be held, preferably under pressure, in any suitable tank or container K, from which it may be continuously or intermittently admitted into the system, either directly into the casing 1 or, and preferably, into the suction chamber of the foam forming injector or ejector, either directly, or, as shown, through the valve-controlled pipe It delivering into thepipe 12. Generally, as in the case of the liquid L, a single batch of gas will serve for treatment, in which case the system may be filled with the gas in question and communication with the tank K then cut off.

Where the gas, for example hydrogen peroxide, is in solution, as in water, that solution may be introduced into the liquid L from which the gas will be liberated by the action of suitable material in the liquid; or the gas may be liberated from its solution by applying thereto suitable material, and the gas, as such, then delivered into the system as and where described in connection with the gas supply pipe is.

It shall be understood that in accordance with our invention, when applying gas to the material to be treated in the form of or by means of bubbles for beneficially affecting that material, the size of the bubbles may be anything suitable or desirable and much larger than hereinbefore described, though generally and preferably the smaller range of sizes of bubbles above described will be utilized.

In accordance with this example and those hereinafter described, the material under treatment is out of contact with the liquid pool as such, and only the foam, or the liquid resulting from the breaking of the bubbles, comes into contact therewith.

The period of treatment is materially short-.

ened; the amount of liquid, soap and other ingredients, and gas and/or vapor utilized is a. minimum; and the liquid with its contents is continuously recycled, the total amount of liquid remaining constant. The amount of motion and handling of the material is a minimum, whereby the handling of delicate materials damaged by chafing, etc., is materially reduced, yielding a superior product both from the aspects of strength and appearance. The treatment, furthermore, is substantially uniform throughout the mass of material, yielding a product which is nicely and accurately determinable as to its characteristics, particularly in the case of coloring or dyeing. Because of the short period of treatment the effect of temperature upon the material, where that is a consideration, is reduced.

Referring to Figs. 2, 3 and 4, there is illustrated an apparatus of the same general character in which, however, the material during treatment is disposed in a rotor or basket or chamber, rotating continuously in one direction or casing or housing 1 through any suitable inlet structure, which, for example, has a valve-controlled pipe such as 6 shown in Fig. 1. Heat is again provided by any suitable means as by steam or equivalent, delivered through the heating coil 8 under the control of a valve such as 8a.

Within the housing or casing 1 is the cylindrical rotor or basket B, comprising the metal sliding wall elements 17, overlapping at their adjacent edges, and where they overlap are spaced from each other to allow egress of the liquid or foam after it has traversed the material held within the basket between the longitudinally extending bafiles or vanes 18 secured to and projecting radially from the core member .01 shaft 19. the ends of the rotor B the wall elements 17 join the end walls 20 and 21. The end wall 20 is centered and secured .upon the shaft 22 extending to the exterior of the housing 1 and driven by any suitable means, which in the example illustrated is the worm gear 23 driven by the worm 24, secured upon the shaft of the pulley 25 driven by the belt 26. The basket or rotor 12 is rotated continuously as aforesaid, or backwardly and forwardly to impart to the basket alternate substantially full revolutions in opposite directions. The mechanism for procuring this rocking movement is well understood in the art, and comprises any means for driving the shaft 22 in either direction through any extent of movement. The core or shaft member 19 extends from the shaft 22 and terminates in the member 27 forming a part of the end wall structure 21 having centrally the enlargement 28 terminating in the hollow shaft 29 having a bearing at 30 on the housing 1. Within the structure 28 are four passages 31, each controlled by a foam distributing valve 32, and each communicating with the longitudinally extending foam tube or manifold 33. These manifolds 33 are disposed centrally of t the four chambers formed within the rotor B, and each is provided with slot-like ports or openings 33a communicating with the several basket chambers or compartments.

Through the pipe 10 the pump P draws liquid, whose temperature is indicated by the thermometer T, and discharges it into the pipe 11, at a pressure indicated by the pressure gauge G1. The pipe 11 communicates with the injector or ejector nozzle N,- which delivers a liquid jet which entrains or with which becomes mixed air, gas or vapor, or a mixture of them, delivered through the pipe 12 from the interior of the housing 1, the relief valve R being provided to discharge to the outer atmosphere in the event the pressure within the casing 1 exceeds a predetermined limit. In the stationary structure M, and/or beyond it, the foam of fine bubbles and mist is formed and discharges into the hollow rotating shaft 29, thence through the valves 32 into the manifolds 33 and thence through their .ports 33a into the material within the basket B. Here again the cross section of the path of the foam through the material increases in the direction of flow of the foam. The pump P may be driven at a substantially constant speed to produce a pres-' sure in excess of that required at the nozzle N, and pressure may be reduced or controlled by bypassing a portion of the liquid back into the casing 1 through the pipe 11a having the valve 11b. suitable setting of which controls within desired limits the amount of foam produced and the size of the bubbles or mist particles thereof.

Access to the several compartments of the rotor or basket B is effected by raising the cover 1a hinged to the casing 1 at 1b. With the cover open, the wall member 1'7 may be slid back by grasping the handles 17a to open position, and the material loaded into the several compartments in succession. The foam produced is delivered or forced through ports 33a, and then penetrates into or through the material in the basket and emerges as foam or liquid at the -outer boundaries of the material, the liquid draining off through the openings or spaces between the wall members 1'? back into the batch of liquid L.

By rocking or rotating the material in and by the basket B, the treatment of the material is in some cases more complete or uniform than in the case where it lies stationary as in the case of Fig. 1. The soap or bubble forming material is introduced into the funnel 7, Fig. 3, when the solution is not first prepared exteriorly of the housing 1. Through the'same funnel may be introduced dye and/or other materials to be delivered to and into and throughout the material within the basket.

For reducing the pressure within the casing 1, and, in general, for increasing the rate of passage of the foam bubbles through the material to be treated, there may be utilized again a pump P1 of any suitable type as previously described, whose suction is connected with the interior of the casing 1 through pipe 10, and whose discharge connects through valve-controlled pipe pl either directly with the chamber M with the pipe 12, and in the latter case avalve 12a will be provided in the pipe 12, above the connection thereto of the pipe 101, to close off communication with the interior of the easing 1.

It shall be understood also that in arrangements of the character of Fig. 2, gas, other than air, or in mixture with air, may be delivered into the system, as described in connection with Fig. 1, for producing any desirable or useful effect upon the material under treatment. For this purpose the container or tank K has the valvecontrolled pipe k connecting with the pipe 12.

While in Fig. 2 liquid, inelastic fluid, is delivered to the nozzle N, and elastic fluid, air, vapors or any suitable gas, as described in connection with Fig. 1, is delivered through the pipe 12, it will be understood that as shown inFig. 5 liquid 130 from the pool L may be delivered to the injector or ejector apparatus through the valve-controlled pipe 11, and elastic motive fluid, as steam, compressed air, gas, or vapor or the like, may be delivered through the pipe 34, controlled by valve 34a, the steam, air or gas jet entraining or becoming mixed with the liquid drawn through the pipe 11 to form foam as aforesaid delivered to the material within the basket B. When steam is utilized as the motive fluid, it 140 .eventually condenses into water which finds its valve 35 and pipe 36 to the injector or aspirator structure and so recycled, as in the case of Figs. 1 and 2. Where the motive fluid is air or gas, however, delivered through the pipe 34, there will be an accumulation of air or gas within the casing 1, and this may be relieved to atmosphere through the valve 37, which may be a hand-controlled valve or an automatic relief valve. Or the valve 37 may admit air from the atmosphere to the injector structure. It will be understood, however, that the valves 34a, 35 and 37 may be set for any desired arrangement or circumstances. The valves 35 and37 may be simultaneously opened, or either or both closed, as circumstances may require. 7

In these arrangements, Figs. 2 and 5, any material may be treated. For example, hosiery of silk, cotton or rayon, artificial silk, or any combination of them, may be washed, scoured, dyed or otherwise treated. Or raw cotton or wool may be charged into the basket B and secured, dyed or otherwise treated. Similarly, furs may be treated in preparation for dyeing by charring into the basket 3 where grease and other matter is removed, or furs and like articles may be cleaned and dyed in the basket B, or may be otherwise suitably treated therein, as after dyeing.

Furthermore, apparatus, in accordance with Figs. 1, 2 and 5, may be used in commercial laundries for washing and cleansing fabrics, garments, clothes, linen, etc. An apparatus of this character may also be utilized as domestic washing and cleaning machines.

In addition, in the basket B, silk in skeins may be degummed and/or dyed. Artificial silk or rayon materials may be cleansed and/or dyed, and cotton and wool yarn may be secured and/or dyed.

In accordance with our method and structure, the time of treatment is short, and may be, for example, in the case of degumming of hosiery, fabrics, etc., of silk, as low as about ten to about thirty minutes, and in the case of degumming silk in skeins the time required will be of the order of ten minutes, or less.

Referring to Fig. 6, there is disclosed an apparatus for practicing our method in the treatment particularly of skeins or the like of silk or other material. Within the cylindrical chamber, formed in part by the hinged cover 1a and in part by the wall 1c, and'the downwardly and inwardly extend'mg wall portions id, is a structure rotated preferablyalways in one direction by the shaft 38, surrounded by the hollow mixing or foam conveying cylinder 39 in which the foam is formed by injector or ejector structure of the character described, or having been formed by the injector or aspirator structure, is passed through the chamber 39 and then outwardly through ports therein into the cylindrical chamber where the foam contacts with and penetrates the skeins which are disposed at one end upon idler rollers 40 and at their opposite ends upon rollers 41 provided with spurs or lugs 42, which in coming into engagement with the screw stud 43, adjustable by the handle 44, causes a step of rotation of roller 41 for one complete rotation of the shaft 38. The revolution of the rollers 41 moves the skeins or the like upon the rollers step by step as the shaft 38 continues in motion. This step-by-step movement of the skeins is conducive to thorough application of the foam containing soap, dye or any other ingredients, serving to shorten the time of treatment, and also to procure a high degree of uniformity of treatment. The spent foam or liquid returns by gravity through the open bottom of the cylindrical chamber into the pool of liquid L.

Referring to Fig. 7, there is disclosed a generally similar arrangement of casing Pand cylindrical chamber, shaft 38, and hollow shaft or mixing chamber 39 with which rotate the pegs 45 upon which may be disposed cloth or piece goods, ribbons, garments and the like, of silk, wool, cotton or any mixture of them, or of any other materials. or furs, skins, etc., may be disposed upon the pegs. -The foam, delivered through the ports of the chamber 39, comes into contact with and penetrates the material, and the spent foam or liquid returns to the liquid pool L.

In both Figs. 6 and '7, it will be understood that the ejector system of Figs. 1, 2 or 5 may be utilized and similarly related as between the pool L and the chamber 39, as described in con nection with said prior figures. It shall be further understood that in arrangements, such as represented by Figs. 6 and '7, and also by Fig. '8, an auxiliary pump or ejector, as P1, of Figs. 1 and 2, may be utilized for producing the suitable pressure within the chamber 1, and, in general, for assisting the foam forming ejector or injector. And similarly, in Figs; 6, 7 and 8, there may be applied a gas other than air, or in mixture with air, as by providing the tank K with a connection is, as in Figs. 1 and 2, where the gas is to have an effect upon the material under treatment.

Referring to Figs. 8 and 9, there is shown apparatus suitable for the treatment in accordance with our invention, for general purposes,

of leather, skins, chamois, pelts, furs, etc. Within the casing or housing 1, which may be equipped with relief valve and other devices as described in connection with other forms of our invention, above the liquid pool L, there is mounted upon the shaft 22, driven, continuously in one direction or backwardly and forwardly, by belt, 26 through pulley 25, worm 24 and gear 23, or by any equivalent means, the rotor or basket B1, axially of which is disposed the hollow shaft or chamber 46 having the ports 47 through which the foam is delivered outwardly. The injector or aspirator arrangement may be of any of the types hereinbefore described. In the example illustrated, the liquid L, containing soap, dye or other ingredients, is withdrawn from the pool L through pipe 10 and forced through pipe 11 to the nozzle N, disposed in the chamber M, with which communicates the pipe 12 communicating with the interior of the casing 1, or admitting atmospheric air or other gas, including treating gas, inany of the modes and arrangements herein described, or their equivalents. As before, the liquid in the pool L is rapidly circulated through pipes 10 and lie, the latter controlled by valve 11b, and upon the setting of the valve 11b will depend the pressure of the liquid delivered to the nozzle N, thereby controlling the amount of and the degree of subdivision of the foam, as in the other cases herein described. I

The furs, skins, pelts, leather or other material to be treated, are placed in the rotor B1, by

opening its hinged section 48, and deposited in impact treatment. The spent foam or liquid passes outwardly through the slots 49 between the slats 50 forming the cylindrical wall of the rotor B1, returning to the pool L from which it is further recycled.

Furthermore, in this case, and in those hereinbefore described, the pressure within the casing 1 may be below, at or above atmospheric, and in all cases, generally, the pressure exerted on the foam, as it enters the material or its container, is suitably above the pressure within the casing 1.

Where gasoline, naphtha or equivalent is to be applied to the material under treatment, for example in the cleaning of garments, fabrics, etc., it may be in the form of vapor constituting in whole or in part the gaseous content of the bubbles, or with suitable soap or equivalent may be in liquid form in the bubble films.

While bleaching gas has hereinbefore been referred to as const'tuting in whole or in part the gaseous content of the bubbles, it will be understood that bleaching material may be carried in the bubble films, as in the case where chlorine, hydrogen peroxide or the like is in effect in solution in the liquid L utilized for foam generation.

While the liquid pool L has been shown as disposed within the housing or casing in which is disposed the container for the material under treatment, it will be understood that the pool L may be external to the housing, with a connection from the housing to the pool for returning thereto the liquid which drains to the bottom of the housing after emerging from the material under treatment.

It is our preference, as illustrated by the apparatus described, that the foam shall be generated at a point remote from or out of contact with the liquid utilized in the generation of the foam; specifically, out of contact with or remote from the liquid pool.

For brevity in the appended claims, the term injector is used in the generic sense to include injectors, ejectors, aspirators or the like, having generally the purpose and function hereinbefore described for generation of foam. Also, the term treating is employed in a generic sense as descriptive of any agent or material, or combination of agents or materials, carried by or forming the foam, bubbles, or mist particles, and which cleans, treats, operates upon, reacts with, or affects the material treated.

What we claim is:

1. A method of treating porous material, which comprises generating foam whose bubbles carry treating material, and passing the foam constituents through said material in a path progressively increasing in cross section in the direction of travel of the foam.

2. A method of treating material which comprises generating foam whose bubbles carry treating material, applying the foam to the material to be treated to effect passage of the foam constituents through said material, and reducing the pressure at a region distant from the region of application of said foam to said material to create a difference in pressure at opposite sides of the material to influence the rate of passage of the foam constituents therethrough.

3. A method of treating material, which comprises generating foam a constituent of whose bubbles is a treating material, applying the foam to the material to be treated and forcing the constituents of the foam therethrough, and regenerating foam for further application to the material to be treated by the gaseous constituent of the foam emerging from said material.

4. A method of treating material, which comprises generating foam a constituent of whose bubbles is a treating material, app ying the foam to the material to be treated andforcing the constituents of the foam therethrough, and regenerating foam for further application to the material to be treated by the liquid and gaseous constituents of the foam emerging from said material.

5. A method of treating material, which comprises generating foam by the action of a jet of fluid upon another fluid, one of said fluids comprising a gas, the foam bubbles carrying a treating agent, applying the foam to the material to be treated and causing the bubble constituents to pass therethrough, and regenerating foam by the interaction between a jet of fluid and the gaseous fluid emerging from said material.

6. A method of treating material, which comprises generating foam by the action of a jet of fluid upon another fluid, said fluids respectively comprising a liquid and a gas, the foam bubbles carrying a treating agent, applying the foam to the material to be treated and causing the bubble constituents to penetrate said material, and regenerating foam by interaction between jets of the gaseous fluid and liquid emerging from said material. I

7. A method of dyeing textile material, which comprises generating foam whose bubbles carry dye, and applying the bubbles to the material to be dyed and applying pressure to said bubbles in a direction to cause permeation of said material by the bubble constituents.

8. A method of simultaneously degumming and dyeing silk, which comprises generating foam whose bubbles carry degumming and dyeing agents, and applying the bubbles to the silk and causing passage of their constituents therethrough by creating a difference in pressure at opposite sides of the silk.

9. A method of simultaneously degumming and dyeing a manufactured article of silk, which comprises generating foam whose bubbles carry degumming and dyeing agents, and applying the bubbles to the article and causing passage therethrough of the bubble constituents by creating a 1ltlifference in pressure at opposite sides of the $1 10. A method of simultaneously degumming and dyeing silk hosiery, which comprises generating foam whose bubbles carry degumming and dyeing agents, and applying the bubbles to the hosiery and causing passage therethrough of the bubble constituents by creating a difference in pressure at opposite sides of the silk.

11. A method of treating material, which comprises converting a treating agent into small bubbles, maintaining a difference in pressure on opposite sides of said material, and applying the bubbles to the material on the higher pressure side thereof to force the constituents of the bubbles therethrough.

12. A method of treating material, which comprises converting a treating agent into small bubbles by the action of a jet of fluid which entrains and becomes mixed with another fluid, maintaining a difference in pressure on opposite sides of said material, and applying the bubbles to the material on the higher pressure side thereof to force the constituents of the bubbles therethrough.

13. A method of treating textile material, which comprises generating small bubbles by the action of a jet of fluid which entrains and becomes mixed with another fluid, one of said fluids being gaseous and the other a liquid containing soap, maintaining a difference in'presinto small bubbles by the action of a jet of fluid which entrains and becomes mixed with another fluid, maintaining a difference in pressure on opposite sides of said material, and applying said dye carrying bubbles to the material on the higher pressure side thereof to force the constituents of the bubbles therethrough.

.15. A method of simultaneously degumming and dyeing silk, which comprises generating foam whose bubbles carry degumming and dyeing agents, maintaining a difierence in pressure on opposite sides of the silk, and applying the bubbles to the silk on the higher pressure side thereof to force the constituents of the bubbles therethrough.

' 16. A method of treating material which comprises generating foam whose bubbles comprise a treating agent, applying the foam to the material to be treated, and maintaining in a region adjacent the region of application of said foam to said material a pressure lower than that in the said region of application of said foam to create a difference in pressure at opposite sides of the material to effect passage of the foam constituents therethrough.

17. The method of treating material which comprises repeatedly circulating liquid in a closed path from a pool to a treating zone removed from the pool in which said material is disposed and from said zone back to said pool, and in a region in said path removed from said pool, mixing a fluid with said liquid to generate foam for application to said material for treatment thereof.

18. The method of treating. material which comprises circulating liquid in a closed path including a pool and a treating zone removed therefrom; in a region in said path removed from said pool, mixing a fluid with said liquid to generate foam for application to said material in said zone, and agitating said material in'said zone and during application of the foam thereto.

19. The method of treating material which comprises circulating liquid in a closed path including a pool and a treating zone removed therefrom; in a region in said path removed from said pool, mixing a fluid with said liquid to generate foam for application to said material in said zone, and maintaining a difference in pressure across said material to effect forcible penetration thereof by the foam.

20. The method of treating material which comprises circulating liquid in a closed path including a pool and a treating zone removed therefrom; in a region in said path removed from the pool, mixing a fluid with said liquid to generate foam for application to said material in said zone, and transferring heat to said liquid in a region in said path removed from said treating zone.

21. The method of treating material which comprises circulating liquid in a closed path including a pool and a treating zone removed therefrom; in a region in said path removed from the pool, mixing a fluid with said liquid to generate foam for application to said material in said zone, and transferring heat to said liquid subsequent to its passage from the treating zone and prior to generation of foam therefrom for application to said material.

22. The method of treating material which comprises circulating liquid in a closed path including a pool and a treating zone removed therefrom; in a region in said path removed from said pool, mixing a fluid with said liquid to generate foam for application to said material in said zone, and producing suction at the outlet of said zone to draw the foam through said material.

23. The method of treating material, which comprises continuously circulating liquid and aerating it toproduce foam, applying the aerated liquid to said material and applying heat to said liquid during circulation. Y

24. The method of treating textile material and the like, which comprises continuously circulating liquid from and back to a pool thereof, during its passage aerating the liquid to produce foam and causing the aerated liquid to penetrate said, material, and during circulation of said liquid applying heat thereto.

25. A method of degumming silk which comprises generating foam whose bubbles carry a degumming agent, applying the bubbles to the silk, and utilizing a difference in pressure on opposite sides of the silk to eflect permeation thereof by the bubble. constituents.

26. A method of treating material, which comprises generating foam whose bubbles carry a treating agent, applying the bubbles to the material, and utilizing a difference in pressure on opposite sides of the material to force the constituents of the bubbles therethrough.

LEON DE R. FABER. CHARLES J. CARROLL.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification8/477, 261/151, 8/149.1, 68/163, 68/157, 261/78.2, 8/138, 8/139, 516/10, 68/183, 261/128, 8/111, 68/900, 223/76, 68/5.00C, 8/917, 8/101, 68/58
International ClassificationD06B5/00, D06F17/12, D06F21/04, D06B19/00, D06F35/00, D06P1/96
Cooperative ClassificationD06F21/04, D06P1/965, Y10S68/90, D06F17/12, D06F35/006, D06B5/00, Y10S8/917, D06B19/0094, D06B2700/18
European ClassificationD06F35/00E2, D06B5/00, D06F21/04, D06B19/00C2, D06P1/96B, D06F17/12