US 1967904 A
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Patented July 24, 1934 UNITE RUBBER SURFAOING MATERIAL, METHOD OF PRGDUCING SAME, AND COMPOSI- TION FOR USE THEEEIN Elmer Roberts, Montclair, N. J., assignor to The N augatuck Chemical Company,
Conn, a corporation of Connecticut No Drawing. Application August 21, 1930, Serial No. 476,952
7 Claims. (01. 94 7) This invention relates to a rubber surfacing material, the method of producing the same, and
a composition for use therein, more particularly to a rubber surfacing material for use on golf .5 courses, and to the method of producing the same and a composition for use therein.
In the maintenance of golf courses, both indoor and outdoor, trouble has been experienced in cer-- tain locations, in obtaining surfaces to withstand lo the wear and tear of use, and more particularly in the case of the miniature golf courses both indoor and outdoor. The majority of these miniature courses as laid out, require the use of only a putter, or in some instances, a lofted club for chipping, as well as a putter. In addition to the use of ordinary soil, various compositions have been used in surfacing the tees, greens and fairways of such miniature courses, but none of the materials used has given satisfaction in all respects, and one of the main objections is that any loose surfacing material which is merely compacted, is readily distorted and broken up by being struck with clubs and more particularly by the heels of the players, thus requiring frequent smoothing and rolling of the surfaces. Also in outdoor courses of regulation length, difliculty has beenexperienced, both on the'tees and on the greens, in maintaining the surfaces in proper playing condition. In hot and dry locations such dificulty has been had in maintaining grass greens in proper condition, that in many localities in the South, what are known as sand greens are used. Also trouble has been had in outdoor courses with the tees which are more or less ele vated, and by reason of this fact, quickly dry out. Owing to their frequent use and to injury caused by the clubs of the players, it is very diflicult to maintain grass on these tees and in a great many golf courses, it will be found that they are largely dusty or hard earth. In the case of tees where the earth is hard, it is difficult to insert the wooden or other forms of tees used by the players, the dust is'objectionable, and if the course tees are wet, they become a mass of mud which 4 is just asv objectionable and slippery to stand upon.
An object of my invention is to provide an improved rubber surfacing material, capable of use for the tees, greens and fairways of miniature golf courses, and also capable of use for the tees and greens of the larger outdoor courses. Another object is to provide a rubber surfacing material capable of general use for flooring, mats, runways, sidewalks and paving. Anotherobject is to provide a rubber material adaptable generally for use as a cheap cushioning material and for other purposes, Another object is to provide a method for making the material. A still further object is to provide a composition for use 0. in carrying out the method.
The invention broadly comprises forming a mixture of comminuted vulcanized rubber, rubber in fluid form such as a water dispersion of rubber, and if desired vulcanizing material, dispos 5 ing the. mixture in the desired contour, compacting and if desired vulcanizing. It further consists in adhesively uniting to the surface of the smoothed mixture when desired, a loosely scattered comminuted material for the purpose of 7 slightly deadening or slowing down the speed of an object moving across the material. It further consists in the composition used in the method.
An embodiment of the invention suitable for the surfacing of portions of a golf-course will first be. 7 described, and in carrying out this embodiment scrap vulcanized rubber, such as from inner tubes, air bags, footwear, mechanical goods, whole tires, etc., or combinations of the above, is ground or comminuted in any suitable Way to the desired 80, particle size. While the size will vary depending upon the material used and the exact purpose to which it is to be put, it has been found that a suitable size is such that all the particles will pass through a screen of A" mesh but very little through a screen of mesh. The ground material is then preferably mixed with a Water dispersion of rubber, either artificial or natural, the dispersion preferably containing vulcanizing ingradients, and the mixture is then spread in the desired contour, compacted and vulcanized. The rubber dispersion may be vulcanized or unvulcanized, creamed, concentrated or otherwise treated. A rubber cement may also be used as the binder.
As a specific example, the following formula is given:
' Parts Vulcanized rubber scrap 450 Rubber (as normal latex) 100 Emulsion of acetaldehyde-aniline condensate condensed in acid solution 3 Sulphur 1 Zinc oxide 5 Accelerator 1 Glue 2 rubber latex may then be placed in an enclosed mixer such as a Werner-Pileiderer, the paste added and then the ground rubber scrap. After thoroughly mixing, the product may be removed and used as needed. In the above formula, the acetaldehyde-aniline acid condensate acts as an anti oxidant. Any suitable accelerator may be used, but it is preferred to use one capable of causing vulcanization at temperatures below those normally employed in hot vulcanization, for. instance, tetramethyl thiuram disulphide or zinc dimethyl dithiocarbamate. The composition as prepared will keep for a reasonable time without setting up or prevulcanizing to an extent sufficient to impair its usefulness, and as withdrawn fromthe mixer is in a wet granular form, the individual particles being rendered more or less adhesive by thelatex adhering to them. In applying the material as a surfacing, it is spread to the desiredthickness and in the desired contour, and then compacted to-insure adherenceof the particles and allowed to thoroughly-dry and set.- Under ordinaryconditions-=it may be used in one or two days after applying, and if alow temperature accelerator has beenused, the composition will vulcanize in the course of several weeks. If vulcanization is desired sooner, it may be hastened by the application of heat, such as by the use of a heated roller; The thickness of the surfacing applied, will, of course, vary upon conditions, but from about A up to about 1 has been-found suitable-for use on golf courses. In the event that anunvulca-nized binder is used, such as ordinary rubber cement oran artificial dispersion or a natural latex to which no vulcanizing ingredientshave beenadded, it is, of course, only necessary to compact the mixture after spreading it in'tlie'desired contour; If a vulcanized latex or dispersion has been used, it is also then only necessary to spread and compact.-
Tlie followingexample'is given as illustrating the' u-se of an artificial dispersion of rubber:
Parts S'rnolred sheetrubber 100 Rosin 12 Sodium hydroxide in water solution 1.6
The smoked'sheet rubber is broken down on a mill, the rosin then=milled'in,: the plastic mixture then placed in a closed mixer and the sodium hydroxide solution gradually added while mixing, after which water is'slowly added until the mixture breaks and forms a water dispersion. Thismay then be diluted to-the desired consistency and used-with exactly the same procedure as 'in' the first example-merely substituting 190parts of rubber as the-artificial dispersion in placeoflQO parts of rubber as latex.
The above examples are merely illustrative and the ingredients-and proportion-may be varied, to suit conditions.
In iplace of a dispersion of raw rubber, there may be used a. dispersion-of're'claiinedrubber'or 4- amixture of dispersions: offreclaimed rubberand crudeairub'ber: or mixtures of either or." both: of thesewithlatex...
The. above surfacing-may be usedas laid for sidewalks paving, flooring,- matsmunners etc., and may-also-be-used in such form for the surfacing of agol-f course, more particularly for tees. However, when used as a surfacing on a golf coursefor" greens or fairways, it may be" desirable to slow down the-surface-to more closely approximate grass, and in this case, the finished ized rubber scrap, Waste tire fibre, etc.
surface of the base material may be coated with latex and then with some comminuted soft material, such as sawdust, lightly sprinkled over it and, if necessary, lightly rolled down- In place of sawdust, any other suitable top surfacingjwhich will slow down the speed of a golf ball, may be employed, such as fairly finely ground vulcan- In order to simlate the appearance of grass, the top surfacing may be dyed-a suitable shade of green and, if desired, green coloring may also be includedin the main body of the surfacing.
The surfacingabove described has been found particularly'suitaible for use on miniature or reg ulation golf courses, since it provides a surfacing material which is durable, resilient, fast, dustless, not easily chipped or marred by clubs, it will not be disturbed by the heels of players, requires a minimum. of time and labor for laying, and it can be easily repaired whenever necessary by the addition of further surfacing material orby merely applying a new top surfacing of=latex and the comminuted material such as sawdust. The material in itswet granular unvulcanized form can be readily molded or'shaped to give any'desired contour for putting greens, tees andfairways, andbeing substantially water proof, it quickly dries off when used in situations-exposed to the Weather.
Thebase material furnishes-an excellent surfacing for floors, pavement, etc., and can be made in theform of strips for use as mats or runners, and due to thefact that it is largely composed of scrap material, itscost is relatively low It requiresno expensive or complicated equipment to put down, and as before stated, isquickly rea'dy for-use after being laid.
While a single specific-embodiment has been described, it' is obvious that-numerous modifica=- tionsmaybe made in'the" composition, in the method of applying it, andinthe' method and materials used for top-surfacing, anditis not desired to limit the-invention other thanas" set forth in the appended claims;
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to protect by Letters Patentis:
1. A resilient surfacing comprising a lightly compacted body' of comminuted vulcanized rubber particles loosely bound together-by HJILlII situ deposit from a Water dispersion of rubber:
2. A resilient surfacing comprising a. lightly compacted body of comminutedxvulcanized" scrap rubber particles of a size not substantially less than T 'g inch loosely bound together by the vul'- r canized insitu deposit from a water dispersion of rubber, I
3'. A resilient surfacing comprising a. lightly compacted body of comminuted vulcanized rubber scrap-particles looselybound'together by the vulcanized in situ deposit from" rubber latex.
4. A resilient surfacing for golf greens; tees and 'fairwayscomprising lightly compacted comminutedrubber scrap looselybound togethenb'y the vulcanized in situ deposit from rubber latex, and a top layer of loosely scatteredcomminuted material adhesively united thereto.
5. A method. of making a resilient surfacing which comprises, forming a granular mixture of comminuted vulcanized scrap rubber and a water dispersion of rubber; disposing the mixture in' the desired contour, and lightly. compactingit.
6; A method of" making a resilient surfacing which-comprises'forining a granularlmixture of comminuted vulcanizedrubber; a" water disper= sion of rubber and vulcanizing material efiective at sub-normal vulcanizing temperatures, disposing the mixture in the desired contour, lightly compacting it, and subjecting to a vulcanizing temperature.
' ELMER ROBERTS.