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Publication numberUS1951381 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 20, 1934
Filing dateJan 23, 1929
Priority dateJan 23, 1929
Publication numberUS 1951381 A, US 1951381A, US-A-1951381, US1951381 A, US1951381A
InventorsWard Marshall H
Original AssigneeWard Marshall H
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of and apparatus for shaping metal
US 1951381 A
Abstract  available in
Images(7)
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 20, 1934. H WARD 1,951,381

METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL Filed Jan. 23, 1929 '7 Sheets-Sheet 1 IN V EN TOR.

A T TORNEYS.

March 20, 1934. M. H. WARD METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL Filed Jan. 23, 1929 '7 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOYR. UZW WM M m A TTORNEYS.

March 20, 1934.

M. H. WARD METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL Filed Jan. 23, 1929 '7 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR BY Ma 74 7M4 M. H. WARD March 20, 1934.

METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL Filed Jan. 23, 1929 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 NEY . o mN m y A MW B &@ sN I w /l...||H| mmk N HA I l u w a Qm QQ dNm March 20, 1934.

M. H. WARD METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL Filed Jan. 23. 1929 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 March 20, 1934. H WARD 1,951,381

METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL Filed Jan. 23. 1929 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 INVENTOR 'rRNEY 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 M. H. WARD METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING METAL Filed Jan. 23. 1929 March 20, 1934.

IIIIIIIIII I IIIIIIIIIIII I I I luIIIII R I HI 1 \RiiIMIlIIII I l iiIIIIIIIiII.

III.I.Iiii.::::u::: iii: I: IIIEIISII Si m.IIII\IIII @i f JI M n E I I I H Patented Mar. 20, 1934 1,951,381 METHOD or AND APPARATUS FOR SHAPING A METAL Marshall H. Ward, Brooklyn, N. Y. Application January 23, 1929, Serial No. 334,454

44 Claims.

This invention relates to improvements in methods of and apparatus for shaping metal, and more specifically involving the use of hollow metallic blanks. i

5 Both the method and the machine are fundamentally and basically the same as the method and machine disclosed in Patent No. 349,718, issued September 28, 1886, to Hollerith and Metcalf. However, the present method and machine involve numerous improvements hereinafter set forth and described and claimed,'resulting in a method and machine capable of high quantity production.

' The machine of the Hollerith and Metcalf pat- 5 ent includes a stationary head, a movable head or plunger, operated by fluid pressure, a plurality of partible mold sections within which a hollow blank is positioned, guides for the mold sections and means for admitting fluid pressure into the interior of the hollow blank, and preventing that fluid pressure from exceeding a predetermined amount by suitable relief means. After the blank.

is placed inposition between the stationary head and the movable head with the partible mold ;5 sections positioned thereabout and fluid pressure admitted to the interior of the blank, pressure is applied to the movable head so that it will move toward the stationary head, compressing the tube longitudinally and causing it to bulge out or expand between the mold sections, the movement of the movable head continuing until the mold sections are in contact with each other when the blank will be completely formed according'to the internal contour of the mold sections. 5 Fundamentally, the machine disclosed in this present application consists basically of the same broad elements as the machine disclosed in the Hollerith and Metcalf patent and is operated in substantially the same way. This machine includes a bed orv frame on which a stationary head and a movable head operated by fiuidpressure are mounted; and a forming element composed of a plurality of separate mold sections. Suitable connections are provided for admitting i fluid pressure through the stationary head into the interior of the blank, which is positioned within the mold sections and between the stationary head and the movable head. The movable head is operated by fluid pressure, but in i this invention, said fluid pressure is from a separate source. The machine is provided with auto matic controlling mechanism for controlling the movement of the movable head in both directions, whereby the operation of the machine is rendered to a large extent automatic, adding materially to the flexibility and the speed of operation thereof. The mold sections, as stated, are arranged in spaced relation between the movable head and the stationary head and are adapted to receive a hollow blank therebetween. The par- 50 ticular structure of these sections, whereby they are hinged together so as to be opened to permit the insertion and removal of the work andthe locking means therefor, all cooperate to increase the-efliciency of the operation of the-machine. 6| These mold sections are so supported and guided as to move freely and at random and independently of each other during the forming operation so that they may accommodate themselves to the movement of the material of the blank in expand- 70 ing and not interfere with the free movement of this material. 4 In other words. these mold sections float or move freely with respect to the work and each other and thereby permit the use of blanks in which the material is of varying or uneven thicknesses and in which this variatio ,may be substantial.

Furthermore, the supporting and guiding means for these mold sections is provided with mechanism for withdrawing the mold sections after the forming operation is complete. This mechanism is selective in the sense that each element thereof engages and moves certain of said mold sections only and moves said sections until they are positioned in a proper position and spaced relation relative to each other for receiving the work blank and starting the forming operation. This movement of withdrawal and positioning and spacing the mold sections is accomplished completely during the retraction of the movable head to its starting position after a forming operation is completed. 'I'hismechanism holds the mold sections in their proper position during the insertion of the blank and until the movable head starts its compression movement against the end of the blank when the mechanism is released so that the mold sections are free to move at random and entirely independently with respect to each other during the forming operation.

The apparatus, therefore, includes what might o be termed an expansible and contractible mold formed of a plurality of mold sections which are supported so as to be moved freely and independently of each other by the expansion of the ma- .terial of the blank. These sections are retracted 105,

by means actuated by the movable head and selectively engaging the sections and moving and holding them in proper spaced relation to each other until the start of the compression stroke of the movable head. 110

Among other important structural details from the standpoint of quantity production is the means provided for quick removal of the finished work from the mold sections. This includes a lever to be pressed down by the operator and movable with the movable head so that in its movement it will engage a, dog on an operating rod connected to the operating lever which controls the movement of the movable head. The movable head is withdrawn until this lever engages said dog, thereby moving said operating lever to stop the further retraction of the movable head. At this point the mold sections have been moved apart sufficiently to permit the ready and quick withdrawal of the completely formed work therefrom. This prevents sticking of the work within the mold sections due to the force with which it is gripped thereby. Furthermore, this provides a fixed adjustment whereby the mold sections are always opened the proper distance to insure quick removal of the work without damage and without necessitating close care and attention or accurate manipulation of the lever by the operator. After the completed work is removed, the movable head is caused to resume its retracting movement and when near the end of this movement, means connected with the head causes the actuation of the operating lever to stop the movement of the head in proper position to receive the unshapedblank. In this position the mold sections are all accurately and properly spaced with respect to each other.

There are numerous other improvements in details of construction which will be apparent from a reading of the following specification and claims, and a consideration of the drawings. The

new and improved method includes the shaping of a hollow metal blank, filled with fluid under pressure, within an expansible and contractible mold formed of a plurality of mold sections by the application of longitudinal or axial pressure to the'blank, the mold sections, under the influence of the expanding metal, moving freely or floatingat random with respect to each other and accommodating themselves to the movement of the expanding material and not restricting the same except as it fills the mold.

To the accomplishment of the foregoing, and such other objects as mayhereinafter appear, this invention consists inthe construction, combination and arrangement of parts and the method hereinafter described and sought to be defined in the appended claims, reference being had to the drawings forming a part hereof, and which show merely for the purpose of illustrative disclosure, one form of mechanism adapted to practice the method and embodying this invention, it being expressly understood that the method may be practiced by other forms of apparatus, and that changes in the apparatus may be made in practice within the scope of the claims without digressing from my inventive idea.

In the drawings,

Fig. 1 represents a side elevation of a machine adapted to-practice the method of this invention and constituting one embodiment of the invention; the movable head'being shown in its retracted position, the forming element being omitted entirely, and the source of fluid pressure supply for the interior of the hollow blank through the stationary head being omitted;

shown in Fig. 1 taken from the right-hand en of the same;

Fig. 4 is a view of the construction of the forming element primarily in front elevation, a number of parts, however, being broken away and being shown in section to facilitate the disclosure, the parts being shown in proper position for re ceiving the work and starting the shaping operation;

Fig. 5, in general, is a view in longitudinal and Fig. 7 is a view in vertical transverse cross-- section taken substantially on line '7--7 of Fig. 4, and looking in the direction of the arrows;

Fig. 8 is a view in vertical transverse crosssection taken substantially on line 8-8 of Fig.

4, looking in'the direction of the arrows;

Fig. 9 is a side elevation of one of the mold sections, the locking and supporting and guiding means being shown in section, and diiferent positions being indicated in dotted lines;

Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic view, mostly in section, of the guiding and supporting means for the mold sections, showing the mold sections in spaced positions assumed at the conclusion of the re-' tracting movement of the movable head and previous to the initiation of the shaping movement; and

Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 10, showing the same parts in the position assumed at the completion of the shaping operation.

Referring, first, to Figs. 1, 2 and 3 of the drawings, the numeral 20 designates a suitable bed or table upon which the apparatus is mounted. The stationary head, designated generally as 21, is

positioned to the left in Fig. 1, and the movable I head, designated generally as 22, is positioned to the right thereof. The staionary head 21 includes the main body 23 movably mounted for limited movement upon the short hollow shaft 24 extending from a suitable support or bracket 25. The conduit 26 connects the hollow shaft 24 with the fluid-pressure control valve mechanism 27, which controls the fluid pressure supplied through conduit 28 from an accumulator or other suitable source of supply. The main body of the stationary head is hollow, and has its ex-;

treme right-hand end reduced and threaded as at 29 to receive a suitable nipple member 30. (See Fig. 5.) This nipple member has the shouldered flange 31 and the internally screwthreaded portion 32 to fit corresponding parts of the main body 23, and at its other end is provided with a recess 33 in which is mounted a washer or other suitable packing member 34. It is to be noted that this washer or packing member is less in width than the depthof the recess so that an annular flange portion 35 remains to receive the flanged end of the blank, as hereinafter described.

This body 23 and its attached nipple member 30 has a limited movement as previously mentioned, and the actuating means therefor will now be described. An operating lever 36 is pivoted to the frame as at 37 and has the bellcrank member 38, to the end of which is pivotally connecteda link 39, which is pivotally connected to another link 40 intermediate its ends. This link 40 is pivoted to and at its other end is pivoted as at 42 to another link member 43, which is pivotally connected as at 44 to the body 23, forming a toggle construction. A link 45 is pivotally connected at one end to the bell-crank arm 38 and at its other end to the hydraulic valve operating cam 46. This cam is pivotally connected to the frame as at 47 and has the cam groove 48 at one end to slidably receive the pin 49 connected to one end of the valve stem 50.

With the parts in the position shown'in Fig. 1 of the drawings, the body 23 of the head 21 is shown in the position assumed during the shaping operation-that is, the head has been sealed against the blank so as to permit the entrance of fluid under pressure thereinto, the hydraulic valve being open for this purpose. When the operating lever 36 is moved from its fullline position to its dotted-line position, the hydraulic valve will be closed, relieving the interior of the work of the hydraulic pressure and then the body 23 is moved to the left to break the seal which releases whatever fluid remains within the work. On the other hand, when the work .is positioned in the apparatus previous to shaping,

the lever 36 is moved to the right which first causes the body 23 to move to the right and the head to seal against the further movement of the lever through movement of the cam 46 opens the hydraulic valve to admit fluid pressure within the blank.

Referring now to the movable head construction 22, the numeral 51 designates generally a fluid-pressure operated ram including a cylinder 52 with a piston therein having a piston rod'53 connected to the ram head 54. The movements of this piston rod and ramhead are controlled by fluid pressure admitted into either end of the cylinder through conduits 55 and 56, which are connected to a variable pressure,-variable delivery, reversible delivery, fluid pump 5'7. This pump is driven by a suitable motor 58, and said pump is also provided with the pressure-control device 59 which is connected by a series of links 60 with the control or operating lever 61. Movement of this control lever in either direction, as indicated by the angular lines, will place the pump on stroke in either direction. This produces an inward or outward movement of the 54, and the rate of this movement is the extentto which the control lever one way or the other.

The forming element will now be-described, and reference will be first had particularly to Figs. 4 to 9, inclusive, it being understood that except for the supports therefor, the showing of this forming element is omitted from Fig. 1 of am head varied in is moved the drawings.

A pair of .suitable supports 62 and 63 are mounted upon the bed or table and secured in proper spaced relation. The Support 62 is located adjacent'the stationary head and in fact is so formed as to permit the movement of the clearly shown in Fig. 5-

nipple 30 thereinto, as of the drawings. The support'63 is positioned adjacent the ram and is constructed so as to permit the passage of the piston rod 53 therethrough. This support 63 is shown in detail in Fig. 6 of'the drawings.

A plurality of mold sections, designated generally 64, are positioned between said supports the frame at 41 at one end with the exception of the end of the work, and

- and opposite the supports" the, heavier supporting arms '72 to which the frame-member 731s attached, extending entirely and are movably supported by means of a phirality of shafts 65, which are slidably mounted and supported by said supports 62' and-63. These j supports themselves and the mold sections are preferably formed in two parts hinged together at one side so as to be separable and partible in" order to permit the ready insertion of the blank and removal of the completed work. This hinge is provided by means of the shaft 66. which ex tends from one support 62 to the other'support i 63, and on which the mold sections a and 62 and 63 and 63 ofthe supports are also hinged on this shaft, and the parts 62 and 63 of the supports, and the parts 64 sections are all adapted to be moved into open and closed position together.

Referring particularly to Fig. 9, which is an illustration typical of all the two parts 64 and 64 of first mold section, it is seen that each comprises a plate of general rectangular shape, divided into two parts 64* and 64 hinged together upon the shaft 66, as previously described. These parts are preferably provided with an interlocking tongue and groove construction 67, and the upper part 64 is provided with an outwardly extending lug 68 adapted to be engaged by a suitable lock or latch construcof the mold are hinged. The two parts 62' of the mold sections tion 69, one being provided'for each of said mold sections. It is in the form of an arm, as shown, having an opening 70 to receive the lug 68, the upper edge of the opening frictionally bearing against the slightly curved top surface of the lug, as clearly shown in Fig. 9. Each arm 69 is pivoted ,or hinged With-respect to the lower section'64 and for convenience this pivot is provided by the rod or shaft 71 extending. entirely across- ;,tlie face of the forming element from support 62'to support 63, being mounted in said supports -At the end of said rod or shaft '7} 62 and 63; I provide across the front- "face of the forming'element.

handle74 -It is seen, therefore, that when the operating handle is m'oved to the left, looking at Fig. 6, all offthe latches 69 will be released, as

indicated in ;dottedj;lines in Fig. 9, and, conversely, when'the'handle 74 is moved to the right in Fig.'6, all--' o fathe lugs 68 will be engaged'by thelatch member 69 and the mold sections locked together.

Each of the mold sections 64 is provided with a central aperture 75, the diameter of which is the approximate outside diameter of the blank.

aperture 75 is formed or shaped to provide part of a mold structure 76, all of said mold sections trated in Fig. 5. In this disclosure, this mold The portion of each mold'section adjacent this formation is similarthat is, each mold section is similarly shaped, but it is to be "understoodthat" this is for illustrative purposes only, and the sections may be shaped differently from each other, the only requirement being that they cooperate to produce a completed mold section when brought into contact with each other so as to give the desired shape to the article when completely formed.

Each mold section is provided with a plurality of apertures 77 to permit the passage of the shafts 5 65 therethrough.. These apertures are of sub-' stantially greater diameterthan the diameter of the shafts. However, in one aperture of each of .the parts 64. and 64 of each mold section, I place a bushing member 78. This bushing member is long so as to give the mold section an extended l bearing on the shaft 65 passing therethrough. This bushing is provided with a plurality of grooves 79 longitudinally extending therethrough and arranged radially around the inner surface, one portion 80 of the bushing being left blank [Q or ungrooved to serve as a shoulder or abutment to be engaged by parts to be described later. These bushings are preferably arranged in different apertures in the adjacent mold sections for a "purpose to be described later.

The first mold section-that is, the one shown to the extreme left in Figs. 4 and of the drawings, designated 64'-is slightly different from the 1 other mold sections in that the apertures '77 therein are all free and no bushings are used at 28 all. Furthermore, both parts are permanently fastened to the support 62. This support is provided with a plurality of apertures arranged in alignment with the apertures in the mold sections and a plurality of longitudinal grooves 81 are formed radially around said apertures. The

other support 63 is suitably bored or apertured as at 82 to slidably receive the-shafts 65, each of which is provided with an extending key 84 slidably received in a groove or key-way 83 posi- 89 tioned in said bore or aperture 82, to prevent the shaft from turning relatively to the supports.

The shafts in the embodiment illustrated in the drawings, are actually what might be termed fcomposite? shafts, being composed of the ex- 89 ternal tubular shaft 85 with a plurality of smaller shafts 86 mounted therein. These smaller shafts are resiliently held in spaced relation to each other by means of spring members 87 and the end shafts 86' project beyond the ends of their re- 4e vspective hollow shafts 85 to engage a stationary abutment plate 88, this abutment plate being attached to a stationary part of the mechanism.

Each of the hollow shafts 85 has extending outwardly therefrom a plurality of lugs or pins 89 45. which are arranged thereon at suitable intervals longitudinally and also angularly so as not to be in longitudinal alignment with each other.

These hollow shafts 85 are also provided with a plurality of elongated slots 90 also extending lon= 80 gitudinally and arranged in the same angular relation with respect to the lugs or pins 89 previously referred to. The shafts 86 are each provided with an abutment member 91 securely fastened thereto, and part of it-extends intoand 65 through one of said slots 96. It is therefore understood. that one each of said pins or lugs 89 and one each of said abutment members 91 are arranged in longitudinal alignment with respect to each other. i

00 While I havedescribed the inner shaft 86 as being composed of a plurality of short sections,

lt is to be understood that this may be made in the form of one shaft, if desired, with the abutment members 91 similarly secured thereto in GI the same relative arrangements The lugs or pins 89 and the abutment bers 91 constitute, in connection with thebushings 78, means for selectively engaging and moving the mold sections to their proper spaced po- '1 sition during the retraction of the ram head from its extended position back to the initial or starting position. In other words, and in greater detail,

the pins or lugs 89 engage the blank space 80 in certain of the bushings in certain of the respective 25 mold sections abutting thereagainst, and cause mem the movement of said mold sections back to the initial or starting position. The abutment mem= bers 91 engage said bushings on the side oppovi site the lugs or pins 89 and serve to clamp the bushings between the lugs or pins 89 and the abutment members 91, and thereby hold the respective mold sections in their proper spaced position during the insertion of the work therein prior to the starting of the forming operation.

It is to be particularly noted that the upper mold section 64 with the shafts 65 therefor constitute one assembly, and the lower mold section 64 with the shafts 65 therefor form another assembly, which is a duplicate as far as the arrengement of the pins and lugs 89 and abutment members 91 is concerned. Furthermore, the pins or lugs 89, as well as the abutment members 91 on each composite shaft 65, are arranged in different positions with respect to the pins or lugs 89 and the abutment members 91 of the other shaft 65 in the same assembly, and these pins or lugs and abutment members are preferably ar ranged progressively so as to engage the proper bushing progressively and move the proper mold section progressively with respect to the other mold sections.

In the embodiment illustrated, it is to be noted that each of said composite shafts 65 is provided with three sets of lugs or pins 89 and abutment members 91 so that each shaft 65 is responsible for and causes the movement of three mold sections.

As previously stated, the selection of the proper mold section and its movement is caused by the engagement of the lug or pin 89 with the shoulder or abutment provided .by the blank space 88 in the bushing. Of course, it is understood that the number of mold sections, the number of shafts, and the arrangement and number of the lugs or pins 89 and abutment members 91 on each shaft may be varied to meet various working conditions and desired results.

By providing the plurality of grooves 79 in the various bushings it is seen that the pins or lugs 89 and the abutment members 91 have free movement with respect to all of the mold sections, except the particular one which the pin or lug 39 is adapted to engage and move.

The means for moving the composite shaft 65 upon the retraction of the ram head will now be described. This includes a yoke member 92 which is suitably fastened to the rear part of the ram head. This yoke member is formed of two parts 93 and 94 hinged upon shaft 66. Each of the sections-93 and 9d of the yoke member is provided with a plurality of openings 95 there'- through, arranged in alignment with the openings through the mold sections. These openings are of sufficient size to slidably receive sleeves 96 which are secured by any suitable means to the hollow shafts 85. One part .of these sleeves 96 is screw-threaded so as to adjustably receive the adjusting and lock nuts 97 and 98. The adjusting nut 97 affords a shoulder on each sleeve 96 adapted to be engaged by the face of the yoke 92 14c during the retracting movement of the ram head.

that it insures free and unrestricted movementv 5 of the shafts during the forward movement of s the ram head and during the entire shaping .operation. The yoke serves as a support for the ram head and is slidably supported upon the two longitudinal supporting shafts or rods 92', which are in tum supported in fixed relation in the supports 62 and 63.

It is now in order to describe the general operation of the forming element just described. Assuming that the parts are in the position in "Fig. 4 of the drawings, the latch 69 is released and the mold sections opened and the blank is placed in position with one end against the face of the ram head, the blank being supported by the lower mold sections. The top mold sections are then brought down into engagement with the blank and the latch secured. The stationary head is moved to cause the packing or washer 34' to engage the end of the blank, forming a fluid-tight seal, and fluid pressure is admitted to the interior of the blank. When the desired fluid pressure is reached within the blank, then pressure is admitted to the piston of the ram, causing the ramfhead to move axially or longitudinally with respect to the blank and to apply pressure to the blank in that direction. The moment the ram head moves to the left at the beginning of the forming operation, all of the shafts 65 are released and become free and unrestrained so that) they and the mold sections as well may move at random at all times during the formingoperation and until the mold sections are brought into contact, as shown in Fig. 5 of the drawings. Therefore, the mold sections are movedonly by the'movement of the blank as it changes form' or shape due to the pressure and longitudinal movement of the ram head ther'eagainst and the constantly maintained internal pressure. There is no system of any kind whatsoever'about the movement of the mold sections and they move only in exact accordance with the forming requirements of the blank in each particular operation. Of course, the movement of these mold sections varies in different operations due to variation in the wall thickness of the part/icuIar blank being shaped and in successive operations due to variation in the wall thickness of the successive blanks being shaped. In other words, the mold sections are entirely free to accommodate themselves to. the individ- 5 ual actions of any particular blank or any part thereof during the forming operation. Obviously, there is no studied or systematic effect, whereby "eachpart of the blank has to be operated upon in exactly the same way. The mold sections automatically accommodate themselves to the characteristics of each particular blank.

As this forming movement continues, the shafts are moved along due to the engagement of the abutments formed by the blank spaces 80 of the bushings withthe pins or lugs 89, the abutment members 91 lagging behind and being free -of contact with any bushing. This statement applies to the particular bushings and mold sections which are controlled by any one shaft be- 70.

cause there is no connection at all between the other bushings and mold sections and any other shafts, as the shafts have entire freedom of operation with respect to such mold sections because the pins or lugs 89 and the abutment members 91 may freely pass through the grooves 81 in both directions. This is true in its entirety of the first mold section 64' because there are no bushings in that mold section at all. The shafts also have free movement through the end support 62.-because of the complete series of grooves formed in the openings therethrough,- and, of

course, the shafts have free movement in the other support 63 because the lugs or pins 89 and the abutment members 91 do not reach that support. at any stage of the operation.

The detailed relative arrangement and operation of these parts is shown in Figs. 4 and 5, and particularly in all the diagrammatic views, Figs. 10 and 11. These views are taken as if the mold sections were opened up and are for the purpose of showing the relative position of the mold sections and the composite shafts 65, first, at the initial or startlngposition, and, second, at the completion of the forming operation. The mold sections are designated by the numbers 1 to 13, inclusive, beginning at the left-hand side of the forming element. The shafts are designated, for convenience, a, b, c and d in one assembly, and af, b, c andd' in theother assembly.

For illustration, reference will be made to one pair of shafts only and the mold sections controlled thereby, as a description of one will suflice for all. Shaft a has its pins orlugs 89 and abutment members 91 arranged so as to control the retraction and proper positioning of the mold sections 2, 6 and 10, respectively, and shaft 41., which is oppositely positioned to shaft a. in the other assembly, likewise controls the same mold sections of its assembly, having no control or operative relation with anyof the other mold sections at all. His to be recalled that the pins orlugs 89 and the abutment members 91 are arranged indifferent positions angularly with respect to each other. This is not shown in Figs. 10 and 11, because these are diagrammatic views only, but Figs. 4 and 5 show that arrangement, which, of course, is for the purpose of restricting the operation of any one of said pins or lugs 89 to one mold section only, the grooves in the other bushings being positioned" so as to permit the free passage of that pin and its complementary element 91 freely therethrough.

It, is to be noted that theforming element is actually an expansible' and contractible mold formed of a plurality of mold sections. In the embodiment of this invention illustrated, one

end of this mold is formed as part of the ram head. See particularly Figs. 4 and 5. The ram head issuitably recessed at 99 to receive the end of the blank and is also. formed or recessed at 100 to'provide a mold section adapted to cooperate with the mold section formed on the ad'- jacent face of the adjacent mold section 64, being numbered 13' in the diagram.

In order to facilitate the operation of this apparatus and to, render the same automatic to dogv 103 and at an intermediate position,-a sec- 0nd knock-off dog 104. These dogs 103 and 104 are adapted to be engaged by suitable elements connected to move with the yoke 92 so as to move the rod 101 and thereby move the operating lever 61 back to neutral position and thereby stop the movement of the ram head at certain desired times.

I provide an engaging lever 105, which is pivotally mounted with respect to the yoke 92 and moves therewith. This lever is providedwith the operating handle 106 and a yoke-engaging part 107, adapted to fit over and slide upon the rod 101. (See Fig. 6.) This lever 105 is normally held in raised position, but when the forming operation is complete, it is depressed and moved into engagement. with said rod 101, so that when the operating lever 61 is moved to the left so as to start thewithdrawal or retraction of the ram head, the yoke, moving with the ram head and carrying the lever 105, will eventually cause the engagement of that leverwith the knock-off dog 103, thereby moving the rod 101 to the right and the operating lever 61 to the right into neutral position, so as to stop the" withdrawal of the ram head. The position of the knock-oil dog 103 is fixed so as to stop this movement when the parts have moved apart sufliciently to permit the ready withdrawal of the completed work from the mold sectionsi The mechanical pressure, of course, is released and the residual fluid pressure is reduced to a very low value.

The yoke 92 is also provided with an extension 108 having a fork.109 at its end adapted to fit over and move upon the rod 101. This fork is adapted to engage the knock-off member 104 near the end of the retracting movement of the ram head and is so positioned as to cause suflicient movement of the rod 101 and. .the operating lever 61 connected'thereto asto cause the latter to assume a neutral position when the ram head has reached the end of its retracting movement. This insures that this movement will always be the same length and that the mold sections will always be retracted the proper distance to insure accurate spacing with respect to each other. This construction also permits extremely rapid retraction because the automatic cut-off prevents-the necessity of the operators doing anything to insure a stopping movement of the ram head at its proper position. This is done automatically. i

It' is, of course, understood that various parts of this apparatus may be removed and other parts used in place thereof so that each apparat'us may be used on work of different sizes and of different kinds. Both the nipple member 30 and the ram head 54 may be changed and the mold sections 64 may be changed in number and arrangement. These mold sections may also have their forming portions formed of different and various shapes' from those shown in the drawings. The apparatus described and illustrated and which represents only one embodiment of this invention is designed primarily for corrugating thin-walled hollow metallic tubes to make hollow resilient metallic bellows. It is to be noted that the mold sections are comparatively thin and comparatively light, and therefore may be readily moved under the influence of the expanding metal during theshaping operation. However, the machine is adapted for the formation of various other articles merely by changing the parts above referred to.

What I claim is:

1. In combination, in an apparatus for shapin metal from a hollow blank, an expansible an oontractible mold formed of a plurality of mold sections supported so that they may move free- (See Fig. 7.) i

longitudinal or axial pressure, and means forv selectively retracting said mold sections and moving them into their initial starting position properly spaced with respect to each other.

2. In combination, in an apparatus for shap-' ing metal from a hollow blank, an expansible. and contractible mold formed of a plurality of mold sections supported so that they may move freely and at random under the influence of the'expanding metal of the blank when the blank is subjected to internal fluid pressure and external longitudinal or axial pressure, and means for selectively retracting saidmold sections and moving them into their initial starting position properly spaced with respect to each other, said means being inoperative with respect to said mold sections during the shaping operation.

3. In combination, in-an apparatus for shaping metal from a hollow blank, an expansible and contractible mold formed of a plurality of mold sections supported so that they may move freely and at random under the influence of the expanding metal of the blank when theblank is subjected to internal fluid pressure and external longitudinal or axial pressure, each mold section.

being composed of two parts hinged with respect to each other so that each mold section may be opened, and means for opening said mold sections. I

4. In combination, in an apparatus for shaping metal from a hollow blank, an expansible and contractible mold. formed of a plurality of mold.v

sections supported so that they may move freely and at random under the influence of the expanding metal of the blank when the 'blank is subjected to internal fluid pressure and external longitudinal or axial pressure, each mold section being composed of two parts hinged with respect to each other so that each mold sectionmay be opened, means for opening saidniold sections, and means for locking said parts of the mold sections together, said locking means being operable as a unit.

5. A machine for shaping metal low blank, including in combination, a stationary head; a movable head or ram with means for applying pressure thereto, a forming element including a plurality of mold sections positioned between said stationary head and said movable head, said mold sections being so formed that when closed they provide a complete mold for the blank, means for movably supporting said mold sections so that they may move freely. and

independently with respect to each other and longitudinally of the blank and under the influence of the expanding metal of the blank when the blank is subjected to internal presfrom a holsure and external longitudinal or axial pressure and means cooperating with said head or ram for initially correctly spacing said mold sections.

6. A machine for shaping metal from a 1101- -ments adapted to selectively engage various mold sections during the retracting movement of the movable head, and an operative connection between said movable head and said supporting means, whereby when the movable head is re-- tracted, the mold sections will be selectively moved to their initial starting position and properly spaced with respect to each other.

7. A machine for shaping metal from a hollow blank, including in combination, a stationary head, a movable head or ram with-means. for moving said movable head in both directions, a forming element including a plurality of mold sectionspositioned between said stationary head and said movable head, said mold sections being so formed that when closed they provide a complete mold for the blank, means for movably sup: porting said mold sections so that they may move freely and independently with respect to each other and longitudinally of the blank and under the influence of the expanding metal of the blank, said supporting means being provided withelements adapted to selectively engage various mold sections during the retracting movement of the movable head, and an operative connection between said movable head and said supporting means, whereby when the movable head is re-- tracted, the mold sections will be selectively moved to their initial starting position and properly spaced with respect to each other, the engagement of said-elements with said mold sections being non -eifective' during the entire forward movement of the movable head.

8. A machine of the character described, in-

cluding in combination, a stationary head, a movable head, means for moving'said movable head under pressure, a forming element for a hollow metallic blank, including spaced supports, a plurality of shafts slidably mounted in said supports,

I a plurality of mold sections mounted upon said shafts between said stationary 'head and said movable head, said mold sections being movable freely and independently with respect to each other during the forward movement of the movable head so that they may accommodate themselves longitudinally with respect to the blank under the influence of the expanding metal of theblank.

9. A machine of the character described, including in combination, a stationary head, a movable head, means for moving said movable head under pressure, a forming element for a hollow metallic blank, including spaced supports, a plurality of shafts slidably mounted in'said supports, a plurality of mold sections mounted upon said shafts between said stationary head and said movable head, said mold sections being movable freely and independently with respect to each other during the forward movement of the movable head so that they may accommodate themselves longitudinally with respect to the 'blank' under the influence of. the expanding metal of the blank, each of said shafts being provided with an engaging element adapted to engage one of said mold sections and move said mold section back to its initial starting position, and an operative connection between said movable head andjsaid shafts to cause the retracting movement of the shafts and the mold sections controlled thereby.

1-0. A machine of the character described, including in combination, a stationary head, a movable head, means-for moving said movable head under pressure, a forming element for a hollow metallic blank, including spaced supports, a plurality of shafts slidably mounted insaid supports, a plurality of mold sections mounted upon said shafts between said stationary head and said movable head, said mold. sections being movable freely and independently with respect to each other during the forward movement of the movable head so that they may accommodate themselves longitudinally with respect to the-blank under the influence of the expanding metal of the blank, each of said shafts being provided with an engaging-element adapted to engage one'of said mold sections and move said mold section back to its initial starting position, an operative connection between said movable head and said shafts to cause the retracting movement of the shafts and the mold sections controlled thereby, each shaft also having another engaging element resiliently mounted with respect to the shaft and adapted ,to engage the opposite side of the same mold section so as to assist in holding the mold section in its proper starting position. I

11. A machine of the character described, including in combination, a stationary head, a movable head, means for moving said movable head under pressure, a forming element for a hollow metallic blank, including spaced supports, a plurality of shafts slidably mounted in said supports, I

a plurality of mold sections mounted upon saidshafts between said stationary head and said movable head, said mold sections being movable freely and independently with respect to each other during the forward movement ofthe movable head so that they may accommodate themselves longitudinally with respect'to the blank under the influence of the expanding metal of the blank, each of said shafts being provided with an engaging element adapted to engage one of said mold sections and move said. mold section back to its initial starting position, an operative connection between said movable head and said shafts to cause the retracting movement of the shafts and the mold sections controlled thereby, each shaft also having another engaging element resiliently mounted with respect to the shaft and adapted to engage the opposite side of the same mold section so as to assist in holding the mold section in its proper starting position, said lastmentioned engaging-element being released at the start of the forward or shaping movement of the .movable head.

12. A machine of the character described, including in combination a stationary head and a movable head and means for moving said movable head in both directions, a pair of supports, a plurality of shafts slidably supported in said supports, a plurality of separate mold sections sup-- ported upon said'shafts and positioned between said stationary head and said movable head, an operative connection between said movable head and said shafts effective during the retracting movement of the movable head only to cause a corresponding movement of .said shafts, each shaft being provided with means adapted to selectively engage one of said mold sections during the retracting movement of the shaft and to move that mold section in its proper starting position.

13. A machine of the character described, including in combination a stationary head and a movable head and means for moving said movable head in both directions; a pair of supports, a plurality or shafts slidably supported in said supports, a plurality of separate mold sections supported upon said shafts and positioned between said statio'nary head and said movable head,

an operative connection between said movable head and said shafts efiective during the re tracting movement of the movable head only to cause a corresponding movement of said shafts, each shaft being provided with a plurality of engaging means adapted to selectively engage a plurality of said mold sections and to move them back to" their proper starting position during the retracting movement of said shafts.

14. A machine of the character described, including in combination a stationary head and a movablehead and means for moving said movable head in both directions, a pair of supports, a plurality of shafts slidably supported in said supports, a plurality of separate mold sections supported upon said shafts and positioned between said stationary head and said movable head, an operative connection between said movable. head and said shafts effective during the retractive movement of the-movable head only to cause a corresponding movement of said shafts, each shaft being provided with means adapted to selectively engage one of said mold sections during the retracting movement of the shaft and to move that mold section in its proper starting position, and means resiliently mounted with respect to each shaft for engaging the opposite side of said mold section to hold the mold section in its proper starting position.

15. In combination, in a machine of. the character described, an expansible and contractible mold including a plurality of mold sections, each mold section being provided with a plurality of apertures, a plurality of shafts passing through said apertures in said mold sections, said shafts being less in diameter than said apertures, bushings positioned in certain apertures in certain mold sections, said bushings slidably fitting said shafts, each bushing being provided with a plurality of grooves radially arranged and also having an abutment, eachshaft having an engaging element positioned in alignment with said abutment and operative on the withdrawal movement of said shafts to engage said abutment so as to move that mold section back to its proper starting position, and means for moving said shafts sufficiently so as to properly position said mold sections. p

16. In combination, in a machine of the character described, an expansible and contractible mold includiiig a plurality of mold sections, each mold section being provided with a plurality of apertures, a plurality of shafts passing through said apertures in said mold sections, said shafts being less in diameter than said apertures, bushings positioned in certain apertures in certain mold sections, said bushings slidably fitting saidshafts, each bushing being provided with a plurality of grooves radially arranged, and also having an abutment, each shaft having an engaging element positioned in alignment with said abutment and operative on the withdrawal movement of said shafts to engage-said abutment so as to move that mold section back to its proper starting position, and means for moving said shafts sufficiently so as to properly position said mold sections.

, mold section being provided with a plurality of apertures, a plurality of shafts passing through said apertures in said mold sections, said shafts being less in diameter than said apertures, bushings positioned in certain apertures in certain mold sections, said bushings slidably fitting said shafts, each bushing being provided with a plurality of grooves radially arranged and also havso as to move that mold section back to its proper starting position, and means for moving said shafts sufficiently so as to properly position said mold sections.

18. In combination, in a machine for shaping metal, a stationary head and a movable head adapted to have a hollow blank clamped therebetween, means for admitting and maintaining fluid pressure within said blank, means for moving said movable head toward and from said stationary head, a plurality of separate forming elements positioned between said heads and adapted to receive said blank, guiding and supporting means for said forming elements, said forming elements being freely movable at random during the shaping operation to permit the blank to expand freely therebetween and thereinto and means for initially automatically spacing said forming elements.

19. In combination, in a machine for shaping metal, a stationary head and a movable head adapted to have a hollow blank clamped therebetween, means for admitting and maintaining fluid pressure within said blank, means for mov- 'metal, a stationary head and a movable head adapted to have a hollow blank clamped therebetween, means for admitting and maintaining fluid pressure within said blank, means for moving said movable head toward and from said stationary head, a plurality of separate forming elements positioned between said heads and adapted to receive said blank, guiding and supporting means for said forming elements, said forming elements being freely movable at random during the shaping operation to permit the blank to expand freely therebetween and thereinto, and means for moving said forming elements into initial and spaced position and relatiomduring the retracting .movement of the movable head, said means including elements associated with said guiding and supporting means selectively engaging said forming elements 21. In combination in a machine for shaping metal, a stationary head-and a movable head adapted to have a hollow blank clamped there-- between, means for moving said movable head toward and from said stationary head, a plurality of separate forming elements positioned between said heads and adapted to receive said blank, said forming elements. being freely and independently movable during the forming operation, and means for retracting said forming elements by direct pull to a properly spacedinitial starting position.

, 22. A method of corrugating thin-wall metal tubes, comprising positioning a tube relatively to a plurality of resiliently held spaced forming elements, subjecting the tube to internal and axial pressure while releasing said forming elements from their resiliently held condition to allow the forming elements to move freely and independently of each other.

23. A method of corrugating thin-wall metal tubes, comprising positioning a tube relatively to a plurality of spaced forming elements resiliently held in position at the beginning of the operation, subjecting the tube to internal and axial pressure while releasing the forming elements from their resiliently held condition to allow the forming elements to move freely and independently of each other to form a corrugated tube.

24. A method of corrugating thin-wall metal tubes, comprising positioning a tube relatively to a plurality of resiliently held spaced forming elements, subjecting the tube to internal and axial pressure while releasing said forming elements from their resiliently held condition to allow the forming elements to move freely and independently of each other to form a corrugated tube, removing the formed tube, and returning the forming elements to-their initial spaced resiliently held position.

25. In combination in an apparatus for shaping metal from hollow blanks, a plurality of mold sections, means for resiliently holding said mold sections in spaced relation at the beginning of the operation, means for introducing an internal pressure into the blank, and means for collapsing said blank and simultaneously releasing said mold sections so as to allow them to move freely and at random during the collapsing movement.

26. A machine for shaping metal from a hollow blank, including in combination, a stationary head, a movable head, means for moving said movable head in both directions, a forming element including aplurality of moldsections positioned between said heads, said mold sections supporting said mold sections so that they may being so formed that when closed they provide a complete mold for the blank, means for movably move freely and independently with respect to eachother and longitudinally of the blank and under the influence of the expanding metal of the blank, said supporting means being provided with elements adapted to selectively engage various mold sections during the retracting movement of the movable head.

27. A machine of the character described, including in combination, a stationary head, a movable head, a forming element for a hollow metal blank, including spaced supports, a plurality of shafts slidably mounted in said supports, a plurality of mold sections mounted upon said shafts between said heads, said mold sections being movable freely and independently with respect to each other during the forward movement of the movable head so that they may accommodate themselves longitudinally with respect to the'blank under the influence of the expanding metal of the blank, each of said shafts being provided with an engaging element adapted to engage one of said mold sections and move said mold section back to its initial starting position.

28. A machine of the character described, including, in combination, a movable head, means for moving said head in either direction, a form ing element including a plurality of mold sections adapted to receive a hollow blank, means for supporting said mold sections so that they may be moved longitudinally of the blank, said supporting means being provided with elements adapted to selectively engage various mold sections duringthe retracting movement of the movable head.

29. A machine of the character described, including, in combination, a forming element for a hollow metal blank including supports, a plurality of shafts slidably mounted in said supports, said forming element including a plurality of mold sections mountedupon said shafts, said mold sections being movable longitudinally of the blank, each of said shafts being provided with an engaging element adapted to engage one of said mold sections and move said mold section back to its initial starting position.

30. In combination in an apparatus for shaping metal from a hollow blank, an expansible and contractible mold formed of a plurality of mold sections supported for movement longitudinally of the blank when the blank is subjected to internal fluid and external longitudinal or axial pressure, and means for selectively retracting said mold sections and moving them into their initial starting positon properly spaced with respect to each other.

31. In combination inan apparatus for shaping metal from a hollow blank, an expansible and contractible mold formed of a plurality of mold sections supported for movement longitudinally;

of the blank when the blank is subjected to internal fluid pressure and external longitudinal pressure, and means for selectively retracting said mold sections and moving'them into their initial starting position properly spaced with respect to each other, said means being inoperative with respect to said mold sections during the shaping operation. v v

32. A machine for shaping metal from a hol low blank, including, in combination, .a stationary head, a movable head or ram with means for moving said movable head or ram in both directions, a forming element including a plurality of porting said mold sections so that they may move, with respect to each other and longitudinally of the blank when the blank is subjected to the forming operation, said supportingv means being pro- 1% vided with elements adapted to selectively engage various mold sections during the retracting movement of the movable head, and an operative connection between said movable head and said supporting means, whereby when the movable head is retracted the mold sections will be selectively moved to their initial starting position and properly spaced with respect to each other.

'33. A machine of the character described, in-

cluding, in combination, a stationary head, .a

movable head, means for moving said movable head under pressure, a forming element for a hollow metallic blank, including spaced supports, a plurality of shafts slidably mounted on said supports, said forming element including a plurality of mold sections mounted upon said shafts between said stationary head and said movable head, said mold sections being movable longitudinally of the blank when the blank is subjected to a collapsing operation, each of said shafts being provided with a plurality of elements for resiliently holding a mold part in its proper starting position.

34. In combination in a machine for shaping metal, a s tationary head and a. movable head adapted to receive a hollow blank therebetween,

means for admitting and maintaining fluid pressure within said blank, means for moving said .movable head toward and from said stationarysections, means for resiliently holding said mold sections in spaced relation at the beginning of the operation, and means for releasing said resilient holding means after the collapsing opera- I tion has begun.

36. A method of corrugating thin wall metal tubes, which comprises, positioning a tube relatively to a plurality of resiliently held spaced l forming elements, introducing internal fluid pres sure into the tube, subjecting the tubeto axial pressure and simultaneously releasing the forming elements to allowthe forming elements to move freely and independently of each other to form the corrugated tube, removing the formed Y which comprises, positioning a tube relatively to sections in spaced relation, automatic means for tube, and automatically returning the forming elements to their initial resiliently held position. r 37. In a device of the character described, a plurality of mold sections adapted to receive a hollow blank means for collapsing the blank to form a corrugated tube or blank while permit-- 'ting the mold sections to have free and independent movement, and means for selectively retracting said mold sections and moving them to their original spaced position after removal of the corrugated tube or blank.

38. In a device of the character described for shaping metal from a hollow blank, a plurality of mold sections, means for holding said mold releasing said holding means, and means'for returning the mold sections to their spaced position after the corrugating operation.

39. A method of corrugating hollow blanks,

a plurality of resiliently held spaced forming elements, subjecting the blank to internal pressure and axial external pressure to collapse the blank and releasing the forming elements from their resiliently held condition to allow free and independent movement of the forming elements 7 during the collapsing operation.

40. In combination, in an apparatus of the character described, a plurality of forming elements, means for resiliently holdingsaid forming elements in spaced relation at the beginning of the operation,-me'ans whereby internal pres-;

sure and axial external pressure are applied to a hollow blank positioned relatively to said forming elements, and means for releasing said re-- silient holding means during the collapsing operation.

41. In a device ot the character described for shaping metal from a hollow blank, the come bination, includinga plurality of forming ele-, ments, means for holding said forming elements in spaced relation, means whereby internal pressure and external axial pressure may be applied, to a blank positioned with respect to said form;

ing elements'to collapse thepblank, and automatic I means for releasing said holding means during the collapsing oper ation. 1

42. In a device of the character described for shaping metal from a hollow .blank, the combination, including a plurality of' forming ele-' ments, means, for resiliently holding said forming elements in spaced relation at'the beginning of the operation, means whereby internalpres- I sure and external axial pressure may be applied to a blank positioned with respect to 'said form ing elements to collapse the blank, and automatic means for releasing said holding means during the collapsing operation.

43. In a device of .the character described for shaping metal from a hollow blank, the combination, including a plurality of forming elements, means for holding said forming elements in spaced relation, means whereby internal pressure and external axial pressure may be applied toa blank positioned with respect to saidform ing elements to collapse the blank, jautgmatic means for releasing said holding means during the collapsing operation, and means for 'returning said forming elements to their accurate ini-,

tial spaced position after the corrugating, operation has been completed.

44. In combination in an apparatus for shaping metal from-a hollow blank, a plurality of lmold sections, means for resiliently holding said mold sections in spaced relation at the beginning of the operation only, and means for releasing said resilient holding means at the beginning of the collapsing operation. I

. MARSHALL H. WARD.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2541869 *Dec 13, 1944Feb 13, 1951Justin W MacklinApparatus for making bellows
US2586915 *Sep 24, 1947Feb 26, 1952Robertshaw Fulton Controls CoMechanism for operating a sealing collet
US5794474 *Jan 3, 1997Aug 18, 1998Ball CorporationMethod and apparatus for reshaping a container body
US6079244 *Sep 22, 1998Jun 27, 2000Ball CorporationMethod and apparatus for reshaping a container body
US6151939 *Aug 25, 1997Nov 28, 2000Delaware Capital Formation, Inc.Can shaping apparatus
US6343496Mar 6, 2000Feb 5, 2002Delaware Capital Formation, Ltd.Can shaping apparatus and method
Classifications
U.S. Classification72/59, 72/400
International ClassificationB21D15/10, B21D15/00
Cooperative ClassificationB21D15/10
European ClassificationB21D15/10