US 1967150 A
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July 17, 1934. M. LO PRESTI LUMINOUS CINEMATOGRAPHY Filed Jan. 26, 1952 4 Sheets-Sheet l n IIII I I I I HI HHHHH July 17, 1934. M. LO PRESTI LUMINOUS CINEMATOGRAPHY Filed Jan. 26, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 7 06 prey? july 17, 1934. 0 PREST| 1,967,150
LUMINOU S CINEMATOGRAPHY Filed Jan. 26, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 pvwsA/Td Patented July 17, 1934 1.961.150 LUMINOUS cmam'roemur Michele Lo Presti, Milan, Italy Application January 26, 1932, Serial No. 588,962 In Italy February 2'1, 1931 I'Claim.
The present invention relates to a system and apparatus for producing luminous cinematographic displays, and in particular to an improved luminous cinematographic display device espe- 6 cially adapted or advertising purposes.
' The object of this invention is to produce a luminous cinematographic display device particularly adapted for advertising-wherein a single traveling web or tapeoperates to control the 10" electric circuits connected to the lamps of a bank of electric lamps, and wherein the tape has successive sections arranged longitudinally of its lengthoperating simultaneously to control the circuits of lamps in various areas of said bank and l5 producing changes at predetermined intervals in theluminous display of the bank at cinematographic frequency.
The system according to the invention essentially consists in the fact that the circuits of the various light sources provided in the lamp bank are excited in successive arrangements, at time intervals consistent with the physiological phenomenon of the superposition of the images on the retina of the eye and in relation to the various cinematographic stages of a representation of moving pictures, so that the illumination of some light sources and the extinction of some other will excite in the observer the perception of moving luminous figures.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the successive simultaneous excitations of the circuits of the light sources are brought about by successive simultaneous actions on a certain number of contacts corresponding (one at least) to a light source of the lamp bank, so that by actuating in a suitable time interval a set of contacts-or a variable combination of said contacts as many simultaneous illuminations of the light sources are obtained.
The apparatus for the embodiment of the system forming a part of the invention is distinguished by the fact that it comprises means adapted to simultaneously excite a group (variable at time intervals consistent with the physiological 45 phenomenon of the superposition or compensation of the images) of the circuits feeding the light sources provided on the lamp bank, the said means preferably comprising a series of contacts corresponding to the various lamps of the lamp 50 bank and actuated in a group, within a suitable time interval, by means of a member in the shape of a web, tape or ribbon which is obliged to slide against the contacts and is fitted with insulating zones alternating with conductive zones pre- 55 viously arranged for the desired purpose.
' section along the line 4-5 in Fi 1.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention the same comprises a series of electrical contacts adapted to come into contact with a certain mass of mercury, this mass being electrically connected to one of the poles of the source supply and the said contacts being insulated and brought into touch with the mercury at the desired time succession corresponding to the successive combinations of lamp illuminations by means of an insulating tape provided with perforations corresponding to the electrical contacts.
In the 'case of a lamp bank having a large number of lamps, for instance 3600 (or 7200) arran ed on 40 horizontal lines and 90 vertical lines (columns) as a single line of 3600 contacts is required in order to simultaneously actuate only such of them as come into operation for a given instantaneous luminous representation, the contacts are arranged on as many lines and columns as the lamps and the actuating zone is divided into individual sections, each of which is destined to actuate a contact column so. that the series of elements for switching in and out the contacts corresponding to one and the same simultaneous illumination are corresponding in the same in-' stant in the various sections. 7
Eventually, the luminous sources on the lamp bank may be of two or more colours so that coloured figurations can be obtained. In this case, 35 lamps having several filaments may be employed, the various filaments corresponding to differently coloured parts of the lamp bulb.
I shall now describe the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings which show, by way of example only, one embodiment of the control device for the lamp bank fitted with a plurality of lamps, the latter not being shown on the drawings because they may be of any desired type that may be easily conceived. 9
Fig. 1 is a side view of the invention with intermediate portions broken away for the sake of simplicity.
Fig. 2 is a detail showing the contact devices and the mechanical control devices.
Fig. 3 is a part section along the line 3-3 in Fig. 1 and shows the cable suspension for the mercury-container.
Figs. 4 and 5 are conlugated'parts of a vertical Fig. 6 is asectional view, as seen from below, of the member carrying the contacts and guiding the sliding zone.
Fig. 7 illustrates a length of the control tape showing several successive lamp controlling zones.
of electrical Figs. 8 and 9 illustrate a multi-filament lamp construction for multi-coloured luminous cinematography.
The'embodiment of the invention illustrated by the drawings illustrates a luminous cinematographic display device with lamps arranged in numerous lines and columns on the lamp bank.
The contacts I correspond to the lamps of the lamp bank and are arranged, like the light sources (lamps or the like) in rows corresponding to the columns (or to the lines) of lamps. For instance the row Ia corresponds to the first column, the row II) to the second column, the row Ic to the third column and so on.
Each row of contacts is carried by an insulating support 2, including a curved surface against which the tape 3 controlling the contacts is caused to slide. Each row of contacts is arranged in a mercury bath 4 connected to one pole of the electrical source so that when the circuit between the mercury and the contacts is established the lamps are illuminated.
For instance when the tape 3 is a tape of considerable length (Fig. '7) it unwinds from a bobbin 5 and winds itself on a bobbin 6. Advantageously, this tape is bent to form the loops 7 by passingover rollers 8, which facilitate the movement of the tape. A
As already mentioned, the tape (see Fig. 7) is flttedwith a set of perforations 1a'la."-1a"' etc. designed to act upon the first row of contacts 1a corresponding to the first column or lamps; a second set of perforations 1b'--1b"- 112' etc. designed to successively act upon the second row of contacts 1b corresponding to the second column of lamps, and so on. At the same time, when the perforations 1a present themselves against the contacts la, theperforations 1b must present themselves against the contacts 1b, the perforations 10 against the contacts lc and so on in the successive instances, for example the perforations 1a" present themselves against the contacts In, the perforations 12)" against the contacts 1b, the perforations 10" against the contacts 10 and so on.
It is therefore apparent that, on the luminous bank of lamps, the simultaneous illumination of a group of lamps corresponding to an instantaneous representation depends from the 11. perforation columns of the ribbon (if by n we designate the number of lamp columns on the frame) which occupy the same place in the various sets of perforations columns corresponding each to a row of contacts, each set of columns occupying a certain section A of the control tape. Obviously the length of each section A may vary to suit the number of simultaneous illuminations, successive among themselves, destined to represent one or several luminous cinematographic subjects.
The sliding movement of the tape 3 may be obtained by mechanical or other suitable means designed to ensurethe synchronism, or the corresponding perforation rows in taking up their respective positions.
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention, the mechanical control comprises'a pulley. 9 actuated by a belt 10 On the pulley spindle 11 a pinion 12 is keyed which by means of a belt 13 actuates the wheel 14 arranged at one end of the machine frame 15. At the opposite end of the machine frame another wheel 16, equal to wheel '14,,is arranged. Onthe spindles 28 and 29 of these-wheels, toothed wheels 1'7 and 18 are keyed on which a perforated-steel ribbon 19 runs (see also Fig. 4); the perforations of the ribbon 19 engage the teeth of the wheels 17 and 18 as well as the teeth 20 of the pinions 21 secured to the driving spindles 22, these spindles revolve freely in the corresponding insulating supports 2.
The said spindles 22, at the end of the respective supports 2, are fitted with gears 23 the teeth 24 of which are intended to actuate the tape 3 which, to this effect, near its edges is provided with rows of perforations 25 (one or more for each side of the tape) intended to be engaged by the said teeth 24.
Thanks to the transmission by means of the steel ribbon 19, all the spindles 22 are actuated simultaneously and the effort required to drive the insulating tape 3 (which'in practice is of considerable length) is divided into numerous lamp controlling sections.
Always in view of distributing the driving effort without, impairing the synchronism, two large gears 26 and 27 (Fig. 1) are further provided. The said gears are synchronously actuated by the spindles 28 and 29 of the wheels 14 and 16. The bobbin 6 on which the tape 3 winds itself is actuated by means of the chain 30 from the same spindle 29.
Advantageously, the mercury container 4 is made movable in order to put the lighting and liquid control device out of operation.
In the example showrrthe said container consists of a metal box 31 supporting a set of troughs 32. The'box 31 is hung on cables 33 passing on pulleys 34 and winding on pulleys 35.
The pulleys 35 are mounted on a spindle 36 actuated by the hand crank 37. The described cable suspension system serves only for lowering and raising the container; .in order to maintain the container 31 in a raised position and in lowered position supports 38 and 39 are provided.
These supports (Fig. 5) consist of brackets 38 and 39 with 90 offset between them, rigidly connected to tubes 40 which are adapted to revolve along with vertical spindles 41. At each corner of the container 32 a supporting device like the one visible in Fig. 5 is provided. On the bottom end of the spindles 41, sheaves 42 inter-connected by a cable 43 are provided.
The operation of a handle 44 fast with one of the spindles brings about the simultaneous rotation of all of the spindles-i1 and consequently, while the upper brackets 38 move out of the vertical plane of the cross end bars 45 of the container 31, the brackets 39' move into the dotted position 39 where they are ready to receive the bars 45 (see pointed line 45'). The stems 46, rigidly connected to the container 31 and traversing the guides 47, serve to adjust the lowering and raising movement.
The operation during each display has been generally indicated, but specifically the con-v tinuous zone strip 3 is threaded into the machine and looped about the contact carrying bars 21 and rollers 8 until the first row of perforations are about to pass under the last contact carrying bar 21 shown at the extreme left in Figure 1. The zone of the continuous strip intended to control thecontacts of this last bar extends upwardly and backwardly over the last roller 8 shown in the extreme left position of Figure 1 down to a point just short of the next to the last contact carryingbar 21 shown in the same figure; The various zones for controlling the contacts on the several bars are similarly positioned. Any suitable source of power may be utilized to actuate the mechanism for driving the continuous strip past the contact carrying bars and there is provided conventional means, not shown, for starting and stopping this drive. Assuming the apparatus to be about to start its display and the various contact controlling zones of the continuous strip in the position above described, the several zones will simultaneously pass under the contact carrying bars making and breaking circuits to the various lamps at a rate of about ten or more illuminations per second.
The particular mechanism illustrated is capable of creating a luminous cinematographic display lasting about one or two minutes. At the end of such time the controlling zone for actuating the set of contacts on the end bar at the extreme left hand position in Figure 1 has moved past this bar and the successive following contact controlling zones will have completed a traverse past each of one or the other of the set of contact bars. The initially intended cinematographic display being now completed, the entire continuous strip with its multiplicity of zones can be reversed and reset to its initial position ready for a new run through the machine or, if desired,
the continuous strip may be run entirely through the machine to cause the various control zones to progressively pass over successive contact bars and produce the cinematographic display repeatedly with a gradual shift across the lamp bank. When reversing the mechanism by any suitable means the box 31 containing the mercury may be lowered, if desired, to break the circuit to'the lamp bank.
It has been already stated above that with the system according to the invention, luminous colour cinematography can be obtained. Figs. 8 and 9 show, by way of example only, a lamp construction suitable for this purpose.
As will be seen from these figures, the lamp bulb 48 is divided into a certain number of compartments (for instance four) 48'-48"-48" each of which contains its own filament 49'- The glass walls of the various compartments are differently coloured (for instance, the three fundamental colours of trichromy are used). A common cup 50 applied to a reflector 51 serves to diffuse the coloured light with satisfactory uniformity and to correct the filament shifting and partialization defect. The lamp cap 52 is secured in any suitable manner, for instance by bayonet joint, to the structure of 53.
Of course in this case the number of contacts will be multiplied by four.
Instead of a single section of the tape acting to control the lamps, several sections of the tape acting simultaneously on one or more contact rows may be provided. Further, instead of establishing the lamp illuminating electric contacts by means of mercury, other contact systems with spring action or the like may be provided.
According to the present invention, cinematographic representations may be alternated with representations of a stationary character. Such representations can be realized by a complementary apparatus similar to the illustrated one and so arranged that the variation in the illumination combinations, instead of at short time intervals, is effected at longer intervals according to the desired duration of the exhibition; or the stationary representations may be realized by some other device already known. Moreover, between one cinematographic representation and the next, wordings of movable character may be caused to appear by means of the complementary plant.
The apparatus and system according to the invention may be susceptible, in practice, of any modifications consistent with the fundamental inventive idea; accordingly, such modifications will fall within the compass of the invention and therewith also of the patent asked for.
What I claim and desire to secure by United States Letters Patent is:
Apparatus for displaying luminous-cinematography effects by operation of a massed formation or bank of lamps arranged in rows covering the display area, comprising, in combination, a bank of lamp-controlling contacts arranged in successive transverse rows corresponding with the arrangement of such lamps, a longitudinal series of separate transverse supports or bars upon which respectively the successive rows of controlling contacts are carried, contact means opposing said controlling contacts of each row, and circuits including said contact means and said contacts and extending to the respective lamps, a contact-controlling traveling patternsheet consisting of successive sheet sections connected in tandem and disposed with the successive sections passing longitudinally across the respective contact rows to control the contacts thereof according to the pattern, the several sheet sections being coordinately patterned for simultaneous control of all of the respective contact rows, and each section being of sufficient length and patterned for the complete sequence of the display as to the row of contacts and lamps controlled by it, and means for causing advancing travel of the pattern sheet in a looping path with all sections advancing simultaneously across the respective contact rows in coordination and at a speed adapted to operate the contacts for the illumination and extinction of lamps at cinematographic frequency.
MICHELE LO PRESTI.