US 1958124 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 8, 1934-. A, F. BEMls 1,958,124-
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed July 25,1931 1o Sheets-Sheet .1
May 8 1934. A. BEMls 1,958,124
I BUILDING CONSTRUCT ION Filed July 25, 1931 10 Sheets-Sheet 2 g m [IE 53% W U H131 Q Mm May 18, 1934. I A BEMIS 1,958,124
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed July 25. 1931 10 Sheets-Sheet 5 Mag l g i-n A F. 353mg L$58fl24 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed July 25, 1931 10 She tsheet 5 O O f? BUILDING CONSTRUCTION I J "1 FF 5 1 O 5% 0 A. F. EEMEs BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 10 sheets-sne-l; 7
Filed July -25 1931 May 8, 1934. A. F. sews 1,958,124
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FiledJuly 25. 1931 10 Sheets-Sheet a May 8, 1934.
A. 1-". pews BUILDING CONSTRUCTION v Filed July 325, 1931 '10 Sheets-Sheet 9 1m l l l l I L.-
May 8, 1934. A. F. BEMIS BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed July 25, 1931 10 Sheets-Sheet 10 Patented May 8, 1934 UNITED STATES BUILDING ooNs'muo'rIoN Albert F. Bemis, Newton, Mass., assignor to Bemis Industries, Incorporated, Boston, Mass, a corporation of Delaware Application July 25, 1931, Serial No. 553,033
This invention relates to improvements in building construction and more particularly to an arrangement whereby preformed units may be assembled to provide the walls of a building,
the term walls being employed generically to indicate outer side walls, partitions, floors and/or roofs.
In accordance with the invention, similar units may be provided to form vertical, horizontal and 19 inclined walls and to define the opposite faces of said walls as well as to provide structural rein;-
forcements or in effect form frame members in the walls. For example, in vertical walls, the units may provide structural reinforcements cf- 5 fective as studs and posts, while in the horizontal walls such structural reinforcements may act eifectively as joists. Similarly in inclined walls or roofs the structural reinforcements may act as rafters. These units may be connected to 29 horizontal frame or aligning members disposed at the intersections of the walls, which are particularly devised to interfit with and be connected to the units in the vertical and horizontal walls. Accordingly, these frame members in the form of girts and sills are combined with the wall units to provide a complete structure not only including all of the essential elements of the structural framework, but also defining the opposite faces of the wall. The faces of the units may themselves form the ultimate faces of the completed wall or suitable layers of finishing material of any desired type may be applied thereto.
The units preferably may be preformed in a manufacturing establishment in standardized 5 sizes, being formed of standardized stock such as channels and flat sheets, while the frame members may be formed in standardized dimensions in lengths which correspond to the various dimensions of the wall units. The frame members may be formed of simple structural elements such as plates, angles, etc. Accordingly, the wall units and frame members may be manufactured at low cost and may be rapidly and easily assembled in situ so that the complete building in so far as its essential parts are concerned may be quickly assembled and erected.
Suitable finish material may be applied as desired to the essential portion of the building or portions of the wall units may themselves be suitably treated in the factory or in situ directly to form the wall finish. In accordance with one important aspect of this invention, the wall units and frame members cooperate to provide numerous interconnecting passageways which form ducts for heating, cooling or the like or provide spaces for the introduction of service conduits such as water pipes, electric lines, heating pipes or the like. Accordingly, this construction permits the rapid installation of accessories such as heating, cooling, lighting, or ventilating systems, and facilitates the employment of elements of standardized length in the assembly of such systems.
This invention is particularly advantageous in permitting the employment of wall units and frame or aligning members formed of metal which is adapted to withstand extremes of humidity, the ravages of insects and in general avoids the tendency to warp, swell or crack, which characterize conventional construction employing wooden frame members. My copending application, Serial No. 555,312, filed August 5, 1931, discloses a building construction of this general type employed not only for structural purposes, but also as an essential part of the heating means for the building.
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. l is a broken perspective view of a typical wall unit adapted to be employed for vertical walls;
Fig. 2 is a similar view of a slightly different unit adapted to be employed in floors. or horizontal roofs;
Fig. 3 is a perspective struction;
Fig. 4 is a typical horizontal section through a portion of a building constructed in accordance 'with this invention;
Fig. 5 is a top view of a typical corner unit;
Fig. 6 is a broken side elevation of the same;
Fig. 7 is a perspective detail of a portion of the unit;
Fig. 8 is a section indicated by line 88 of Fig. 6;
Fig. 9 is a section indicated by line 9--9 of Fig. 8;
Fig. 10 is a top view of a typical wall unit employed at the intersections of verticalwalls;
Fig. 11 is a broken elevational view of the unit shown in Fig. 9;
Figs. 12 and 13 are perspective detail views of portions of the unit shown in Figs. 10 and 11;
Fig. 14 isa section indicated by line 14-.14 of Fig. 11;
Fig. 15 is a section indicated by line 15-15 of Fig. 10;
Fig. 16 is a top plan view of a girt comer portion;
Fig. 17 is a similar view of an optional corner portion;
detail of a frame con- Fig. 18 is an end view of the girt corner member shown in Fig. 16;
Fig. 19 is a perspective view of a portion of a sill;
Fig. 20 is a top plan view of a girt unit employed at the intersection of vertical walls;
Fig. 21 is a section on line 2121 of Fig. 20;
Fig. 22 is a section on line 22-22 of Fig. 20;
Fig. 23 is a sectional view of the unit shown in Fig. 20;
Fig. 24 is a transverse sectional view of a ridge construction;
Fig. 25 is a section showing a typical arrangement of the parts at the intersection of vertical and horizontal walls;
Figs. 26 and 27 are sectional views showing optional arrangements for connecting an inclined roof to a vertical wall;
Fig. 28 is an elevational view of a wall showing a door unit therein;
Figs. 29, 30 and 31 are sections indicated by lines 2929, 3030, and 31-31 of Fig. 28;
Fig. 32 is a view similar to Fig. 28, but showing a window unit; and
Fig. 33 is a perspective view with parts broken away showing the provision of a keying and sealing member between the edges of adjacent wall units.
Referring to the accompanying drawings, and more particularly to Fig. 1, the numeral 1 designates a typical wall unit which may be provided with opposite face sheets 2 of any suitable material such as a single sheet of metal or composition, or which may be formed of laminated material, for example, expanded metal lathing and a facing sheet of plaster, stucco or the like, or if desired, the sheets 2 may be formed of reinforced plaster board. Disposed between the margins of the sheets 2 are parallel pairs of channels 4 with their bight portions 5 acting as spacers for the sheets and with their legs 6 secured to the sheets in any suitable way. These channels 4 may be formed of suitable material such as metal or a synthetic material, such as a phenol-resin composition; when metal channels and metal sheets 2 are employed. these parts may be secured to each other by welding. Preferably, each unit 1 is provided with four of the channels, these channels having mitered end portions at the corners of the units, as designated by the numeral 6.
Preferably suitable openings '7 are disposed at modular intervals along the margins of the face sheets with corresponding or registering openings in the channel legs, thus permitting the con.-' venient connection of the units to any suitable elements such as door or window frames, or the girts, or any suitable finishing sheets.
Fig. 2 illustrates a typical flooring unit 9, which is similar to that shown in Fig. 1, but which is provided with an upper face sheet 10 of somewhat larger area than the lower face sheet 11, the intervening channels 12 being provided with legs 13 and 14 of different depths so that the outer edges of these legs are substantially flush with the outer edges of the face sheets. The ends of these channels preferably are mitered as designated by numeral 16.
Fig. 4 discloses a typical arrangement of the units to form the essential portions of the building. As shown, the wall units 1 are disposed in edge to edge juxtaposition so that the channels 4 extend vertically and form vertical structural reinforcements for the wall, corresponding to studs in the conventional wall structure. Furthermore. these channels define continuous duct portions a clearly shown in Fig. 4. The floor units 9 extend between opposite parallel wall units being connected thereto by suitable means which will be described. At the intersections and corners of vertical walls, special wall units are employed. Thus at the corner provided by the intersection of two walls, an L-shaped unit 21 is used; at the intersection of three walls a T-shaped unit 31 may be employed, while at the intersection of four walls a cross-shaped unit 41 is employed.
The marginal portions of these units are provided with channel portions which correspond to the channel portions of the main wall units 1 so that uniformity of construction is facilitated.
A typical corner unit 21, (Figs. 5 and 6) is provided with inner and outer face sheets 22 and 23 with portions disposed at right angles to each other, as shown in Figs. 5 and 8. The vertical channels 4 employed in these units may be identical with those in the, main wall units 1, while special mitered channels 27 (Fig. 7) may be secured at the upper and lower ends of the units with the legs 24 and 25 of these channels engaging the upper and lower margins of face sheets 22 and 23.
Fig. 10 shows a T-shaped unit 31 which may be provided with the angular face sheets 33 and the planar face sheets 34, the three vertical channels 4 being identical with those employed in the wall units. At the upper and lower ends of the units 31 a channel 37 may be provided with a cut-out portion 38 to register with the end of a short channel 39 which extends inwardly away from the planar sheet 34. Each channel 37 has a continuous leg 40 secured to the margin of the sheet 34 and has its opposite leg portions 42 secured to aligned portions of the angular sheets 33, the parallel portions of these sheets being secured to the sides of channels 39.
The ends of the upright units preferably have 'an interfitting engagement with, and are secured ,upstanding and depending parallel flange portions 52 and 53 disposed in planes at right angles to the plate. Between the parallel flanges, the girt is provided with a series of openings '77. As shown, the flanges 52 may be provided by the legs of a channel 54 and may have marginalportions which are inclined or curved inwardly, thus facilitating the ready' engagement with the channel edges of the wall units. Fig. 25 shows the assembled positions of these parts. The flanges 53 may be provided by the angles 56 and may engage over the outer faces of the lower row of units. The flanges 52 and 53 may be provided with modularly spaced openings 55 that are adapted to register withsimilar openings in the edges of the wall units. Suitable fastening elements such as bolts 60 and 61 may then be arranged to secure the units 1 in interfitting engagement with the flanges. The planar portion 50 or plate 51 of the frame member may be provided with lateral extensions or ledges 62 having modularly spaced openings 63 therein for registering with corresponding openings in the ends of the floor units, suitable fastening means 66 being employed to secure these parts in engagement. It is evident that the overhanging leg 13 of the channel 12 of the floor unit 9 rests upon and is secured to the ledge 62.
A sill member '70 (Fig. 19) may be disposed on the foundation.69 with upstanding flanges '71 engaging the lower edges of the lower row of wall units in the same general manner as has been described. A girt which is disposed between two floors, i. e., in the interior of the building, has two angles 56, as shown in Fig. 25, while a girt which is disposed upon the outer wall of a building may have its outer depending flange provided by a downturned marginal portion of its web plate. Fig. 18, for example, shows the typical cross section of such a girt member.
Special corner or joint elements may be provided to connect straight frame members or girt strips 49 at wall corners and intersections. Figs. 16 and 1'7 show such arrangements. The girt member shown in Fig. 16 is adapted to be employed where a. straight outer wall portion is joined to a protuberant wall portion such as a bay, while the girt member or corner section shown in Fig. 17 is adapted to be employed at the conventional corner. In each case'these corner sections are characterized by depending outer flanges 48 provided by the down-turned marginal portion of the web plate. Each corner piece is provided with a flat plate 50 corresponding to the planar portion 50 of Fig. 3 and has suitable channels, angles and/or downturned plate margins providing upstanding and depending flanges 52 and 53 corresponding to the flanges upon the main girt strips. At the ends of the corner pie ce an angle 56 may be extended while at the end of the main girt strip or member the corresponding angle 56 may be cut back so that a splice joint is provided as shown in Fig. 3.
Figs. 20 .and 21 show a similar unit employed in the intersection of three walls, the plate 50 corresponding to the plate 51 of Fig. 3, being of generally T-shape and being provided with angles 56 projecting beyond the plate in the central portion of the T and at its extremities as shown, thus permitting the ready employment of splice joints to connect the straight girt portions 49 to the joint member. The intersection unit of Fig. 20 is provided with a flange 48 and channels 54* of the general type already described. Similar units may be provided for four-way connections, the planar portion under these conditions having a cross-like shape. The plates 51. 50, 50*. etc., are provided with modularly spaced openings '77 between the parallel flanges 52 and .53. These openings thus permit the spaces at the ends of adjoining rows of units to communicate with each other and facilitate tightening of the fastenings 61.
Units generally similar to the wall units may be employed for an inclined roof, such units 1 being disclosed in Fig. 2'? or as shown in Fig. 26 a similar unit 1 may be provided with its outer face sheet 2 having an upwardly bent flange 23 for connection to the lower ends of roofing boards 80. Special girt elements may be employed for connecting the units 1 or 1 with the vertical wall members 1 and floor members 9. These girt members may have a main plate 50 with openings 7'7 therein and with one horizontal ledge 79 connected to the floorunits 9, and with an opposite downwardly inclined ledge portion 82.
Elongate strips of the cross-section shown in Figs. 26 and 2'? may be secured by welding to the opposite ledges provided by the plate 50 at the outer edge of the girt. On the outer edge of the girt, the strip 83 may have a flange 81 extending at right angles to the body-portion of the plate 50 in engagement with the outer faces of units 1, the strip 83 also having inclined portions 84 and 84*, parallel to the outer ledge and being connected by a bight portion 5.adjoining the. outer edge of this ledge, while a flange 87 at right angles to the legs 84 and 84 is adapted to engage the-bight portion of the channel 4 of the unit 1 or the channel 4 of the unit 1. At the inner edge of the girt the strip 90 may have parallel leg portions 91 (Fig. 26) engaging opposite faces of the ledge and are connected by a bight portion 93, there being a depending flange. 94 engaging the inner faces of the wall units 1 and an upwardly extending web 95 with an angularly disposed flange 96 engaging the lower face sheets of the inclined roof units.
It is understood that the ledges 79 and 82, and the meinbers 83 and 90 are provided with openings spaced at modular intervals to permit the ready connection of the frame member to the floor units 9 and to the roof units as well as to the wall units 1.
Fig. 27 shows an optional form of frame mem ber, the plate 50 with the outer strip 185 being of the general character shown in Fig. 26, but with the inner strip 90 terminating above the edge of the upper face sheet 10 of the floor member 9 rather than extending upwardly to'the inclined roof units. Fig. 24 shows a typical ridge construction, a lower angle member 140 being secured to the lower marginal portions of the units 1 and a ridge angle 141 being disposed between the ends of the outer faced sheets of these units with portions in alignment with each of the face sheets. The face sheets 2 have upwardly disposed flanged portions 142 which are disposed in face-to-face engagement with similar up-turned flange portions 143 at the sides of the unit 141. A suitable u-shaped clip 144 is then disposed over the flanges 142 and 143 and secured in place by fastening elements 145. Fastening elements 146 may secure the angle 140 to the adjoining marginal portions of the units.
It is evident that suitable units for window and door frames may be provided to be assembled interchangeably with the wall units 1, these units including small wall elements below and above the window frames and above the door frames. As shown in Fig. 28, the door unit may be provided with outer vertically disposed channels 102 having their bight portions disposed transversely of the wall and welded to corresponding portions of channels 103 with inwardly extending legs 104. Above the door opening, the unit may be provided with an upper channel 4 corresponding to the similar channels in the main wall units and with face plates 105 and 106 which are secured to the legs of a channel 110 having its bight portion substantially aligned with the lower edges of the plates. The bight portion of a channel 112 is secured to the corresponding portion of the channel 110. and this channel has depending legs 113. At the base of the unit is a channel 122 corresponding to the channels 40f the other wall units and adapted to engage the upstanding flanges of the girt or sill member, while the bight portion of a channel 123 is secured to a corresponding portion of the channel 122 and has its legs extending upwardly. The various parts thus forming the door unit are preferably welded together in the factory and may be assembled in the wall in the same manner as one of the main wall units. The channels 103, 112 and 123 provide a continuous perimetric recess around the door opening for the reception of any suitable grounds to which the door frame itself may be connected.
Fig. 32 shows the arrangement of the window unit which may also be formed of various parts welded together in the same general manner as is the case with the door unit. The construction of the upper part of the window unit and the side rails thereof may be identical with that described and disclosed with reference to the door unit, the lower part of this unit having a portion with face plates 206 corresponding to the construction employed in its upper part; accordingly, the various elements in Fig. 32 are designated by numerals similar to those in Figs. 28 to 31.
If desired, the layers of exterior and/or interior finish material may be depended upon to seal the joints betweenadjoining wall units 1. However, in certain embodiments of the invention it is desirable to provide sealing and keying or aligning members which have an interfitting engagement with the adjoining side channels 4 of the wall units. Fig. 33 shows, for example, a hollow rectangular member 215 which is received in interfitting engagement with the two side channels 4 of adjoining wall units 1. The upper and lower ends of such a keying member may be cut away as designated by numeral 216 to provide intercommunicating openings between the channels 4 at the upper and lower ends of the units.
In the construction of a building of this character it is evident that the sill members '70 may be mounted upon the foundation 69 being secured thereto by grouting disposed in the openings '77 and by anchor screws 68 extending through the ledge openings if desired. The main wall units are then fitted over the flanges of the sill members and at the corners or intersections of walls special units with branches in each of the meeting walls are provided, such as the units 21, 31, or 41. The grits 49 for the second story are then disposed in engagement with the upper ends of the wall units. It is evident that in the assembly of the wall units a window or door unit may be disposed where desired in place of a conventional main wall unit. The lower flanges of the girts are secured to the upper marginal portions of the wall units by the fastening bolts at the corners or intersecting points of the girts. The special girt corner elements are provided and secured to the main girt portions by spliced connections in the manner previously described.
The floor units 9 may then be disposed with their overhanging end portions in engagement with the ledges of the girts and be secured thereto. The floor units for the first story may similarly be secured to the sill members. Obviously succeeding stories may be erected in the same manner.
It is evident that this invention provides a type of building construction permitting the employment of preformed units to define the opposite faces of walls, whether the walls are disposed vertically. horizontally, or are in the form of inclined roof portions. These units may either provide the wall finish or provide surfaces for the reception of any suitable finishing material while certain of these units may be specially formed to provide door and window openings. The units are structural elements corresponding to posts, studs, joists, and rafters in conventional construction, the face sheets bracing and reinforcing the marginal channels to aid the structural strength of the units, so that the only frame members which are neecssary are the aligning members or girts and sills at the intersections of vertical walls and walls in horizontal or inclined planes. The girts and joists provided by the present invention are particularly adapted for ready connection with the wall units and with the floor or roof units, and the employment of the special corner and intersection girt elements permits the convenient connection of these parts to one another. The arrangement of the channels along the margins of the units provides suitable ducts or passages for receiving service connections such as electric lighting conduits, steam pipes or the like, or these ducts themselves may provide passages for the how of heating or cooling fluids such as warm or cool air.
It is evident that the openings provided along the margins of the wall units and along the edges of the floor units as well as the corresponding openings in the frame members are disposed at standardized distances permitting ready connection of these parts to one another. Furthermore, the wall units and girt members may be provided in standardized lengths and widths, permitting the ready employment of standardized elements without necessity for cutting to special size although permitting a wide latitude in the choice of room dimensions and the general room layout. Accordingly, this invention permits the rapid erection of the essential portions of a building, including the structural parts and the finish portions of the various walls or the grounds for the reception of the finish.
It should be understood that the present disclosure is for the purpose of illustration only and that this invention includes all modifications and equivalents which fall within the scope of the appended claims.
1. Building construction comprising a plurality of aligned units each having rectangular face sheets defining opposite faces of a Wall, and channels with their legs secured in parallel engagement with each of the margins of the face sheets, said channels defining intercommunicating ducts extending between and along the ends of the units, a frame member extending along the ends of the units, said frame member having a planar portion cooperating with the channels in defining the duct extending along the ends of the unit, said frame member having flanges substantially at right angles to its planar portion and engaging the ends of the units.
2. Building construction comprising a plurality of aligned units each having rectangular face sheets defining opposite faces of a wall, and channels with their legs secured in parallel engagement with each of the margins of the face sheets, said channels defining intercommunicating ducts extending between and along the ends of the units, a frame member extending along the ends of the units, said frame member having a planar portion cooperating with the channels in defining the duct extending along the ends of the unit, said frame member having flanges substantially at right angles to its planar portion and engaging the ends of the units, said planar portion having an extension projecting beyond the faces of the units at one side thereof,- and a plurality of floor units each having parallel face sheets and-channels extending along the edges of said face sheets, said floor units having their ends supported on the extension of the planar frame portion.
3. Building construction comprising upright wall units providing interoommunicating channel-likerecesses at'their verticaland horizontal edges, the vertical recesses of adjoining wall units cooperating to form vertical ducts, a frame member extending along the horizontal edges of the units and cooperating therewith to form a.
horizontal duct communicating with the verticalducts, and floor units secured to the frame member, said floor units each having channellike recesses extending along each side thus providing a continuous recess along the frame member and intercommunicating recesses at rightangles thereto.
4. Building construction comprising columnar units of a story in height defining opposite faces of walls, frame members extending along the upper and lower ends of the units, said wall units including channels acting as frame elements and cooperating to form vertical ducts at the edges of the units, the wall units intermediate wall intersections having rectangular face sheets, with their edges secured to the channels, and wall units at wall junctions having similar channels juxtaposed to the main units in each of the connecting .walls.
5. Building construction comprising frame members including straight sections and joint sections at well intersections, the joint sections being branches aligned with a plurality of the straight sections, said straight and joint sectionseach being formed of a plurality of structural elements, certain of said elements being extended beyond the remainder of the corresponding sections and secured to the adjoining section, whereby the straight and joint sections are secured to each other.
6. Building construction comprising frame membersincluding straight sections and joint sections at wall intersections, the joint sections being branches aligned with a plurality of the straight sections, said straight and joint sections, each being formed of a plurality of structural elements, certain of said elements being extended beyond the remainder of the corre-' sponding sections and secured to the adjoining section, whereby the straight and joint sections are secured to each other, said structural elements having openings at regular intervals for the reception 'of fastening elements, the extensions 'of the elements having openings registering with openings in the adjoining sections, and fastenings, disposed in said openings.
'7. Building construction comprising a plurality of aligned wall units each having intercommunicating channel-like recesses extending planes to define opposite faces of 'a wall, similar units having window openings therein, and frame members extending along the upper and lower edges of the units in interfitting engagement therewith.
9. A building construction comprising a plurality of wall units substantially a story in height, said units'having rectangular, perimetric frames with juxtaposed vertical side members,-
certain of said units having continuous face sheets extending between the sides and ends of i the frames, one of said units having an inner rectangular frame within the outer frame for a door or window, and a small face sheet between the inner frame and the top of the outer frame.
10. A building construction comprising a plurality of wall units substantially a story in height, said units having rectangular, perimetric frames with juxtaposed verticalside members, certain of said units having continuous face sheets extending between the sides and ends of the frames, one of said units having an inner rectangular frame within the outer frame for a door or window, and a small face sheet between the inner frame and the top of the outer frame,
.tween the elements to define the faces of the vertical walls adjoining a region of mutual intersectio'n. V
ALBERT F. BEMIS.