US 1953452 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 3, 1934. 1.. s. WER-rz 1,953,452
PROCESS OF REFAIRING MASONRYv STRUCTURES Filed OCT.. 28, 1931 l l a.
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oa/s S. h/f/Prz f Mll/wd@ Patented Apu 3, 1934 UNITED STATES PROCESS F REPAIRING MASONRY STRUC- 'EURES Louis S. Wertz, Shaker Heights, Ohio Application October 28, 1931, Serial No. 571,596
My invention particularly relates to the repairing of defective surface areas on masonry structures, including the filling with repair material of the structure pockets and ssures which communicate with the masonry surface. The invention also includes improvements in processes of repairing cracks in brick and analogous structures. A masonry surface may become defective subsequent to the installation of the structure, due to accidents or weather conditions, or it may be defective as a result of conditions at the time of the installation, such as a poor material mix, improper pouring of the material, forming of porous areas for various reasons, etc. A part of these surface defects consists in pockets and fissures by means of which air and water enter the structure and continue the deterioration of areas therein communicating with the surface. It is the object of my invention to effect the 20 repair of such surfaces including the filling of the pockets and fissures with repair material, by forcing the material into the structure through the surface and into the pockets and fissures to fill the latter, as distinguished from the method of effecting such a repair operation by throwing or spraying or otherwise forcibly projecting the repair material against a surface of the structure.
Preferably I incorporate with the grout which I utilize for the repair operation some desirable 30 waterproof material, and for this material I prefer to use iron filings which, since they oxidize, possess a natural affinity for the concrete. Preferably, also, the grout material is mixed with a liberal percentage of water which gradually evaporates and would leave parts of the masonry voids unfilled except that the waterproofing material, such as the iron lings, expands due to oxidation, as the water evaporates, and preserves the filled condition of the cavities.
The annexed drawing and the following description set forth in detail certain steps illustrating my improved process, such steps constituting, however, but a few of the various series of steps by which the improved process may be Worked.
In said annexed drawing:
Figure i is an axial section of a fragmentary portion of a masonry structure, showing a part of the surface thereof which has been completely repaired byiny improved process, showing another part which has been lled but not smoothed or finished, showing a third part which is undergoing a repair operation, and showing still a fourth part which is subject to repair but upon which operations have not as yet been commenced, there also being shown in connection with .the surface part under operation an axial section of devices suitable'for effecting the repair operation;
Figure 2 is a front elevation of a fragmentary 60 portion of a brick wall which is subject to repair and can be repaired by my improved process;
Figure 3 is a vertical section through a fragmentary portion of a brick wall undergoing repair, by the use of my improved process; and
Figure 4 is a horizontal section of a fragmentary portion of a masonry column undergoing repair by the use of my improved process.
Referring to the annexed drawing in which the same parts are indicated by the same respective numbers in the several views, a masonry structure, Figure 1, has four different parts, insofar as the condition of the same relative to repair operations upon defective areas is concerned, viz., a part 1 which is in need of repair 75 and upon which no repair operation has been made; a part 2 which has been repaired to the extent of filling the pits in the surface and filling the fissures and pockets which communicate with the surface portion of part 2 with repair material, 80 the apparatus utilized in the repair operation being still in position; a part 3 which has been repaired and the repair apparatus removed, the surface of the repair part, however, not having been dressed; and a part 4 which has been corn- 85 pletely repaired and the surface dressed so that this part 4 is in finished condition.
A repair operation consists in lling and smoothing a certain area of the surface of the defective masonry structure and filling the pockets and fissures that communicate with said surface. In the masonry part 1 are shown various surface pits and other defects 5, as also large pits or pockets 6 and fissures 7 which communicate with the surface. For filling these areas 5, 6 and 95 7 and effecting the repair operation, I utilize a feed nozzle 8 communicating with a source of repair material 10 fed under great pressure through the nozzle 8, this nozzle 8 communicating with a second nozzle 9 through which air is 100 forced under pressure to act as a booster for the material forced through nozzle 8. In feeding and forcing the repair material 10 against the surface of the masonry structure and into the open areas thereof from the nozzle 8, I utilize a shield 11 105 which has screw-threaded engagement with the nozzle 8 and is held in a spaced position from the surface of the masonry structure by means of a resilient fiange 12, preferably a rubber fiange, mounted in the body of the shiem 11 and project- 110 ing outwardly thereof, as clearly shown in Figure 1. An enclosed chamber 13 is thus formed between the masonry sm'face and the shield 11 and resilient mounting 12 which also is filled with repair material during the filling of the open areas 5, 6, and '7, which material, designated 14, is left upon ,the Awall whenv the repair apparatus is removed. The surface is then dressed to remove the material 14 and the face of the wall left smooth as indicated by the part 4, Figure 1.
My invention is adaptable for repair operations other than the one shown in Figure 1, and I suggest such operations in Figures 2, 3, and 4. Figure 2 shows a brick wall which has developed an irregular crack 15. Thisl crack 15 can be repaired by forcing the repair material into a suitable part 16 of the crack and thus\ filling the crack proper and the nssures and large cavities thereof, as clearly shown in Figure 3, suitable shoring 17 being utilized for the strengthening and bracing of the structure during the repair operation and for preventing the free escape of grout through the opposite side` of the wall.
In Figure 4, a masonry column18 is illustrated, which has developed a crack` 19 extending through the body thereof and communicating with a number of pockets 20. By the use of my improved process, and suitable shoring 21, the crack 19 and the pockets 20 can be lled with repair material.
The results of my improved process are both I to repair and improve the appearance of the masonry structure treated and also greatly to strengthen the structure due to the filling of the surface and internal voids thereof.
The repair material such as grout in a creamy condition, and the oxidizable material and a preponderant portion of water, are forced4 against'l the surface of the structure under repair, or into the cracked structure, by any suitable forcing means which develops suflicient pressure, and one such suitable forcing medium is compressed air. The oxidizable material, which preferably is iron filings, is utilized in substantially pure state; that is, before it has been partially chemically acted upon, or oxidized. This oxidizable material is so associated with the other agents that oxidation takes place very rapidly. The particles of iron expand within the pores and cavities of the structure tocompletely flll the same. If desired, a suitable oxidizing accelerator, such as ammonium chloride, sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, and alum, may be'utilized so as to insure the quick and effective oxidation of the iron particles.
What I claim is: l
1. The process of repairing masonry structures which consists, in resliently mounting a shield in contact with the surface of such structure to provide an enclosed chamber communicating with surface pits and pockets and fissures communieating with the surface; and then forcing repair material through the shield and in to the structure to fill said pits and'pockets and fissures.
2. The process of repairing masonry structures which consists, in resliently mounting a shield in contact with the surface of such structure to provide an enclosed chamber communicating with surface pits and pockets and fissures communicating with the surface; and then forcing repair material through the shield and into the structure to fill said pits and pockets and ssures, the feed of the forced material being boosted by air pressure applied thereto.
LOUIS S. WERTZ.