US 1951731 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
E. E. W. KASSNER OSCILLATOR RADIATOR March 20, 1934.
Filed March 8, 19:2
a 1 ai /11715911114 lllllllllllllllllllllllllll ll\- Patented Mar. 20, 1934 OSCILLATOR-RADIATOR Ernst Eduard Wilhelm Kassner, Berlin, Germany, aesiignor to Ternion A.-G., Glarus, Switzer- Ian Application March 8, 1932,8erial No. 597,543
In Germany March 9, 1931 7 Claims.
This invention relates to an apparatus producing electro-magnetic waves of the shortest wavelength suitable for 'medico-therapeutical purposes. By means of the apparatus, the proper- & ties of ultra short-waves of from 0.5 mm wavelength upwards by the simplest means can be turned'to practical use.
According to the invention ultra. short-waves are generated by the oscillatory radiation dis- 10 charge of a high ,tension, high frequency cur,-
rent--so called Tesla current-which is passed over an ultra short-wave generating and radiating system substantially consisting of spark. gaps protected against the formation of arcs, and directed against a .body of earth potential or an ionized dielectric, for example a person. The arrangement, therefore, constitutes an open dis charge circuit and only when closing the circuit by discharging the high tension high frequency against a body of earth potential or an ionized dielectric, does the discharge pass through the ultra short-wave generating system and produce ultra short waves which are radiated together with the high tension high frequency discharge.
26 Since the ultra short-wave energy is emitted in the same space and at the same time as the electric discharge of the high tension high frequency, the absorption of the emitted ultra shortwave energy by the irradiated body is assisted by 30 the diathermal effect and the effect resulting from the ionization by collision of atoms and electrons in the path of the said high tension high frequency discharge.
In order to avoid loss of energy due to radiation 36 when conducting the discharge of the high tension high frequency current by means of a metal wire, the discharge is preferably passed to the.
ultra short-wavegenerating system by means 01' electrodes disposed in a discharge tube filled with 40 a gas on lowest discharge potential. The said discharge tube is preferably filled with a rare gas,
for example helium, neon or argon under reduced pressure to reduce the discharge potential.
The spark .gaps within the ultra short-wave generating and radiating system are preferably formed by a series of dipoles provided with antenna electrodes. The dipoles are advantageous- 1y formed by two rows of small metal balls of equal or different size arranged opposite to each other at a short distance apart and provided with small antenna electrodes. e one series of electrodes is intended to take up the high tension high frequency discharge. In order to reduce the space charge between the two rows of balls, a fiowable, that is to say a liquid or pulverulent, dielectric is provided between the said two rows of balls. An insulating oil, for example parafiln oil or transformer oil, or an insulating pulverulent medium, for example magnesium oxide, may be used as the dielectric. The small metal balls and their electrodes are also insulated from each other, for example by embedding them in a glass plate.
The dipoles are preferably capacitively coupled with each other by means of two metal plates provided with holes to receive the metal balls of the dipoles and accommodate the antenna electrodes; These plates, in-addition to coupling the dipoles, act as a plate condenser to which the dipoles are joined in parallel. Since the plate condenser is capacitively coupled with the dipoles, oscillations are produced in the plate condenser which react on the oscillations of the dipoles. Coupling oscillations are thus produced which assume a particular intensity when the two systems are in resonance. Such resonance can be attained by adjusting the distance between the plates of the'plate condenser.
Instead of, or together with the dipoles described above, other ultra short-wave generators may be used, for example small sealed glass tubes provided at their ends with antenna electrodes and filled with small metal particles of equal or different size which are embedded in a liquid or pulverulent dielectric, for example a thick insulating oil or a non-conductive metal oxide, such as magnesium oxide. The small metal particles in' the insulating medium form very small spark gaps protected against the formation of arcs, and thus form generators of very short waves. Instead of filling the said'glass tubes with small solid metal particles, they may also contain a small amount of mercury, which under the influence of the high tension high frequency discharge, is dispersed in the dielectric whereby the mercury droplets form spark gaps. Due to the difl'erence in size of the small metal particles, spark gaps of small but varied lengths are. formed and, therefore, these generators do not produce electromagnetic waves of definite length; but bands of waves of very short, but different lengths. Such glass tubes may, therefore, be termed band generators.
As stated above, the high tension, high frequency discharge is preferably passed to the ultra short-wave generators *by means of electrodes arranged in a discharge tube. In order to distribute the disoharge equally to all generators, the exit electrode in the discharge tube is connected to a metal plate arranged equi-distant from the taking-up antenna electrodes of the generators.
The invention may be best understood with ref erence to the accompanying drawing showing different embodiments of the invention.
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of an ultra short-wave generator system;
Figure 2 is a View of the most important part of Figure 1 on an enlarged scale; and
Figure 3 shows part of a cross section of an alternative construction;
Figure 4 is a longitudinal section of a modified form of an ultra short-wave generating system in which dipoles as shown in Figures 1 and 2 are combined with oscillators as shown in Figure 3.
The apparatus shown in Figure 1 is intended for use in connection with high frequency systems of great high tension power and may be used in the most varied forms as an electrode for any high-frequency appliance. The high tension high frequency of any known high-frequency system is conducted unipolarly to the apparatus by means of a flexible lead 1, metal clamp 2, electrodes 3 of the discharge tube filled on a low discharge potential with a rare gas, and then to the plate electrode 5 in the glass cylinder 6, the second pole of the secondary side of the high tension high frequency transformer being grounded.
The discharge tube 4 is sealed to the high vacuum resistance tube 7, thereby preventing a discharge in the direction of the rubber handle 8. The plate 9 of insulating material protects the handle 8 against contact with the metal lead 1 especially, when the apparatus is moved during operation.
Above the plate electrode 5 the ultra shortwave generator is arranged. This consists of a number of spherical dipoles 10, 11, of equal or of different sizes, and bear antenna electrodes 10a and 11a, said dipoles are-insulated and embedded in the glass plates 12 and 13. In order to reduce the space-charge resulting from quick sparking, which might disturb the drop of potential across the spark gaps by too great an ionization leading to the formation of luminous arcs, a liquid or pulverulent dielectric 24, e. g. oxide of magnesium, is placed between the spherical dipoles.
Above the glass plate 12 and below the glass plate 13 are two metal plates 14 and 15 each provided with circular openings so that a capacitive instead of a galvanic coupling exists between the spherical dipoles and the two metal plates 14 and 15. Thus the effect of the plates 14, 15 is firstly. that they couple the several dipole generators one with another and secondly, that the two plates act as a plate-condenser with a number of dipole generators joined in parallel. Therefore.
oscillations are produced in the plate condenser which react on the oscillations of the dipole generators. The coupling oscillations thus produced can be intensified by bringing these two oscillating systems in resonance with each other. Such resonance can be brou ht about by adjusting the distance between the two metal plates; For such adjustment the upper plate system 11. 12. 14 is arranged in the adjustable guide rings 16, 1'7 of insulating material. The guide ring 16 is ground so as to-fit into the glass cylinder 6. By turning the threaded ring 1'7 in the guide ring 16 the discharging length of the dipole generators and t .e distanceapart of the metal plates 14 and 15 may be varied and the two oscillating systems thereby tuned.
Between the condenser plate 15 and the plate electrode 5 a perforated glass pane 25 is arranged, whereby a discharge of the high tension high frequency currents is directly forced across the dipoles 10, 11.
If the live apparatus, Figure 1, is moved by means of the handle 7, 8 towards an object 19,
or a person at ground potential, an oscillatory.
discharge of high frequency takes place whereby the dipoles form discharges and emit by means of the reflector l8 electromagnetic waves, in the direction of the high frequency discharge.
The efficiency of the emitted and effective ultra short-wave energy is improved by blowing into the discharge field a current of air or oxygen gas from one of the generally used steel containers.
Instead of the dipole generators or in the same apparatus with them band generators containing small metallic particles may be used, especially for the shortest waves. According to this modification two antenna electrodes 21, 22 are sealed into a glass tube 20 filled with a mixture of small metallic particles 26 of equal or different size, or of a small quantity of mercury 23, in a powdered or liquid dielectric, e. g. thick oil or oxide of magnesium.
Figure 4 illustrates a device for generating a particularly broad frequency band. Such broad band is produced by the use of dipoles 10 and 11 of different sizes together with band generators as shown in Figure 3. In order to make the ultra-violet rays generated simultaneously with the'ultra short-waves available for use the device is covered with an arcuate shaped cap of a dielectric permeable to ultra-violet rays, such as glass known under the name uviol, which also possesses the property of preventing the high frequency discharge to pass over to the irradiated body.
The short-wave generators described above emit a frequency band, which may be compared to acomplicated line spectrum, as a generator consisting of a number of damped or undamped single generators, set under coupling, possesses a numberof damper or undamped natural oscillations, the 11 natural oscillations of the coupled generators appearing in a proportion of intensity, corresponding to the several single generators.
What I claim is:
1. An apparatus for the production of ultra short-waves comprismg a plurality of oscillators having antenna electrodes, spark gaps between said oscillators,a flowable dielectric within the said gaps preventing the formation of luminous arcs. and means for supplying a high tensioned high frequency electric current to said oscillators.
2. An apparatus for the productionof ultra short-waves comprising a plurality of op osed dipoles having spark gaps therebetween, each pole of said dipoles having an antenna electrode, a iiowable dielectric within the said gaps preventing the formation of luminous arcs. and means for supplying a high tensioned high frequency electric current to said dipoles.
3. An apparatus for the production of ultrashort-waves comprising a plurality of opposed dipoles having spark gaps therebetween. each pole of said dipoles having an antenna electrode. two metal plates having openings to accommodate said antenna electrodes. the said plates acting as a condenser and capacitively coupling said dipoles with each other, a flowable dielectric within the said gaps preventing the formation of luminous arcs, and means for supplying a high tensioned high frequency electric current to said dipoles.
4. An apparatus for the production of ultra short-waves comprising a plurality of oscillators substantially consisting of small glass tubes filled with a mixture of conducting particles and a fluid dielectric, said particles forming spark gaps, said glass tubes being provided with antenna electrodes, and means for supplying a high tensioned high frequency current to the said oscillators.
} 5. An apparatus for the; production of ultra short-waves comprising a plurality of oscillators substantially consisting of small glass tubes filled antenna electrode, a fluid dielectric within the said gaps preventing the formation of luminous arcs, and in part of small glass tubesiilled with a mixture of metal particles and a fluid dielectric, the said metal particles forming spark gaps, the said glass tubes being provided with antenna electrodes, and means for supplying a high tensioned high frequency current to said oscillators.
7. An apparatus for the production of ultra short-waves comprising a plurality of oscillators consisting in part of dipoles having spark gaps therebetween, each pole of said dipoles having an antenna electrode, a fluid dielectric within the said gaps preventing the formation of luminous arcs, and in part of small glass tubes filled with a mixture of metal particles and a fluid dielectric, the said metal particles forming spark gaps, the
trodes, two metal plates having apertures to 'accommodate said antenna electrodes, the. said plates acting as a condenser and capacitively coupling the said oscillators with each other, and
means for supplying a high tensioned high frequency current to said oscillators.
ERNST. EDUARD WILHELM KASSNER.
said glass tubes being provided with antenna elec-