US 1949220 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb 27, 934, H. W- SCHlCK 1,949,220
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed June 13, 1931 ffii ` Patented Fes. 27, 1934 UNTED STATES gmi'rsu'r OFFICE 9 Claims.
This invention relates to improvements in building construction.
In certain types of buildings, such as auditoriums, gymnasiurns and athletic held houses, difiiculty has always been experienced in providing a satisfactory roof. In buildings of the type indicated, the roof areas are large and generally carried on steel trusses or girders to reduce the cost of construction. The main practice heretofore has been to use concrete slabs and in order to keep such slabs within reasonable limits of thickness and weight, they have necessarily been limited in length for relatively short spans. Further, in public buildings of the type indicated, such as auditoriums and theaters, the question of acoustics is very important, particularly on amount of the large areas of the roofs or ceilings. Ordinary concrete slab roof constructions as heretofore used, if left exposed on the underside, are not satisfactory from an acoustic standpoint, so that it has been customary to employ various expedients to provide sound insulation, such as the addition of layers of sound insulating material to the undersides of the concrete slabs after the latter have been put in place.
One object of my invention is to provide an improved building construction, such as a roof or ceiling particularly adapted for buildings such as gymnasiums, auditoriums, field houses, theaters and the like, which is of relatively light weight per unit of area, which will be of such strength that relatively long spans may be employed, and which will possess certain highly desirable characteristics from the standpoint of acoustics and heat insulation.
Another object of my invention is to provide a building construction, such as indicated in the preceding paragraph, which may be made up and set in place at relatively low labor and material.
Another object of my invention is to provide an improved method or process of constructing a slab for building construction having the characteristics indicated in the two preceding paragraphs.
Other objects of my invention will more clearly appear from the description and claims hereinafter following.
In the drawing forming a part of this specification, Figure 1 is a broken top plan view of a portion of a roof, ceiling or deck construction illustrating one embodiment of my improvement. Figure 2 is a vertical, longitudinal, sectional View corresponding to the line 2-2 of Figure 1. And
(Cl. 10S-l) Figure 3 is an enlarged, vertical, sectional view corresponding to the line 3-3 of Figure 1.
In carrying out my invention in a roof of a building, the roof will preferably be constructed with a plurality of I-beam girders or purlins, as indicated at 10-10, suitably spaced and supported at their ends on the walls of the building or columns in any approved manner. To complete the roof and cover the spaces between the girders 10, I employ a plurality of slabs, each of which is indicated generally by the reference character A. Each of said slabs, in its completed form, comprises a sheet metal pan or trough which, when in place, is inverted as best shown in Figure 3. Considering the pan in its inverted position, the same has a top web 11, depending side walls 12-12, the latter having flanges along their lower edges, as indicated at 13-13. The anges 13 are made re-entrant, that is the same are bent upwardly and inwardly, as viewed in Figure 3. The pans are preferably left without any end walls, as clear from Figure 2.
Each pan is provided with a filler, indicated at 14., said filler completely filling the pan, the bottom surface thereof, as viewed in Figure 3, being iiush with the corner edges 15 of the side walls 12. Imbedded within the ller 14, is a reinforcing element indicated at 15, said reinforcing element, as shown, preferably comprising a relatively heavy gauge Wire mesh, the side edges of which are hooked over the re-entrant iianges 13, as indicated at 116.
The slabs A, which are nished off square at their ends, as best indicated in Figure 2, are laid side by side and extend lengthwise from one beam or girder 10 to the next beam or girder 10 and, preferably, a space will be left between opposed ends of the slabs, as indicated at 17. Each flange 13 of each pan is slit near its ends, so as to leave the end portions of the flange, as indicated at 113, parallel with the main web or top 11 of the pan. Said straight sections 113 are provided in order to attach the slabs at their ends to the flanges 110 of the beams 10, the attachment being eected through boltsll--ll the heads of which are imbedded in the filler 14 and the shanks extended through suitable openings in the flanges 110 with the nuts 118 secured to the bottom ends thereof.
In order to render more eiective the beam construction provided by the side walls and anges 12-12 and 13--13 of the slabs when the slabs are placed side by side, a plurality of pins 19-19 will preferably be employed, said pins being each secured to one of the pan walls 12 as by welding, indicated at 119, and the projecting end passing through an alned opening in the adjacent side wall 12 and partly into the filler 14. In this manner, as will be apparent, relative vertical shift between the side walls of adjacent slabs is prevented.
In carrying out my invention, the slabs A are preferably made as follows. The sheet metal pans or troughs are first formed with the sides and flanges bent to fnal condition. The pans are then set down right side up and temporary retaining walls, such as boards, applied over the ends thereof. Each of the pans then has poured into it the material constituting the ller 14. This filler 14 is preferably a special mixture comprised of a specially prepared cement, water and fine sand or other aggregate. The cement employed is of that type which produces what is known as an aerated concrete, that is a concrete which is very much lighter per unit of volume than ordinary concrete mixtures due to the cement, when the water is added, decomposing the water and producing gases that in turn produce voids or air bubbles. Such mixtures are poured in a very Wet or sloppy condition to about one third the depth oi the pan. The reinforcing element 16 is then applied on top of the wet mix and when hydration takes place, the mix expands to about three times its original volume and because of its nature will pass through the interstices of the screen reinforcing element 16, completely filling the pan and passing around and over the re-entrant flanges 13. The filler is then permitted to set and, if necessary, the exposed surface of the filler is shaved off flush so as to present a surface flush with the corner edges 15 of the pan. During this step of pre-casting the slabs A, the pins 19 will iirst be attached by welding to the proper side walls from which they project and, to receive the projecting ends in the adjacent slabs, the latter will have temporary plugs in place while the nller mixture is expanding and setting, which plugs are withdrawn before the slabs are put in place. Similarly, the bolts 18 will be held in place while the iiller mixture is expanding and setting so that the bolts 18 will be in proper position after the slabs have been cast.
With slabs having a ller of aerated concrete, as above described, a surface is formed on the undersides thereof when the slabs or pans are inverted for application to the roof, which possesses very desirable sound insulating qualities, eliminating the necessity of any additional layers f or coatings of special sound insulating material.
Further, because of the character of the filler 14, the slabs possess desirable qualities from a heat insulation standpoint. Gbviously, also, the weight of the filler is very much less than that of ordinary concrete oi.' the same thickness. By casting the aerated concrete ller in pans as described, the slabs possess relatively great strength, thereby permitting the slabs to be made for longer spans than would otherwise be possible with ordinary concrete slabs. As heretofore indicated, the adjacent side walls 12 and iianges 13 of the slabs provide effective beams extending transversely between the main supporting beams 10 and in addition, the cast llers 14 brace the pan formed beams against lateral buckling so that, although the roof structure is relatively light, it possesses great strength even with relatively long spans between the main beams 10-10.
By employing areinforcing element such as the wire screen 16, danger of fractures or ssures in the filler 14 is minimized, as will be apparent.
Roofs or ceilings of the character described being almost universally fiat, any suitable weather-protecting arrangement may be employed on the top thereof, such as rooiing paper laid thereover.
As will be apparent from the foregoing description, the slabs A may be formed and cast at plants where the conditions for making the same are most suitable and then taken to the building where the same are to be employed. Obviously, the slabs may be applied or put in position with a minimum labor effort and the completed wall of the building construction, in addition to being relatively light per unit of area and of economical construction, possesses highly desirable characteristics from the standpoint of both sound and heat insulation.
I have herein shown and described what I now consider the preferred manner or" carrying out my invention, but all changes and modifications are contemplated that come within the scope of the claims appended hereto.
1. A roof construction including: spaced supporting beams; slabs extending between and covering the space between the beams, said slabs comprising inverted sheet metal pans containing a pre-cast ller; and means disposed within the plan area of the pans for attaching the slabs to the beams.
2. A roof construction including: spaced supporting beams; slabs extending between and covering the space between the beams, said slabs comprising inverted pans of sheet metal containing a pre-cast ller, the side walls of the pans having integral re-entrant flanges imbedded within the fillers; and means for attaching the slabs to said beams.
3. A roof construction including: spaced supporting beams; slabs extending between and covering the space between the beams, each slab comprising an inverted pan of sheet metal with a pre-cast ller therein and reinforcing means imbedded Within the ller; and means for attaching the slabs to said beams, said means including iianges formed integrally with the sheet metal pan.
4. A roof construction including: spaced supporting beams; slabs extending between the beams, each slab comprising an inverted pan of sheet metal containing a pre-cast ller with a reinforcing element imbedded within the filler, the side walls of each pan having integral bent flanges at their lower edges extended and imbedded with-- porting beams; slabs extending between the;
beams, each of said slabs comprising an inverted pan of sheet metal with a pre-cast filler therein, the side walls of the pans extending transversely to said beams, said side walls of the pans having flanges along their lower edges and the side wallsf of adjacent pans lying against each other; means extending between and connecting adjacent pairs of pan side walls whereby each pair of flanged side walls provide a beam extending transversely of said rst named beams, said means being located at spaced intervals along said side walls and at points intermediate the ends thereof; and means for attaching the slabs to said first named beams.
6. A roof construction including: spaced supporting beams; slabs extending between the beams and supported thereon, each of said slabs comprising an inverted pan of sheet metal with a pre-cast filler therein having a reinforcing element imbedded within the filler, the side walls of the pans having re-entrant flanges along their lower edges imbedded within the lller and to which the edges of the reinforcing element are attached; means connecting adjacent side walls of the slabs; and means for attaching the slabs to said supporting beams.
'7. As an article of manufacture, a sound insulating slab for building construction, said slab comprising: a sheet metal rectangular pan having side walls formed with re-entrant flanges; and a filler of aerated concrete and Within which said iianges are imbedded.
8. The herein described process of making a slab for use in building construction which includes: rst providing a sheet metal pan having side Walls with flanges along the edges of said side walls, each of said flanges, for a short distance at each end thereof, being normal to the side wall and the intermediate portion of the ange bent inwardly of the pan; partially filling said pan with a wet mix of concrete adapted to become aerated; placing a perforate reinforcing element in the pan with the ends thereof adapted to hook under said bent anges; allowing said mix to expand and partially pass through the perforate reinforcing member and over said inclined flanges; and allowing the concrete mix to set.
9. As an article of manufacture, a slab for building construction comprising: a sheet metal rectangular pan, side walls of the pan being flanged with portions thereof extending within the space dened by the sheet metal pan; and a filler of aerated concrete within the pan and having its exposed surfaces substantially flush with the edges of the side walls of the pan, said flanges being imbedded within the concrete ller.
HARVEY W. SCHICK.