US 1967169 A
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July 17, 1934. F. G. G. ARMSTRONG 1,967,169
SHOCK ABSORBER Filed Oct. 23, 1931 IN VEN TOR RNE 75.
Patented July 17, 1934 1367,16!) sHocK ABSORBER Fullerton George Application October 23,
Gordon Armstrong, Beverley, England 1 r a 1931, Serial No. 570,742
In Great Britain November 12,1930
14 Claims (01. 1ss ss) The present invention relates to shock absorbers forthe spring suspension of vehicles.
1 According to the present invention a casing is pivotally mounted between two members such as the vehicle frame and an axle, and has a link or arm connection with one of said members, a lever, rigid with one of the members and enclosed within the casing, operating one or a pair of plungers also disposed within thecasing and displaceable within a similar number of cylinders to apply a hydraulic load between the axle and the frame on relative displacement thereof, whilst, in order to maintain said plungers-and cylinders in alignment in the casing irrespective of the position of the latter, either the plungers or the cylinders or both are pivotally mounted relatively 'to the Leasing. The shock absorber may be of the one arm type in which event one end of the casing may be pivotally mounted directly on the frame and the other end connected to a link on the axle through a flexible joint.
Preferably a pair of plungers engage in a pair of cylinders, whilst a lever is pivotally mounted intermediate its endsrelatively to the casing so that fone end forces one plunger into its cylin den on movement of the casingin one direction andthe other end forces the "second plunger into "its cylinder on opposite movement of the casing.
Means maybe provided whereby oil or any other fluid is passed from one cylinder to the other, where a pair of cylinders are used, and/or the fluid may be exhausted from the cylinders into the casing and fresh supply drawn from a the casingintothe cylinders at the various displacements of the casing relatively tothe frame andaxle. 1 The invention is more particularly described wlthreference to the accompanying drawing which illustrates one form ofconstructiont by way of example anddinwhich:-
Figure 1 is a longitudinal elevation inpartsection of the shock absorber having the, outer cover removed.- t l Figure 2 is? partial cross-sectional View taken along line 2-2 of Fig.1, and
Fig ure 3 is a detail along line 33 of Fig. 1.
- 1 Fig.3! shows a modified form of valve mechanismindetail. a. T v Fig.5 isan enlarged side elevation of'the suption between the same. I
"A hollowcasing 1 of greater'width at one end than the other is connectedto theaxle or the like'of thevehicle by a link 2 which is pivotally connected to the narrow end of the casing 1.
' A pin or stub axle 3 is secured to the frame 4 7 within the casing 1 t of the vehicle and passes through a gland and bearing 5. A two-armed lever 6 is rigidly mounted on the free end of the pin 3 by meansof a nut 7 and a key 8. V
Plungers 9 and 10 pivoted to the ends of the two-armed lever 6 are adapted to reciprocate in cylinders 11 and 12located in oscillation about the pivot 3.
The cylinders 11 and '12 are pivotally mounted upon plugs 16. These plugs are connected and are attached to the casing. There is a port 13 extendingthrough the connection from one plug into the other, and the upper end of this port 13 in the upper plug 16 is connected to the port 14 which leads to the cylinder 11. The lower end of the port 13 is connected to the port 15 in the lower plug 16 and which is in turn connected to the cylinder 12. This port 15 in the lower plug 16, as clearly shown in Fig. 3, is connected to a port 18, and a non-return valve 1'7 controls the the casing 1 upon flow of fluid from this port 15 into the port 18,
There is a byof a restricted ports is "not disturbed. 'The'same is'true as to the H connection between the port 14 inder head to the cylinder 11. v
l The non-return valve 17 is loaded byspring 19 and the pressure exerted by the spring 19 is adthrough the cyl- 'justable by altering the position of the screw 20 which bears upon one end of the spring 19 and passes outside the casing 1. A lock-nut 21 is "provided to secure the screw 20 in place; .The
valve 17 permits the flow of fluid from the port 18 the head of the cylinder 12.
When oil is forced from cylinder 12 to cylinder 11 its flow is obstructed by the non-return ball valve and the oil has to pass the adjustable tapered needle valve 25 which passes through the casing 1 and may. be locked in the adjusted position by means of a lock-nut 26;
The casing 1 is provided with a fluid-tight cover 28 and a filling orifice '29 situated at an upper t'pointl The operationof the shock absorber described to the port 22 which registers with the port 23 in axle is assumed to move upwardly towards ,the, Oil is therefore forced outof" chassis frame 4). the cylinder 11 through a direct hydraulicpre ssure conduit means extending between the cylinders and constituted bythe passage'13 and fthei ports 15 and 24, along two paths: (1) past the ball valve 17 against the pressure of sprin ,9, (2) past the regulating valve 25 and entersthe cylinder 12 through the port 23. Onthe return stroke, or rebound of the axle away from the' chassis frame 4, the plunger 10 forces oil out of the cylinder] 12 by the single hydraulic path through'itheorifice 24 as restricted by valve" 25 and'through passage 13 'into the cylinder 11.
Any loss of fluid within the cylinders is made up from the supply in the casing 1 through the opening 30 and non-return valve 31 in the'plunger 10.
The adjustable orifice 24 may be closed by a spring-loaded ballvalve or the like or a springloaded valve32a Fig. 4, may be provided to relieve the pressure should the orifice 24 become choked.
If desired, a friction load may be applied to any of the pivot points, for'instance by a stiff joint at 32Wherethe link 2 is connected to the casing 1.
I declare that what I claim'is:
1.A shock absorber comprising a pair of hydraulically connected cylinders, a fluid tight displaceable casing connected 'to and enclosing said cylinders, a'link pivotally connected to' said casing, a pair of plungers working in said cylinders and pivotally connected at spaced points to an elementjadaptedto rotate relatively to said [cylinders upon displacement of the easing an adjustable valve for regulating the flow of'fiuid into oneof said. cylinders, and an adjustable valve for regulating'the flow out of one of said cylinders into the other upon displacement of the casing relativel'y'to the said element. V f f 2. A shock absorber comprising a pair of hydraulically connected cylinders, afiuid tight casing connected toand enclosing said cylinders, a link pivotally connected tofsai'd casing afpair of plungers working in'said"cylinders,' an element adapted to rotate relatively 'to' s'aid"cylinders upon displacement of the casing, pivot connections' between said plungers and element whereby the'plungers are positively moved by said element, a'springloaded valve to regulate the. fiow of fluid'into one of said cylinders and a restricted orifice toregulate the'flow out ofsaid cylinder upon displacementbf the casing relatively to the said element.
3. A shock absorber comprising a pair of hydraulically connected cylinders, a fluidti'ght casing connected to and enclo'singsaid cylinders, a
link pivotally connected to'sa id casing, ,a'pair of plungersworking in' said cylinders and pivotal- 1y. connected at .spaced' points to an element adapted to rotate relatively to said cylinder'supon displacement of 'the casing and. valve mechamsm adaptedto regulate the flow of fluidifrom one cylinder to the other upon displacement of the casing relatively to the said element and a spring loaded ball valve in said cylinder to release the pressure should the orifice become choked.
4. A shock absorber comprising a pair of hydraulically connected convergingly mounted cylinders, a link pivotally connected to said cylinders,.a two armed lever secured to ,the frame of thevehicle, a pair of plungers working in said cylinders and having operative extensions at the ends of the cylinders located at the greater distance apart, said extensions being pivotally connected to said two armed lever, and valve mechanism communicating solely between the cylinders adapted to regulate the flow of fluid from one cylinder to the other upon displacement of the link relatively to said two armed lever.
.5. A shock absorber comprising a fluid-tight casing,,a pair of cylinders pivotally mounted in s'aid"casing, a pair of plungers received in said cylinders, a member connected to said plungers at spaced points and rotatable relatively thereto upon actuation of the shock absorber, a link pivotally connected to said casing and valve means hydraulically connectingsaid cylinders.
6. A shock absorber comprising a fluid-tight casing, a pair of plugs secured in said casing, a pair of cylinders rotatably mounted on said plugs, a pair of plungers received in said cylinders, a member connected to said plungers at spaced points and rotatable relatively thereto upon actuation of the shock absorber, a link pivotally connected to said casing and a valve means bydraulically connecting said cylinders.
'7. A shock absorber comprising a fluid-tight casing, a pair of cylinders pivotally mounted in said casing, a pair of plungers received in said cylinders, a member rotatably mounted in said casing andv connected to said plungers at spaced points at either side of the center of rotation and rotatable relatively to said plungers upon actuation of the shock absorber, a link pivotally connected to said casing, a valve means hydraulically connecting said cylinders.
8. A shock absorber comprising a fluid-tight casing, a pair of .plugs secured in. said casing having ports therein,.a pair of cylinders rotatably mounted onv said plugs and in communication with the ports therein, a pair of plungers received in said cylinders, a, member connected to said plungers at spaced points and rotatable relatively thereto upon actuation of the shock absorber, a link pivotally connected to said casing, a spring-loaded valve in one of said plugs controlling the flow of fluid in one direction, an adjustable throttle valve in one of said plugs controlling the fiow in the other direction and a passage connecting the ports in said .plugs through said spring-loaded valve and said throttle valve.
9. A shock absorber comprising a fluid-tight casing, a pair of cylinders pivotally mounted in "said casing, 'a pair of plungers received'in said hydraulically connecting said cylinders.
10,. s ck. sor er. comp is g a fluid-t ht casing, a pair of cylinders pivotallymounted in said; casing, a pair, of plungers received-in said cylinders, a member rotatable with respectto the casing mounted insaid casing and rotatable with respect thereto and pivotally connected at spaced points to said plungers, means for securing said member to the frame of the vehicle or to the axle, a link pivotally connected to one end of said casing, means for pivotally securing said link to the axle or to the frame of the vehicle and valve means hydraulically connecting said cylinders. 7
11. A shock absorber for a vehicle comprising a pair of cylinders mounted at opposite small acute angles to the horizontal, a two-armed lever secured to the frame of the vehicle, a pair of plungers working in said cylinders and having operative extensions at the ends of the cylinders located at the greater distance apart, pivot connections between said extensions and lever whereby the lever will produce positive relative movements of said plungers and cylinders, a casing surrounding and pivotally connected to both said cylinders at the ends thereof which are closer together and also pivotally connected to the vehicle axle or the like, a valved connection between said cylinders'operating to efiect a restricted flow from onecylinder to the other, said casing being adapted to contain liquid to a level above said cylinders, and a valved connection between one of said cylinders and the interior of the casing whereby the relative separating movement of said cylinder and its plunger will operate to draw liquid into said cylinder from the casing.
12. A shock absorber comprising a casing, a
pair of convergingly mounted cylinders in said casing, an element supported to make a relative rotative movement with respect to said casing and cylinders as a result of the movement whose shock is to be absorbed, a pair of plunger-s working in said cylinders and pivotally connected to said element, hydraulic conduit means providing two paths of flow of fluid under pressure directly between said cylinders, exteriorly adjustable valve means for regulating the flow of fluid through one said path from one cylinder toward the other movement whose shock is to be absorbed, a pair of plungers working in said cylinders and pivotally connected at spaced points to said element, the hydraulic connection between said cylinders providing two paths of flow of fluid under pressure therebetween, exteriorly adjustable valve mechanism for regulating the flow of liquid in either direction between said cylinders along one said path, and independent exteriorly adjustable valve mechanism for regulating the flow of fluid in one direction only and preventing flow in the opposite direction.
14. A shock absorber comprising a casing containing fluid, at least one cylinder pivotally mounted in said casing, a lever pivotally mounted relative to said casing and cylinder for relative displacement during the movement whose shock is to be absorbed, a plunger working in said cylinder and pivotally connected to said lever, conduit means providing two paths of flow of fluid under pressure into and out of said cylinder, ex-
teriorly adjustable valve mechanism to control the flow of fluid in either direction through one of said paths, and separate and exteriorly adjustable valve mechanism for preventing the flow of fluid in one direction through said other path and permitting a regulated flow in the opposite direction.
FULLERTON GEORGE GORDON ARMSTRONG.