US 1956506 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 1934. c. D. JOHNSON OIL BURNER Filed Sept. 14, 1932 lnvenTor. Charles DUohnson I l l l k I r l byM A1 Tys.
Patented Apr. 24, 1934 OIL BURNER Charles D. Johnson, Worcester, Mass, assignor to Johnson Steel & Wire Company, Inc., Worcester, Mass, a corporation of Massachusetts Application September 14, 1932, Serial No. 633,052
This invention relates to oil burners designed for use in heating furnaces, retorts and the like.
One of the objects of the invention is to provide a burner of simple construction which can be advantageously used with heavy crude oil and which is constructed so that it is not only relatively free from carbonization but also is capable of producing perfect clean combustion of the heavy crude oil which is used as fuel.
Another object of the invention is to provide a novel burner which is capable of producing a long flame and which, therefore, will provide for even distribution of the heat in a relatively long retort or oven.
Another object of the invention is to provide an oil burner of this type in which the passage through which the heavy crude oil flows to the mixing chamber is of generous size and is free from any restricted openings that are likely to ecome clogged by carbonization or otherwise.
In the improved burner the point at which the gasified fuel becomes ignited is spaced or separated from the jet or delivery orifice of the burner, and another feature of the invention relates to novel means for regulating and controlling the spacing between the point of ignition and the jet orifice so that the point of ignition may be shifted toward or from the burner orifice as desired to produce different heating effects.
In order to give an understanding of the invention I have illustrated in the drawingaselected embodiment thereof which will now be described after which the novel features will be pointed out in the appended claims.
Fig. l is a sectional view through a burner embodying the invention;
mixing chamber and the means for controlling the space between thepoint of ignition and the burner orifice;
Fig. 3 is an end view of the burner; V Fig. 4 is a section on the line 44, Fig. 1.
The burner herein shown is'provided' with a mixing chamber 1 in which the fuel 'oil and steam are mixed, said mixing chamber having a jet orifice 2 through which the steam and oil mixture is discharged. The fuel oil is delivered to the mixing chamber through an oil delivery pipe 3 and the passage 4 through the pipe is free from restricted openings so that the oil can freely flow through the pipe 3 into the chamber 1.
Means are provided for heating the oil while flowing through the pipe 3 and before it is delivered to the mixing chamber 1. For this purpose there is provided a steam chamber 5 which the mixing chamber 1, will issue from the jet orithe fuel supply pipe 3 and a steam pipe 6 which surrounds the pipe 3.
The mixing chamber 1 is formed Within a mixing head 7 which is shown as a cup-shaped member that is screw threaded to the screw-threaded end 8 of the steam pipe 6, said mixing head 7 thus being supported by the pipe.
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention the jet orifice 2 is formed in a delivery nozzle 9 which is screw threaded into the end of the member '7 so as to permit its being removed, said nozzle having the wrench-receiving portion 10 for this purpose.
The steam pipe 6 is shown as connected at its rear end to a fitting 11 to Which is secured a steam'supply pipe 12 adapted to take steam from any suitable source of supply.
The oil delivery pipe 3 is shown as extending through the fitting 11 and as rigidly secured thereto. For this purpose the pipe 3 extends through and has screw-threaded engagement.
fitting 11 and then passes through the steam chamber 5 and is. admitted to the mixing chamv ber 1 at the end of the fuel pipe 3. The presence of the steam in the steam chamber 5 serves to heat the oil flowing through the pipe 3. The steam is preferably delivered into the mixing chamber 1 through the passage 5 under considerable pressure and asthe steam and heated oil. enter the mixing chamber 1 they become Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional 'view of the thoroughly mixed and the oil becomes gasified or vaporized. This mixture of steam and vaporized oil, which is under considerable pressure in fice 2 in the form of a jet.
This burner apparatus is intended for use in heating a retort, oven or the like and it will be understood that it will be placed so as to deliver the jet of oil, vapor and steam mixture into the combustion chamber of the furnace or oven.
One purpose of the invention is to provide a non-carbonizing burner which can be successfully used with heavy crude oil, and another purpose is to provide a burner which while using heavy crude oil as fuel yet nevertheless produces a clear flame free from smoke or soot or unburned carbon. In other words, a burner which while using crude oil will produce substantially perfect combustion.
under .pressure "from the chamber '16.
These ends are secured by providing means for delivering a column of compressed air circumjacent the jet opening 2. Such column of compressed air may be delivered in the form of a cylindrical column or in the form of a conical column. Where the air is delivered in the form of a cylindrical column which surrounds the jet of fuel mixture issuing from the jet-orifice 2 it is found'that the point of ignition ofthe fuel will be located at a considerable distance from the jet nozzle and the flame will be not only free from smoke or soot but will be an elongated clear flame.
For thus delivering this tubular column of compressed air which surrounds the jetcrifice there is provided a fitting lfi which surrounds the mixing chamber 1 and -which "encloses an air chamber 16 into which :air is delivered under pressure through a supply pipe 17. At the end of the fitting adjacent the jet nozzle 9 there-is an annular opening 18 through which air is delivered The air which is thus delivered under pressure through the annular opening 18 forms, as it were, a column of air'in'the form or a tube which surrounds thejet nozzle 9. The shape of the opening'1'8 can be varied so as to vary the shape of this tubular column of air.
This column of air may be delivered in a direction substantiallyparallel to the axis of the burner or may be delivered-in a sort of'cone shape,\de-
pending upon the results desired. This annular airdelivery opening 18 is constituted by'the space between the wall of an opening 19 formedin the end 20 of the'chamber l6 and the exterior of the member 7 containing the mixing chamber.
The fitting 15 within which is locatedthe'chamber16 is formed from-aninteriorly screw-threaded sleeve 21 into one end of which is screw threaded a plug or'head' 20 having'the opening 19 therein. The other end of .thechamber '16 is closed by means of a plug memberf22 which screws'into the sleeve 21 and through which the steampipe 6 extends and with which it has screw-threaded engagement.
The member'l-is formed with a cylindrical exterior surface 23 and the outer wall of the opening 19 in the .plug 20 is cylindrical and presents a surface which is parallel and concentric with the 'cylindricalsur'face 23. This head 20 is also formed with the'tapered or conical interior surface 24 whichmer-ges at its outer orsmaller end with thesurface 19,
The screw threaded connection between the plug'20 and the sleeve ZLpermits said plug'tobe adjusted in an axial direction with relation to the jet nozzle 9. When theparts are adjusted as shownin Fig. '1 with the cylindrical wall of the opening 19 encircling the cylindrical surface 23 of the member 7 there will be provided anannular opening '18 having concentric exterior and interior cylindrical walls. The air column orljet will issue from thisopening '18 in the 'form of a cylindrical column which encircles'the .jet of fuel mixture issuing from the jet orifice 2. 'In Fig. 1
the "jet of fuel mixture issuing from the-orifice 2 is indicated at '25and the cylindrical column of air issuing fromthe annular opening 18 may be indicated by the dotted lines2'6.
With the parts thus adjusted the point at which the jet 25 of fuel mixture becomes ignited is located some distance from the jet nozzle.
In the drawing, and simply for illustrativepurposes, the point where ignition takes place is indicated at 2'7, and with thisarrangement the flame is always end thereof. in the heat treatment of wire because it produces adjustment the point of ignition, which is indicated at 28, will be considerably closer to the jet nozzle 9 than when the parts are adjusted as shown in Fig. l.
A burner having this construction will produce a long flame which is highly beneficial in the heat treatment of wire, for instance where the wire is "being passed through a relatively long even orretortfor'treatment. With the adjustmentshown in Fig. 1 the flame, and consequently the-heat produced by the burner, will be distributed throughout the length of a relatively long oven-or retort instead of being localized at one This is of considerable advantage a'betterand more even'heating efiect.
It will'be noted that thepa-ssage through which the oil flows is of generous size and-isfreefrom lOo any restricted-openings. This is of considerable advantage when'heavy crude oil is used because the oil can flow freely and there are no smallpassages through which-the oilhas to fiowand which might easily become since ,thepoint of ignition and the flame-is kept spaced a considerable distance from thejet nozzle 9 the carbonizing of the burneris reduced toa minimum and a'burner is provided which canbe clogged. Furthermore -l05 operated for long .periods of timewithout -any; 1:10
appreciable carbonizing effect.
A further advantage .of this construction is that owing to the manner in which the com- .pressed air is used the flame which is produced willbe aclear flame 'free from smoke-or carbon.;.1-.l5
In other words, it producesva flame resulting from perfect combustionof .the heavy crude oil which is 'fedto theburner.
1. An .oil burner-comprising an oilfeed pipe, a;l20
steampipe surrounding theoil feed pipe, a mix- .ing'head carried by the steam pipeand provided with a mixing chamber with which both the steam pipe and the oil feed pipe communicate,
said mixing head also-having a deliveryjet orifice ,125
a fitting surrounding the mixing head and providing an air chamber exterior to said head,
meansfor' delivering airunderpressure to said air ,-13() chamber, said fitting and mixinghead providing an annular air-delivery opening adjacent to and surrounding the-delivery jet-orifice and through which-a tubular column of air is-delivered which encircles the jet of oil and steam'mixture.
a steam pipe surrounding theoil feed pipe, a mixing head carried-by the steam pipeand provided withamixing chamber with which both thesteam and oil mixture isdelivered-a fitting surrounding the mixing head and providing an air chamber .135 2. An oil burnercomprising an oilfeed pipe,
pipe-andthe oil feed pipe communicate, said-mixexterior tosaid head, said fitting having an end member provided with an opening larger than and surrounding the delivery nozzle thereby'providing an annular air delivery opening, and means to deliver air under-pressure to said air chamber,
said air issuing from the chamber through said r annular air delivery opening and forming a tubular column of air which surrounds the jet of oil and air mixture issuing from the delivery jet orifice.
3. An oil burner comprising an oil feed pipe, a steam pipe surrounding the oil feed pipe, a, mixing head carried by the steam pipe and provided with a mixing chamber with which both the steam pipe and the oil feed pipe communicate, said mixing head having a delivery nozzle provided with a delivery jet orifice through which a jet of steam and oil mixture is delivered, a fitting surrounding the mixing head and providing an air chamber exterior to said head, said fitting having an end