US 1948856 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 27, 1934.
W. A. HEINRICH TOOL FOR SETTING EARTH ANCHORS Filed May 5, 1932 0"; Z6 Q? a 24 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 4? mg 5 Z 2/ 27 affjzmo 23 l T 30 L m0 2/ 20 I 1 Z1 Z7 A9 #7-1 .4 22 Y if L @214 W a *4 I W l 17 .E /4 /3 I M I l 7" i g I 3 Z? I ,g :I I U M T I H #4 JNVENTOR.
A TTORNEYS Patented Feb. 27, 1934 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE TOOL FOR SETTING EARTH ANCHORS Walter A. Heinrich, St. Louis, Mo.
Application May 5, 1932. Serial No. 609,384
1 Claim. (Cl. 189-92) This invention relates to tools for setting earth anchors, and more particularly to improved tools for setting anchors of the so-called expansion type, in which the blades, being in an initially convergent or retracted position, are brought into a spreading or substantially aligned relation, after the anchor is disposed at the proper depth below the ground surface.
A demand for earth anchors of increased holding power, necessitating the enlargement of the surfaces and diameters of the anchors now manufactured, has resulted in an increased use of expansion-type anchors. However, it frequently happens that expansion-type earth anchors are installed in hard, compact ground, which requires that, according to the practice heretofore prevailing, the anchor be pounded heavily with a tamping bar in order that the blades may be fully expanded. This requires a considerable 2 amount of manual labor and loss of time, which,
combined with the inability of the operator to determine with certainty when the blades are fully expanded, makes this method of installation very unsatisfactory. In addition to the above-named disadvantages of the tamping-bar method of setting earth anchors, it frequently happens that the application of hard blows of a tamping bar, instead of expanding the blades, will cause the whole anchor to be pushed farther into the ground or will result in partsof the anchor being subjected to possibility of breakage. Because the pressure available for expanding the blades of earth anchors was limited to the impact that could be exerted on them by one or two men with a tamping bar, the sizeof anchor thatcould be installedby this cumbersome method was consequently limited. Larger and stronger earth anchors were needed, but because of the difficulty of installing them with tamping bars, they were not heretofore considered practical in certain sizes.
A general object of this invention consists in the provision of a novel device for the installa-; tion of expansion anchors, which would eliminate the attendant difiiculties and disadvantages heretofore experienced, and would facilitate the use of larger and stronger anchors of expansion type.
A further object of this invention is to provide a mechanical device for the development of a sufficient amount of pressure to spread the blades of an expansion earth anchor, without impact, and cause them to enter hard, compact ground whereby to position the anchor firmly inthe desired place.
Another object of this invention is to provide 1 a tool for expanding earth anchors, by the use of which the anchor blades may be forced into the ground with the exertion of less manual effort, and in a shorter time than is possible by the use of means now provided for such purpose.
Yet another object of this invention, is to provide a tool which will develop a greater constant pressure than means now, commonly used for mstalling expansion earth anchors, thus making practical the use of larger size earth anchors of expansion type than could heretofore be efficiently installed.
An additional object attained by this invention, is to provide a means for setting expansion anchors, which means will allow the operator to ascertain whether or not the blades of the anchor have been expanded to their fullest extent, thus eliminating an uncertainty in the setting of anchors as conduced under the older methods.
A still further object of this invention is to provide a device for installing expanding earth anchors, which device will develop a pressure limited only by the strength of the device and of the anchor itself, and will firmly position the anchor without tending to force it to a greater depth than originally placed in the ground.
Additional objects and advantages of the present invention will appear from the following detailed description of several embodiments thereof, considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a vertical sectional elevation of a preferred embodiment of my invention, as it is applied to anunexpanded anchor of the expanding blade type; Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional elevation of a portion of the tool appearing in Fig. 1, showing the position of its parts when the anchor blades have been fully expanded; Fig. 3 is a horizontal cross section taken along line 3-3 of Fig.' 1; Fig. 4 is a vertical elevation of a portion of the anchor showing a part of the tool in engagement with the unexpanded anchor blades; Fig. 5 shows a modiflcation' of the embodiment of the operating parts of the invention as shown in Figsrl and 2; Fig. 6 is a vertical cross section taken along line 66 of Fig. 5; and Fig. '7 is another modification of the embodiment of the operating parts of the invention as shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 5.
Referring now by numerals of reference to the drawings, 10 indicates, generally, an expansion earth anchor of a type now available, for which the setting tool of the present invention is particularly adapted. A brief description of the partsofthis type of anchor will aid in under standing the exact function of the setting tool. The blades, of each of which reference numeral 11 shows a leading or cutting end, are pivoted together at their opposite ends as by pin or pins 12. The blades 10 are apertured or recessed as at 13, in order to allow them to slide vertically along anchor rod 14, which sliding movement is necessary in order to effect their spreading from the initial or retracted position shown in Fig. 1. A disc or plate-like body 15 is preferably secured to the lower end of the anchorrod14, as by the nut 16. At the end of the anchor rod 14 opposite the disc or plate 15, an anchor rod eye 17 may be formed integrally with the rod 14, in order that the anchor may be connected above the ground to a guy cable or the like, desired to be secured by the anchor.
Referring now more particularly to the structural features of the invention, numeral 18 indicates a compression member formed of a tubu lar section of metalyof which the ends 19 and 20 are open in order that this member may be placed over the anchor rod 14. Near one end, the compression member 18 is provided with a lateral elongate slot 21, preferably of sufiicient width that a clevis pin 22 may extend therethrough, and slide lengthwise of the slot. The end 20 of the compression member 18 is arranged to be engage'd by the base of a ratchet jack 23, which is operated by means of a handle shown at 24.
The jack 23 is of a type'especially adapted for this purpose, having in its base an aperture 25, and in its top plate another aperture 26 through either or both of which openings the jack bar 27 .may operate when the handle 24 is actuated.
The jack bar 27 is apertured at its inner or lower end, for the reception of through bolts 28 which serve to connect a metal clevis member 29 to the jack bar. The legs of the clevis member 29 are apertured as at 30, in order that the anchor rod eye 17 may be inserted between the legs of the clevis member and detachably connected to it, by means of a clevis pin 22 when the tool is ready for operation. The jack bar 27 may be provided with spaced markings on the end that passes out of the aperture 26 when the tool is operated, for the purpose of indicating the extent of expansion of the blades. p
In the modification of the invention as shown in Fig. 5, the compression member 18 is or may be similar in shape and construction to the form of compression member shown in Fig. 1. Adapted to engage the end 20 of the member 18, is provided a right angular bracket or thrust member a 31, which is apertured at 32 in order to provide a journal for the shaft portion of crank member 33. The bracket member 31 is also apertured at 34, to provide a continuous passage through the compression and bracket members, for the purpose of allowing the bracket-compression member assembly to be placed over the anchor rod 14. A- hollow lead screw 35 is provided with an open end 36 which allows this screw to be placed over the anchor rod 14, and is adapted to be so placed through the provision of aperture 34 in the bracket member 31.
Preferably integrally formed with the lead screw 35, is a bifurcated end cap 37 which serves to close the passage through the lead screw 35 at that end. A transverse aperture'is provided in' provided with a bevel pinion 38, which operatively engages a. larger, horizontally positioned bevel gear 39, provided with a threaded aperture so that it may operatively engage the lead screw 35 to cause the screw to move into or out of the bore of the compression member 18. This movement is determined, as appears from the drawings, by the direction in which the crank 33 is turned. The bevel gear 39 is journalled in a bearing portion 40 of bracket 31, which arrangement serves tokeep the gear 39 in assembly with bracket member 31, though allowing it to rotate when actuated by pinion 38.
In the modification of the invention shown in Fig. 7, referencenumerals 14 and 18 show respectively, as in preceding figures, the anchor rod and the compression member. The compression member is provided with an apertured cap portion 41, the aperture being circular, and of a slightly larger diameter than the hollow lead screw 35, in order that it may act as a guide for the lead screw, but without undue interference with the threads thereof. A large compression nut 42, which is seated in the cap portion 41, when rotated by means of detachable extension handles 43, turns down on the lead screw 35 which is detachably connected to the anchor rod eye 17 by the pin 22. As the nut 42 is rotated the anchor rod 14 acts as a tension member, thus causing a pressure to be exerted on the cap portion 41 of the compression member 18, which force is inturn imparted to the blades of the expansion anchor. The handle extensions 43 are preferably rendered detachable from the large compression nut 42, by screw-thread connections thereto, asappears in Fig. 7.;
The foregoing description of the various parts of the invention will have revealed the mode of operation of the device in its several disclosed modifications, but which, for completeness, may "5 be reviewed as follows:
In the preferred form of the invention as shown in Fig. l, the expanding earth anchor 10 is shown as it is inserted in a prebored hole. The compression member 18 is placed over the anchor rod 120 14 in such a manner that the unexpanded blades will receive near their pivoted edges, the end 19 of the compression member. The jack assembly 23 is then placed upon the end 20 of the compression member, the jack bar 27 being extended out of the bottom of the jack through the aperture 25, so that the openings 30 of the clevis member 29, will fall in register with the aperture of the anchor rod eye 17. The clevis member 20 is then secured to the anchor rod 14 by the clevis pin 22, inserted from the outside of the compression' member, through the slot 21; When the jack handle 24 is actuated, the jack bar 27 remains relatively stationary, due to its tensioning" 23 is then moved downwardly, exerting a force on the compression member 18, which is in turn transmitted thereby to the anchor blades, causing their pivoted ends 12 to move downwardly of the anchor rod 14, until such movement is arrested by the plate 15'. As the pivoted ends 12' of the blades are forced downwardly, the blades are cammed outwardly by engagement of bladecarried cam portions with the outer edge of the disc plate, thus causing the blades to diverge to-- ward the horizontal. The blade points are forced by this action to penetrate the adjacent earth, thus firmly embedding the anchor in the ground. As the jack bar 27 moves out of the jack body 23 through the aperture 26, theop'erator islen- 150 abled to observe when the spaced markings on the jack bar indicate that the blades have been fully expanded. The clevis pin 22, which will have moved to the top of the slot 21, as may be seen from Fig. 2, is then removed, and the jack and jack bar assembly 23 is lifted from the compression member 18, which may then be removed, to permit filling the hole previously bored for reception of the anchor.
The mode of operation of the modified form of the invention as shown in Fig. 5, is similar to that of the tool as shown in Fig. 1, except as to the structural provisions for imparting a downward pressure to the tube 18. The lead screw 35 is threadedly engaged with the threaded aperture of the bevel gear 39, and is rotated until the end cap portion 37 lies just above the gear 39, the end 36 of the lead screw 35 then being extended into the aperture of the compression member 18. The tool is then placed over the anchor rod, the eye 1'? being disposed in the longitudinal passage of lead screw 35 and detachably connected to the end cap 37 by the pin 22 which is inserted through the aperture transversely of the end cap. The resistance to the upward movement of the lead screw 35, offered by the tension of rod 14, forces the bevel gear 39, when the crank 33 is actuated, to travel down from the head end of the lead screw, toward its lower end 36. The bevel gear bearing upon the bracket 31 causes a pressure to be exerted by the end 19 of the compression tube, upon the anchor blades, which force expands the blades, for setting, in the manner heretofore described.
As the bevel gear 39 is rotated on lead screw 35, the anchor rod 14 is subjected to a slight twisting force which results from its frictional engagement with the lead screw 35. To prevent this twisting force from causing the anchor to turn in the prebored hole, the bottom face of the disc or plate-like body 15 may be provided with radial ribs which grip the adjacent earth, and prevent rotation of the plate. Because of this twisting force, it is preferred that the rod 14 be a tension member as described, and that the nut 16 at the lower end of the anchor rod be socketed in plate 15. It is also preferred that the threads of the lead screw 35, where used, be such that when the rod 14 is subjected to the slight twisting force above mentioned, it will not tend to unthread the nut 16.
After the pin 22 is withdrawn, thus breaking connection between lead screw 35 and anchor eye 17, the tool may then be lifted away from the anchor and opening, and the hole filled with dirt according to prevailing practice.
The modified form of the invention shown in Fig. 7 is similar in all important-respects, to the device shown in Fig. 5, the only noteworthy difference being in the manner in which the bladesetting pressure is imparted to the lead screw 35. The present description of the structural arrangement and mechanism relates only to certain preferred embodiments of my invention, and I fully realize that these structures, or any parts thereof, may be modified without departing from the spirit and full intended scope of the invention as defined in the appended claim.
A tool for positioning earth anchors of the type embodying pivotally connected, outwardly movable earth-engaging blades and an anchor rod extending upwardly from the blades, comprising a tubular compression member having a longitudinal wall slot, said member being adapted to be removably positioned about the anchor rod with its lower end engaging the connected end portions of said blades, a jack assembly for drawing the anchor rod upwardly to cause expansion of said blades, including a pawland lever-actuated draw-bar disposed for endwise movement in said compression tube, a clevis at the lower end of said draw-bar engageable with the upper end of said anchor rod. and a removable clevis pin extending transversely through said wall slot for connecting said draw-bar and anchor rod.
"WALTER A. HEINRICH.