US 1953410 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 3, 1934. v. JAcoBsoN 1,953,410
ACOUSTIC TILE Filed April 30., 1931 2 Sheets-Sheet l i. 21. y ze Zen-1% y A/ZO 2% l `ZI INVENTOR Vicor Jacobson V. JACOBSQN April 3, 1934.
ACOUSTIC TILE Filed April 30, 1931i. 2 SheebS-Sheeb 2 /AAMA M n INVENTOR Vic BY Patented Apr. 3, 1934 .UNITED STATES ACOUSTIC TILE Victor Jacobson, New Rochelle, N. Y., assigner to Jacobson & Co., New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application April so, 1931, serial No. 533,88@
The invention relates to composite tiles, useful for various purposes, especially as a facing for walls and ceilings, and referred to as acoustic tiles because they have notable sound-absorbing 5 or sound-proofing qualities. The tiles may, however, also be used for purposes in which soundproofing is not a primary consideration.
A principal object is to provide a light, strong, inexpensive and easily fabricated tile of partly hollow form and which has the quality of absorbing sound vibrations to a marked degree, and also has an attractive and decorative surface finish.
The tile is composed of a suitable plastic, usually a plaster composition, with an interior structure of open, cellular or corrugated form. This inner structure in preferred examples, as here shown, consists of one or more layers or sheets of corrugated paper or material of the class commonly called corrugated board enclosed between inner and outer layers of plaster; in some cases the corrugated layer or layers are enclosed by moisture proof material which may be a suitable paper or suitably treated paper; and they may also be enclosed in a fabric such as a loose or open-mesh fabric of the general character of cheese cloth. In some cases, the corrugated board or boards are first enclosed in moisture proof paper and a surface covering or wrapping of cheese cloth or the like is then applied outside the paper.
The invention also includes as an important feature a core or center structure for tiles of the character described, this core structure consisting of one or more sheets or layers of the general nature of corrugated board enclosed in a moisture-resisting Wrapping such as paper of character above mentioned, and an outer sheet or wrapping of fabric of the general natu-re of cheese cloth. These core or center structures are intended to be furnishedto tilemanufacturers ready for incorporation in tiles of the present'character and produced by suitable means or methods including those herein disclosed.
Preferably, in some cases, the outer plaster layer, that is, the facing layer which is exposed when the tile is in position in a wall or ceiling, is provided with a multiplicity of perforations which may extend to, into, or substantially through the center or core structure. These perforations afford communication of outside air with the generally hollow or cellular interior of the tile,i.n which sound vibrations are effectively absdrbed, deflected and baiiied in` such manner that when the tiles are employed in a Wall or ceiling very effective sound-proofing is obtained.
The characteristics and advantages of the invention are further sufficiently explained in con,- nection with the following detail description of the accompanying drawings, which show pre- (Cl. '22e-18) ferred embodiments. After considering these ex amples, skilled persons Will understand that many Variations may be made without departing from the principles disclosed; and I contemplate the employment of any structures that are properly Within the scope of the appended claims.
Fig. l is a perspective view of a tile embodying the invention in one preferred form.
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary transverse section, on a larger scale, representing substantially a full` sized section of a tile of one suitable thickness.
Figs. 3 to 5, inclusive, illustrate successive steps of the production process.
Fig. 6 is a perspective View of a perforating implement.
Fig. 7 shows a core or center structure in partly completed form.
Fig.- 8 shows a complete core structure in one preferred form,
Figs. i and 2 show in perspective and crosssection a completed tile in one preferred form. The inner layer l `and outer layer 2 are of suitable plastic composition usually in the nature of plaster such as a molded mixture of lime, sand and Water in any usual or desired proportions, or of gypsum, or the like. These inner and' outer layers enclose a center or core structure 3 of generally cellular construction consisting usually of one or more layers of corrugated paper or corrugated board. The number of corrugated layers may vary in accordance with various requirements; one, two or three layers of the corrugated material are indicated at 4, 5, 6, the corrugations of these layers being illustrated 'as arranged at a right angle to those of the adjacent layer or layers, thus enhancing the structural strength and providing a cellular interior having spaces formed by the various corrugations in cross-Wise arrangement. rJI'he plastic material is extended to form borders or edge margins 7 the full depth of the tile in order to connect together the inner and outer layers of plastic and to fully enclose the cellular core. Desirably, in some cases, although not necessarily in all cases, I provide a multiplicity of perforations or holes 8 of a moderate diameter (this dimension of the holes being largely variable) extending into or through the surface layer 2 and preferably in some cases as shown in Fig. 2, these holes or perforations extend to, into and through the various corrugated layers constituting the core 3 but not into or through the inner surface layer 1 of plastic material.
The outer-surface finish may also vary. Devsirably for many purposes this outer or finishing surface 9 is of rough, more or less irregular or pebbly formation and appearance substantially as indicated in Figs. 1 and 2 but of course other surface finishes may be provided, as desired.
The tiles are made of any desired thickness and of any desired length and width and may be easily cut or sawed to fill up spaces, etc. 'I'hey may also be shaped of curved form to conform to any desired wall or ceiling curvature. I illustrate only fiat tiles, but skilled persons will understand how curved tiles may be produced in accordance with the general process methods hereafter explained; as for example, by varying the form of the molds, Scrapers, etc.
In some cases, the core structure may include one or more layers of moisture-proof or moistureresisting sheet material such as paper and also may be enclosed in a. supporting or strengthening and retaining layer of sheet material such as open mesh fabric of the general nature of cheese cloth as further referred to in connection with the separate core structure illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8; and it is to be understood that these elements may be included in the core structure as shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 7 shows a partly completed core structure consisting in this case of two layers of corrugated paper or corrugated board 4 and 5, having their corrugations arranged in crosswise relation. Thesel may be secured together in various ways, preferably as shown in Fig. 8 by partly or entirely enclosing the corrugated boards in a sheet 10 of suitable material such as a moisture-resisting or moisture-paper of which paraffin, wax or like paper are preferred examples. Such layer or sheet may overlie one face of the core and its edge margins may be carried about and adhesively secured to the opposite face. Preferably also in some cases, I provide an outer binding or retaining layer 11 of a suitable fabric usually of open mesh such as cheese cloth and this may in some cases be applied adhesively to the paper covering, and the paper and fabric may then be applied to the cardboard core sheets as a composite unit.
Complete cores such as shown in Fig. 8 are designed to be furnished to tile manufacturers for incorporation in the plastic material to produce tiles in accordance with the invention, such for example as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2.
In some cases, it is desirable to provide one or more holes or apertures extending entirely through the core structure to obtain a bonding of the inner and outer plastic layers through such holes. This is sufficiently illustrated in Fig. 8 in which a single hole 30 of substantial diameter is provided through the complete core structure in a central position. In the process of production as subsequently explained, the plastic material flows through the hole and forms a bond or union between the upper and lower plastic layers which substantially/increases the strength of the composite tile. f
The process of production may Avary greatly. One preferred method is sufficiently illustrated in Figs. 3 to 5. In accordance with this method, an open mold 20 is employed having a bottom 21 and side and end walls 22 of a depth substantially equal to the combined thicknesses of the constituent parts. The inner or bottom layer of plaster 1 is first poured or placed in the mold and smoothed olf or pressed in any suitable way. The core structure 3 of any desired character as above described is then placed on the bottom layer, this core being so dimensioned as clearly shown in Fig. 4 that all of its edges are spaced substantially away from the mold walls. Additional plaster is then poured or placed in the mold sufficient t0 fill it, this plaster of course iiowing into the spaces between the core edges and the mold walls to form the edge margins 7; and the outer layer 2 is regulated to any desired thickness and the surface is finished off as by the use of a scraper or if preferred a dabber may be employed to produce a rough or pebbly surface finish as above referred to. When perforations such as 8 are desired, they may be produced in any suitable way while the plaster is substantially soft or after it has set sufficiently to permit ready perforation, but will not flow sufllciently to fill up the perforations after formation. Conveniently the perforating is accomplished by the use of a templet or implement 25, Fig. 6, consisting of a body or board 26 of suitable dimensions or slightly smaller than the facial area of the mold, with a multiplicity of nails or like perforating elements 27 set in the board in any suitable arrangement or spacing, one preferred spacing being of the order of %ths of an inch, more or less. 'I'he perforator is applied in an obvious way to produce holes 8 extending usually through the outer layer and into the core structure, and preferably as previously stated, not into or through the inner plaster layer' 1. After the perforating implement is withdrawn,l the plaster is permitted to completely set and the completed tile is removed from the mold in any known or suitable manner.
When moisture proofing material such as treated paper is provided overlying or underlying the core of corrugated or other recess provided element or elements, such treated material from the plaster composition to the corrugated paper layers and also substantially re-enforces and strengthens the core during handling and when incorporated Within the completed tile. When 111.` the core structures are not provided as complete composite units as shown in Fig. 8, the desired core structure may of course be built up in the mold on the bottom layer 1 of plastic by placing the successive sheets in desired order. Paper serves as a desirable material for the core elements, by reason of its cheapness, its availability in corrugated or other recess providing formation, and by reason of its inherent sound absorbing or insulating qualities.
I claim: A
1. A tile of the character described, comprising a body of plastic material molded to have a recess formed therein, a core of substantially cellular construction in said recess said body of plastic 125 material being provided with a plurality of perforations extending therethrough and a bonding member formed integral with the body of the tile.
2. A tile of the character described, comprising a body of plastic material, and a core of substantially cellular construction disposed within and bonded to the body of plastic material, the cells of said core extending substantially parallel to one another, said body of plastic material being provided with a plurality of perforations extending transversely to the cells of said cellular core.
3. A tile of the character described, comprising a body of plastic material, and a core of substantially cellular construction disposed within and bonded to the body throughout its surface area, the cells of said cellular core extending substantially parallel to one another and to an exposed face of the tile, said body of plastic material being provided with a plurality of perforations extending substantially parallel to one another and substantially normal to the cells of said cellular core.