US 1957816 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 8, 1934.
H. E. BRAEGk COMBINED NATURAL COLOR KIT AND CHART ATTORNEYj May 8, 1934. E, BRAEG 1,957,816
COMBINED NATURAL COLOR KIT AND CHART Filed June 25. 1932 Z'Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR [ma/yae/ raq -Bvmfm ATTORNEY Patented May 8, 1934 Y Lamis COMBINED NATURAL COLOR KIT AND CHART Herman Emanuel Braeg, Gakland, Calif., assignor to St. Marys College, Oakland, Calif., a corporation of California Application `lune 25, 1932, Serial No.l 619,347
This invention relates to improvements in methods and apparatus for use in applying color systems, and more particularly to an improved combination color chart and container for coloring material.
I-litherto, it has been customary to make up socalled color boxes containing a Variety of pigments in any desired order. To secure the proper blending of such colors required a distinct amount of skill on the part oi the artist or student and involved a great amount of preliminary study. For their knowledge of color principles, students, generally, were dependent upon theoretical presentations of the subject. This was especially true where gradations in color or color tones were desired. Such gradations in color tones are characteristic'of all visible objects, but are substantially uniformly nonexistent, or ii present are not clearly and accurately portrayed, so that paintings of all kinds, and particularly pastels, have been characterized by a coldness and unnaturalness, which have detracted from the artistic effect of the picture or painting.
Among the objects of this invention are the provision o an'improved color system in which a plurality of colors are presented in various tones or color Value groups, Veither pure and/or neutralized, together with the corresponding complementary colors in like Vtone Values, the said colors being made up in any desired range of tones and being further presented or encased in a container or box in such a manner as to form a color chart by the arrangement oi the coloring materials themselves, a separate color chart being associated with the said container if desired. Y In addition, the novel inventive concepts Vherein considered are disclosed with respect to their application to a speciic painting problem whereby the method steps are embodied in a physical reproduction such as a landscape painting.
In the drawings accompanying the specification and forming part thereof, like numerals refer to similar parts throughout the several drawings, of which Fig. l is a top plan view-of a combination color box and color chart, in which the color value groups are separately presented, the cover of the box having a separate printed color chart; and
Fig. 2 is a perspective or a landscape with the color values of several portions thereof identied and referred to the color chart elements.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, in Fig. 1 there is shown a color box 100 having a cover 101, which may be secured thereto in any suitable manner, such as by means of hinges 102, although it will, of course Ybe appreciated that the cover may be unattached to the body portion of the box and be adapted to nest thereon. A printed color chart 103 may be secured to the inside of the cover in any suitable manner, this chart being a duplicate representation of the colors as found and arranged in the body portion oi the box, now to be described.
The body portion of the box 100 is provided with a plurality ci compartments 110, oi any desired size and shape, and in any desired arrangement. These compartments may be iormed by partitions lll, which may be of wood, metal, pasteboard, or any other suitable material, and appropriately secured to the box or formed integrally therewith.
In the several compartments, the color elements l2() are arranged in any desired manner, as will be pointed out more particularly hereinafter. These elements may comprise chalks, pastels, tubes, eitherwater colors, oils or tempera, anilin colors and pigments generally, including pan colors o1" all descriptions, and is adapted for use with all known types of color media.
A particularly novel feature of this invention resides in the preparation of the several colors in a variety of color values or tones, either pure, partly neutralized or neutral. The several elements encompassed in a particular color tone or value group may be contained in an individual compartment 110, and a plurality of color groups of varying tone maybe arranged sequentially in any desired manner. Thus, in the upper row of colors, designated generally by the numeral 130, the specific colors, ranging from 1 to 24, each numeral designating a particular color element, as will be described more in detail hereinafter, the group, comprising elements 1 to 6, may be colors-oi a light tone, while the groups, comprising elements 'l' to l2, 13 to 18 and 1 9 to 24 may be of different color tones or values, each element in the several groups, however, being of the same tone Value as the other colors in the same group.
The invention not only comprehends the use oi a plurality of groups of colors, wherein the colors of each group have approximately the same color value, but also comprehends the association with each said group of other like groups of complementary colors, as shown in the second row, designated generally by the numeral 131. These vcomplementary colors, specically designated by the numerals 25 to 48, inclusive, are divided into groups similar to the groups formed by their mutually complementary colors l to 24.
and also avoids the distracting influence resulting from the interposition of technical steps such as mixing and colei.1 comparisons. These latter steps are particularly distracting where actual painting is being accomplished, as easier and more rapid ilow of work is permitted to the artist by having the necessary colors immediately available and without requiring auxiliary and time consuming tests.
A particularly advantageous feature made possible by the application of the principles of the present invention, is that direct painting is made far more possible than by any other method or means hitherto available. The prior art means, generally, as indicated hereinabove, have required the preparation, mixing and application of variously colored pigments or materials during the course of the painting, with the result that duplication of mixtures is substantially impossible in any two paintings; so that the color values of a given object under similar conditions would vary considerably in any two reproductions made by the same individual.
VOther advantages as to the use of the colors Y and their complementaries will be described later in conjunction with a particular description of the color elements.
By way of particular example, the color elements herein shown and described may comprise four groups of tones, the first group being light tones in warm and complementary cold colors with succeeding groups of medium, grayed and dark tones in the same warm and complementary cold colors. In the improved color box and cha-rt herein shown, the sections 110 may be so constituted and arranged as to contain a desired number of color elements as such or in appropriate containers.
The tones as shown, and which form a satisfactory group for instructional purposes and for y' general artist use, may comprise the following groups. The numbers designating each color correspond to the position of such color elements in the improved color box and chart.
(Note. Pure colors means the colors of the solar spectrum.)
Graz/ed tones (partly neutralized) Each tone is partly neutralized by its complementary about 80 to 20 N o. 13. Yellow (7 partly neutral- No. 37. Violet (3l partly neutral ized by 31). ized by 7 14. Orange (8 partly neutral- 38. Violet blue (32 partly ized by 32). neutralized by 8).
l5. Orange red (9 partly neu- 39. Blue (33 partly neutraltralized by 33). ized by 9).
16. Scarlet (l partly neu- 40. Blue green (34 partly traliZed by 34). neutralized by l0).
17. Carmine (1l partly neu- 41. Green (35 partly neutralized by tralized by 11).
18. Violet (12 partly neutral- 42. Yellow green (36 partly ized by 36). neutralized by l2).
Dark tones No. 19. Yellow (darkened with No. 43. Violet.
black about 3 yellow, 44. Blue (darkened with 7 black). black 8 blue, 2 black). 20. Orange (darkened with Green (darkened with black about 3 orange, black 8 green, 2 black). 7 black). Light cold gray (white 2l. Carmine (darkened with 9% parts, No. 33,
black about 3 Carmine, part). 7 black). 47. Medium cold gray 22. Light warm gray (white (white 7 parts, N o. 39,
8 parts, No.`52, 2 parts). 3 parts). Medium wann gray 48. Dark cold gray (black 7 (white 7 parts, No. 14, parts, No. 33, 3 parts). 3 parts). 24. Dark warm gray (black 7 parts, No. 14, 3 parts).
Supplementary colors No. White Yellow deep (golden) Orange (intense) Yellow ochre Yellow green (intense) Carmine (Intensity between light and medium) Violet (Intensity between light and medium) Blue (Intensity between light and medium) These supplementaries are supplied because in the arrangement according to values, white and certain much needed intensities and intermediate color values do not occur.
The gray and grayed tones are partly neutralized by their complementaries, a satisfactory ratio being about parts of the predominating color to 20 parts of the neutralizing or complementary color. lThus, in the group comprising grayed tones, yellow #13 would be prepared by mixing or neutralizing 80 parts of yellow #7 with approximately 20 parts of violet #31. In a similar manner, grayed violet #37 would be prepared by partly neutralizing pure violet #31, 80 parts, with about 20 parts pure yellow #7. The remaining grayed tones can be prepared by neutralizing the respective complementaries in the same manner as indicated in the chart above listed.
The light tones may be prepared by lightening the pure or medium tones with white in suitable proportional admixtures.
The dark tones comprising the warm colors #1Q-#24 and the complementary cold colors #4B-#48, may be darkened with any suitable pigment such as black, thus, for example, a dark yellow #19 may comprise medium yellow 3 parts and black 7 parts, and orange and carmine #2O and #21, respectively, may comprise 3 parts of the respective colors, each mixed with 7 parts black. The light, medium and dark grays, #22, #23 and #24, respectively, may be made by mixing various colors in desired amounts; thus, light warm gray #22 may be made by mixing 8 parts white with 2 parts yellow ochre #52. Medium warm gray #23 may be made by mixing 7 parts of white with 3 parts of grayed orange #14.
Dark warm gray #24 may be made by mixing 7 parts black with 3 parts of grayed orange #14. The corresponding light, medium and dark cold grays, respectively, #46, #47 and #48 may be made in the following manner: light cold gray #46 may be made by mixing substantially 9% parts white with 1/2 part of medium blue #33.
Medium cold gray #47 may be made by mixing 7 parts white with 3 parts grayed blue #39. Dark cold gray #48 may be made by mixing 7 parts black with 3 parts medium blue #33.
To supplement these various color tone sets, the supplementary colors listed above are preferably included in the color box and they'are supplied because in such an arrangement, according to color values, white and certain much needed,
lof dark carmine intensities and intermediate color values do not occur. l y
It will now be seen that there has been provided animproved artist color box or kit in which a group of colors or hues with their correspending complementary colors is provided-in a series of admixtures to give groups of shades or tones of the respective colors. In addition, there has been provided a separate color group in which the original hues have been mixed with white in desired vproportions to give adesired tint. By providing such a shade or tone series of 4color elements in which various tints, medium tones, grayed tones and dark tones are presented of both the warm colors and their complementary cold colors, the student or artistis provided with a color chart which enables him to evaluate colors, tints and shades in nature, more accurately, and, at the. same time, enables him to more faithfully reproduce a desired natural scene in a faithful, pictorial representation.
By providing in a single kit a group of colors and its coniplementaries in a variety of tones or shades, the student is enabled to appreciate shade differences as well as color differences from the very beginning of his instruction and studies; and the appreciation of such shade, tone, hue color and Vtint differences thus becomes more o uickly assimilated without imposing undue periods of study upon the students. It is further considered that in the case of artists and students whose color sense is of a relatively low order, the improved kit or artist set of the present invention will provide a desirable means of suppleinenting such inherent lack in the students or artists capacity to appreciate color differences. By presenting coloi` and tone or shade differences to a student from the very beginning of his instructional period, appreciation of such differences will follow as a matter of course, due to familiarity engendered by constant use of the improved set herein disclosed and claimed.
With respect to skilled artists, the incorporation of the concepts of the present invention in one or more kits will provide such persons with a working range of materials, in color, far exceeding that hitherto available except to indefatigable workers who have also had sufficient artistic and technical training to be able to prepare their own colors in any desired shades or tones.
By way of practical illustration, there is shown in Fig. 2 of the drawings an outline sketch of a landscape in which the various color values of the landscape features have been designated by numerals corresponding to the appropriate numerals designating color elements in the charts presented hereinafter. Thus, the landscape, generally, represents a tree in the left foreground with a clump of trees in the middle distance and a single tree in the right middle foreground, mountains in the background, and a bright, clear sky.
The foliage of the tree in the foreground is represented at the top by the numeral 53 indicating a yellow green, dashes of violet red (No. 6) being interspersed to relieve the monotony of the eoior. The shaded portions of the foliage are represented by dark green (No. 45) with splotches (No. 21) to relieve the monotony. The trunk of the tree, in the shadow, is formed by dark orange (No. 20), while the parts of the trunk in direct sunlight are formed of intense orange (No. 51). The shadow portions vof the trunk are relieved by splotches of dark blue (No. 44) while the unshadowed or bright portions are relieved-by splotches of medium vilo- -let (No. 3l). The clump of trees in the middle distance will have the upper part of directly illuminated foliage in light green (No. 29), while the lowerportions of the foliage will be represented in the medium green (No. 35), set off by splotches of white (No. 49). The darkened portion of the treetrunk will be colored in dark orange (No. 20), relieved by splotches of white (No.k 49),.whi1e the lighter portions of the trunk will be done in light orange (No. 2), also relieved by splotches of white (No. 49).
The tree to the right of the drawings, being between the two sets previously discussed, will have intermediate color values with respect to the observer. Thus, the top foliage exposed to the direct sunlight will be rendered in light yellow green (No. 30), accentuated or livened up by interspersing splotches of violet red (No. 36). The lower foliage in the shadow will be done in a grayed yellow green (No. 42), which also may be livened or brightened up by the interspersion of splotches of the complementary grayed violet (No. 18). The light portions of the tree trunk will be done in light orange (No. 2), relieved by splotches of the complementary light violet blue (No. 26). The shadow portions of the trunk will be done in grayed orange (No. 14), enlivened by splotches of the complementary grayed violet blue (No. 38). The distant hills may be done in light blue (No. 27). The foreground may be donek in aY variety of greens, each section of which may be enlivened by appropriate inclusion of splotches of the corresponding complementary color or tone.
While the use of complementary colors to liven up masses of color has been known for many years, the choice of the appropriate complementary color in the right tone or color value has always been left to the artist, because of the fact that no means was available to him, other than his own inherent or acquired skill, to enable the choice of the proper color tone for the purposes desired.
With the improved color kit of the present invention, the artist working with a particular color, is never at a loss for the corresponding complementary color, as it is always adjacent to the color in use. Thus, the element of guess work in the choice of colors and their complementaries, is largely eliminated and the student, as well as the skilled artist, is assisted in determining the appropriate colors to use for securing a desired color harmony in the picture being prepared, or to reproduce specific objects or scenes in their natural colors.
While a specific illustration of the method of use of the improved color box of the present invention has been disclosed, and the box, per se, has been illustrated with certain color elements in various tone groups, disclosed therein, it will, of course, be appreciated that the color box or artist kit may be expanded to include further intermediate tone groups. The formation of these intermediate tone groups from a color set such as the one herein disclosed will be readily and accurately carried out by even a tyro because the principles of color mixing to secure a desired tone will be self-evident and self-explanatory from the arrangement of colors in desired sequences and complements as well as in similar groups of various color or tone values.
It will now be appreciated that there has been provided improvements in methods and apparatus for instructional and professional purposes involving the use of a novel color kit in which a desired arrangement of colors is presented in a series of groups of varying shade or tone value. The improved combination color kit and chart of the present invention is particularly adapted for use in the teaching and study of color according to the Helmholtz presentation of the law of direct light in which the basic co1- ors are given as red (French Vermillion), green (emerald green), and violet (spectrum violet) as opposed to the systems involving the pigmentary spectrum of Sir Isaac Newton, which may also be said to involve the law of reected light and in which the basic colors are red (scarlet), yellow and blue. By mixing -red and green of the spectrum primaries of Helmholtz, the complementary yellow of the pigmentary primary is formed. Green and violet in the spectrum group will combine to give a pigmentary blue, while violet and red of the spectrum group will give a crimson. Thus, the spectrum primaries have been found to be complementary to the pigmentary primaries and vice versa.
It vwill also be .appreciated that there has been provided a novel method and means, including a kit or box having a series of colors and their'complementaries arrangedin a varietyof tone groups, `the incorporation of which in a uni-tary kit or box enables an artist or student to readily and accurately vchoose a basic color for his work and thereafter promptly and properly associate therewith the desired complementary colors as well as to vary the shades of these -colors according t0 the aspect of the surface or artimes to be col.- ored as directly illuminated, shadowed ordark.- ened area or surface.
While certain novel features 0f the invention have been disclosed and are pointed out in the annexed claims, it will be'understood that various omissions, substitutions and changes may be made by those skilled in theart without departing from the spirit o f the invention.
What is claimed is:
1,. An improved instruction kit for artists -and students, comprising, in combination, a jbox having rows of partitions defining juxtaposed c0113- partments, one of said rows of compartments having a series of sets of color tools arranged therein, each said set being similar color alF rangement and number to the other Said s ets, but varying in light yand shade values; the companion row of juxtaposed compartments ,comprising a like number series of colors arranged in equivalent but complementary light ,and shade values.
2. An improved color set particularly adapted for instruction purposes, comprising a box hav.- ing at least two rows of walled compartments, each -compartment in a given row having similar sets lof `color tools arranged by hues, each color ina row being complementary to the similarly positioned -color in an vadjacent row, the successive lateral compartments Ahaving similarly arranged sets of .color tools, but varying in light and shade values, the several color ytools in each compartment .being of the same ,light and shade value.
HERMAN EMA'NUEL BRAEG.