US 1959176 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
W. L. RAU
May 15, 1934.
INSULATED AND WATERPROOF MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 12, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet l aye INVENTOR. M7/r'arr1 06, 7902/ 0 1+9 ATTORNEYZ/ May 15, 1934. w RAU 1,959,176
INSULATED AND WATERPROOF MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 12, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 w R Y 7 1 W B u E a m m M m n m B W a a u v 1 L m x 7 n J 1 1 a n m J a a 5 H W mm m n Y B ag za I IE I Z, I\
i l l l I I 1 Y Patented May 15, 1934 UNITE STATES ATENT OFFiCE INSULATED AND WATERPROOF MASONRY WALL CONSTRUCTION This invention relates to wall construction, and more particularly walls involving masonry elemerits; and it is among the objects of the invention to provide a construction in which insulation or water-proofing, or both, may be satisfactorily incorporated. Another object is the provision of wall tie-means which is effective without interfering with the insulation or water-proofing. Another object is the provision of compensation 10 in the tie-means, whereby irregularities in the masonry courses may be without eifect on the tiemeans. A further object'is the elimination of furring and lathing, thereby making possible plastering directly on the wall, and without danger of dampness, and with desirable heat-conserving properties withall. Such construction may be employed in positions also either above or below the grade as desired. Other objects and advantages will appear as the description proceeds.
To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, the invention, then, comprises the features hereinafter fully described, and particularly pointed out in the claims, the following description and the annexed drawings setting forth in detail certain illustrative embodiments of the invention, these being indicative however, of but a few of the various ways in which the principle of the invention may be employed.
In said annexed drawings:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary vertical section of a wall embodying the invention; Fig. 2 is a fragmentary side elevational view showing the assembled insulation and tie-elements; Fig. 3 is a a side elevational view of an insulation element;
Fig. 4 is an end view of the same; Fig. 5 is a plan view taken substantially on a plane indicated by the line V-V, Fig. 2; Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional View showing the insulation placement about a winow opening; Fig. 7 is an analogous view showing a slight modification; Fig. 8 is a fragmentary vertical section showing the junction of the wall with a foundation; Figs. 9 and 10 are fragmentary elevational and verti- 45 cal sectional views of modified insulation and tie assembly; Fig. 11 is a horizontal section taken substantially on a plane indicated by the line XL-XI, Fig. 10; Fig. 12 is a side. elevational view, partly broken, of the insulation element in ac- 50 cordance therewith; Fig. 13 is a fragmentary side elevational View of modified insulation and tie construction; Fig. 14 is a vertical sectional view thereof; Fig. 15 is a fragmentary sectional view showing a form of tie construction with insulation, particularly adapted for use in stone work;
and Figs. 16 and 17 are plan view and vertical sectional view, respectively, of a further modification.
Referring more particularly to the drawings, there is shown in Fig. 1 a wall comprising separate courses of masonry elements, in the particular form illustrated, an outer portion or facing of brick 2, and an inner portion of tile 3, all being laid up with mortar or cement 4. Between the separate courses is insulation 5. For the insulation a suitable material may be employed, as for example various forms of cellulose board or sheet, cork, etc. ihe insulation is preferably in the form of sheets of convenient standardized size, and having grooves 6 quite deeply out about the top, bottom and one end, while the other end carries a projecting tongue 7. The upper and lower edges are also provided with notches 8 at spaced intervals. Arranged then within the mating grooves is a slip-tongue or strip 9, as of metal, and desirably this may be galvanized or coated with a water-proof composition, aspitch, asphalt, etc. Projecting from'the slip-tongue or strip is a series of tie-loops 10 of suitable form to embed and be keyed by the mortar 4. These keying projections 10 may conveniently be formed of heavy wire, and may consist of symmetrically bent pieces which where adjacent the slip-tongue may be welded or otherwise suitably fastened thereto, or they may be individual loop portions welded or otherwise suitably fastened at their ends to the slip-tongue. Where wire is employed, a heavy wire, of diameter such as to readily come within the limits of the thickness of the mortar joint, is found to provide a bonding strength of the same or generally greater amount than heretofore attained with customary transverse brick bonding. Such wire may be thick iron wire, plain or galvanized if desired. Preferably, the elements 10 are made by inserting the ends of a wire loop through appropriately spaced holes punched in the strip 9, and then peening or compressing the strip-metal adjacent the wire to lock the same, and bending the free ends of the wire together to complete the loop on the other side.
If desired, the entire piece may then be galvanizedj Advantageously, the loop members 10 may be assembled with the strip 9 in a position somewhat off-center with respect thereto, and accordingly when it comes to the placement of the strips in the grooves of the insulation, an additional factor of adjustment is thus had, in that the strip may be positioned with either its wide margin or its narrow margin down, as may be most' appropriate in mating the level of the the mortar joint which happens to come opposite,-.
By proper proportioning of the grooves and notches, more or less vertical adjustability of the tie elements 10 may be had, these being thereby accommodated to any particular levelrequired by a proper placement with relation thereto being thus had, while the insulation sheets themselves are enabled to mate edge to edge independently. The slip-tongue elements may be provided in more or less standardized lengths and joints therefor may be made by simply lapping the ends of two adjacent strips, as indicated in Fig. '5.
If the insulation 5 be also water-proof, a barrier" against water or dampness, as well as against heat loss, is thus had in integral construction in the wall.
Where openings-occur in the wall, such as windows, doors, etc., the insulation may be sealed closely to the framing elements, for instance as indicated in Fig. 6, the insulation 5 may seat into a groove in the under side of the sill 11, forming a tight joint therewith. Similarly, at the top of the window, the insulation may be seated in a recess in the molding 12, which furthermore may be capable of slight adjustment as may be required in its placement, in order to insure snug engagement. In like manner, where an opening is headed by a metal header 13, Fig. 7 the molding 12 suitably recessed allows of compensatory adjustment in placing, so as to insure a tight sealing of the insulation 5 with the framing of the open-- Sealing of the insulation against a foundation of any conventional type may be readily had by seating it against'a water-proof elementl i, Fig. 8, such as Water-proof paper turned'up back of the insulation 5. A water-proof coat, film, or paper 15 similarly may be placed so as to extend along across the top of the foundation 16, thereby sealing the insulation and the wall across the foundation.
An advantageousaspect of the present type of construction lies in the possibility of plastering directly upon the wall. With the elimination of transmitted water and dampness creeping through the wall, it is now feasible to plaster directly to the inner surface thereof, and as indicated in Fig. 1, etc., the-plaster coat 17 may be applied without intermediary lathing with its concomitant requirement of furring. Where, as in the old types of construction, it was necessary to place wood furring on a wall for lathing and plastering, the construction costs were increasedvery greatly. Furthermore, the occurrence of 7 cracks in the finished plaster-work was always to be expected more or less, by reason of shrinkage in the wood furring material. All this disadvantage may now be eliminated.-
In the form of construction illustrated in Figs.-
,7 9 12, the insulation 5a, again in more or less standardized sheets, is provided with a tongue'7a at one end, and a groove So at the other. The 'top and bottom edges are ,left ungrooved. Seated then between the edges is ametal strip'Qa, which may be cut as to provide lugs 18, 19, which may be bent down and up respectively, so as to align edge of the built-in strip,
and hold the adjacent edges of the insulation sheets. Key or tie elements 10a again project laterally from strip 911, and these may be of convenient form, for example, a heavy wire bent so as to contact with and be fastened to the strip at spaced points 20. In using this construction, the wall will be laid up with the insulation elements 511, and the elements 10a are based on the upper and extend laterally into the mortar joint at each side, and the next insulation piece is positioned against the tie strip 9a,* -as indicated. In some cases, if required, trimming of the edge of the strip may be resorted to, if there is a disparity in the level of the mortar joint.
- In some'instances, I may fasten the tie elements directly .in the insulation. As shown in Figs. 13
and 14, the strips 101), preferably corrugated or otherwise irregularly contoured, may be secured in the insulation boards 5b when these are molded.
In connection with any of the insulation contem'-' plated generally in the present invention, it will be understood of course, that the material thereare concerned, as in stone work, the mortar joints occur without consistent relation of levels. In
such circumstances, the wall tie elements may be provided wit a further range of adjustability. For instance, as shown in Fig. 15, the key-element 100 may be in theform of a loop, as of heavy wire, having'down-turned ends 21 which may ride in openings in a projection 22 extending laterally from 'the' slip-tongue 9c. The projection 22 may be a piece welded or otherwise secured to the sliptongue, or it may be an eyelet, as of heavy wire. Preferably, all of this may be accomplished by inserting'a length of .wire through a hole in the slip-tongue 9c, and peening or compressing the metal of the'strip against the Wire to lock the same, and bending the free end of the wire at a right angle so as to give a keying-arm. The eyelet 22 may best be formed in the wire before its insertion into the slip-tongue 9c. "The loops 100 may in general be conveniently prepared by making angle-bends in each end of standardized wire lengths, and when it 'comes'to laying in. the wall,
these may then be simply engaged with one end" this form again, vertical adjustment'to compensate for variations in level of the mortar joint is had in a simple manner.
As a further feature of the invention, I may provide a substantial air-space on either side, or
both, of the insulation. An air-space of even one half inch adds very importantly to the total heat insulation qualities, and such spacing, or greater spacing-'canbe readily had in accordance with--- the present construction, the wall-tie arrange ment providinga highdegree of bonding, without interfering with the insulation-barrier.
It will thus be seen that the advantages of the invention may be realized in various degree and form, in accordance with particular conditions, and the wall having superior resistance to passage of heat or moisture, besides having standard bond-strength. Furthermore, the elaborate caulking operation heretofore necessary in order to seal off air cracks about window frames and door frames is wholly obviated, complete sealing being accomplished by the present arrangement of the insulation about such window or door openings. Again, direct plastering upon the inner wall surface is now practicable, and as readily seen, all the extra labor and expense of furring and lathing is wholly eliminated with the attainment of a better finish besides, since the tendency toward plaster-cracking as a result of shrinkage in the wood-furring is no longer present.
ther modes of applying the principle of the invention may be employed, change being made as regards the details described, provided the features stated in any of the following claims, or the equivalent of such, be employed.
I therefore particularly point out and distinctly claim as my invention:-
1. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation board therebetween, and tie-means secured to the insulation and bonding the masonry through the insulation.
2. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation board therebetween, and means in common for bonding the masonry through the insulation and for spacing the insulation from the masonry throughout its extent.
3. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation and water-proofing board therebetween, and means in common bonding the insulation and water-proofing through the insulation and water-proofing and spacing the insulation and water-proofing from the masonry.
i. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation board therebetween, and metallic tie-means molded in and projecting out of both sides of said board and thence connecting into the masonry courses.
5. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation board therebetween, metallic inter-strips aligning and connecting be tween adjacent insulation boards, and means projecting at each side of the insulation board for tying the masonry courses together.
6. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation board therebetween, metallic inter-strips aligning and connecting between adjacent insulation boards, and tie loops of wire for the masonry fastened through said strips and being metallicly locked thereto.
7. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation boards therebetween, eyelets exposed laterally of the insulation, and tie-loops for the masonry having bent ends to seat in such eyelets.
8. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation boards therebetween, metallic inter-strips aligning and connecting between adjacent insulation boards, and tieelements for the masonry projecting laterally from said strips nearer one edge thereof than the other.
9. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation boards therebetween having edge-grooves, means including the grooves for aligning and connecting the insulation boards together, and means for tying the masonry through the insulation boards.
10. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation boards therebetween having edge-grooves, metallic inter-strips for aligning and seating in such grooves, and tieelements for the masonry projecting laterally from said metallic inter-strips.
11. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation boards therebetween, means for tying the masonry through the insulation boards, and means for interrupting capillarity between the wall and foundation, said means including water-proof paper between the wall and foundation and extending inwardly and then up back of the lower edge of the insulation boards, said means for the masonry being connected to said insulation boards.
12. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation boards therebetween, means for tying the masonry through the insulation boards, and means for sealing the insulation about framing openings, said means including recesses in the framing to receive the edges of the insulation board, said means for tying the masonry being connected to said insulation boards.
13. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation boards therebetween, means for tying the masonry through the insulation boards, and means for sealing the insulation about framing openings, said means including an adjustable head-mold telescoping over the edge of the insulation boards, said means for tying the masonry being connected to said insulation boards.
l l. In wall construction, separate courses of masonry elements, insulation therebetween, an air-space adjacent the insulation, and tie-means bonding the masonry through the insulation, and supporting the same in spaced relation.
WILLIAM L. RAU.