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Publication numberUS1968993 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 7, 1934
Filing dateOct 3, 1932
Priority dateOct 3, 1932
Publication numberUS 1968993 A, US 1968993A, US-A-1968993, US1968993 A, US1968993A
InventorsCox William L
Original AssigneeCox William L
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Slope-retainer
US 1968993 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 7, 1934. wql.. cox

SLOPE RETAINER Filed oct. 5, 1952 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 W e MQ W. L. COX

SLOPE RETAINER Aug. 7, 1934.

Filed Oct. 3, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Av1/[N702 I/V/Y//m 6272:.

,EY @Trap/Vir Aug. 7, 1934.

W. L. COX

SLOPE RETAINER Filed OCb. 5.' 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 Aug. 7, 1934. -W. l.. cox 1,968,993

SLOPE RETAINER Filed Oct. 5, 1932 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 @Troie/vnf Patented Aug. 7, 1934 Unirse vSTATES PATENT orifice 1,968,999` SLOPE-RETAINER William L. Cox, ohiuiothe, Mo. Application october 3, 1932, serial No. 636,046 l 14 claims. (o1. 61-35) This invention relates generally to bank-protection for earthwork constructions and has more particular reference to a bank-protecting structure of the type commonly known as a slopef' "5 retainer. j v

` In highway and railroad construction, for example, embankments frequently occur in` the making of cuts through hills, or in making fills across valleys, and the like, thesloping walls or sides of which are subjectto erosionor washing away or usliding of the embankment as a result of natural drainage conditions or yielding earth under unrestrainednatural forces. Likewise, in revetment work for4 water-courses and the construction of beaches, and the like, similar erosion effects occur, due to running water and waveaction, tending to destroy the bank orbeach, as the oase may be-` AMy present invention has hence for its prime object the provision of an inexpensive, durable, readily installed retainer for efliciently preventing orchecking the erosive action'of water c urrent or other elements and/or forces of .nature upon, and thereby retaining the slope of, an em- 25 bankment, beach, orthe like.`

And with the above and other objects yin View, my invention resides in the novel features of form, construction, arrangement, and combination of parts hereinafter described and pointedout in the claims. l

in the accompanying drawings (four sheets) `Figure 1 is a fragmentary sectional View of an i embankment or slope, illustrating` an applied or installed slopefretainer of my invention;

Figure 2 is an enlarged plan-view of one of the knuckle-heads of the slope-retainer;

Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional View of one ofthe knucklefheads; I

Figure 4 is an enlarged detail end View `o`f one se! of the retaining-walls and the suspender-bridle or anchorage thereof; l

TFigure 5vis an enlarged front View of oneof the retaining walls;

Figure 6 is a vertical sectional View thereof; l Figure '7 is a fragmentaryplan View cfa panelsection of the slope-retainer, the anchor blocks being omitted and `portions of` v'adjacent panelsections beingalsoshowm Figure 8 is a reduced fragmentaryplan-yiew of the sloperetainer with itsretainingwallsin interconnected or mat relation; e Figure 9is a reduced fragmentary plan of a slope-retainer having its retaining-walls disposed in individual panels orsections; t

Figure 10 is a reduced cross-sectional View :of

ahighway embankment, illustrating bank-protection structures ofl my invention installed or applied to the respective opposite slopes of the embankment, each protection-structure serving as an anchorage for the other, the View also illus- 60, trating a unique form of gutter-construction for the highway paving slab;

Figure 1;1 is a fragmentary sectional view of a submerged embankment or beach, illustrat ing an applied or installed modified form of bank- 65, protection structure or revetment of`my invention; and

Figure 12 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective View of the revetment structure of Figure 11.

Referring now more in detail and by reference 701 characters tothe drawings, which illustrate practical embodiments o f my invention, A designates generally an earthwork embankment in the form, in the present instance, of a ll deposited on the natural ground surface 1, the embankment A 75,- havingga sloping surface 2 which merges at a shoulder, as at 3, into the topsurface fl thereof.

The slope-retainer comprises preferably any desired number of so-called sections or mats B, each of which includes a pair of anchor-blocks 8() 5 of masonry, concrete, or other suitable construction longitudinally spaced along and embedded in the' top-'surface e` of the earthwork A a substantial distance inwardly or remote from the shoulder 3 thereof. Suitably secured, as at 6, 85 to and inthe respective' anchor-blocks 5,are anchorage-members or bars 7, each of which extends frorn its anchor block 5 approximately to the shoulder 3 of the slope and -is then preferably, `though not necessarily, integrally extended, 90 as bya slope-bar 8, from the lshoulder 3 to the toe of the embankment surface 2, each of the bars 7 and extensions 8 being embedded beneath and disposed substantially parallelwith the topsurface 4 and slope-surface 2, respectively, as best 95*v seen in Figure 1. l

To thus follow the contour of the earthwork cross-section, each respective anchor-bar 7 is turned or bent downwardly, as at 9, opposite the shoulder 3 for merging into the slope-bar 3, the 100 bar '7 at its bend 9 being supported against lvertical and also lateral displacement by means of a knucklelhead 10, which is also embedded inthe earthwork A, and which preferably comprises a frusta-'conicalor-spread-base hollow body-meme 105 ber, at the upwardly presented apexV of which is mounteda saddle 11 havingon its upper face a suitable channel or seat for receiving the bend 9 of the particular bar '7, as best seen in Figures 2 and 3. i 110 Embedded in the earthwork A intermediate the sl0pe-bars 3 of a pair, is a plurality or series of earth-checks C arranged approximately in parallel relation in a spaced row extending stepwise, as may be said, transversely of the embankment slope 2. Each earth-check C comprises a preferably metallic relatively long and narrow wall or beam 12 of approximate channel-section disposed more or less longitudinally of the embankment 2, each wall 12 being stamped, rolled, or otherwise suitably formed with upper and lower longitudinal iianges 13, 14, respectively, and suitable brackets or corner reinforcements 15, 16, being preferably fitted between the respective flanges 13, 14, and the wall body-portion. For purposes presently appearing and as best seen in Figures 4 and 6, the flanges 13, 111, are obliquely rearwardly and upwardly disposed, and have different angular relation to, the wall 12, and preferably intermediate the flanges 13, 14, the wall 12 is provided with a longitudinal V-shaped stiifening corrugation or rib 17, as best seen in Figure 6.

Preferably the ilanges 13, 14, and corrugation 17 project from the rear or uphill face of the wall 12, and on the flush front face of the wall 12 is disposed or mounted a pair of longitudinally spaced vertical posts or stiifeners 18 preferably of angle-section as shown, the wall-engaging leg of each member 18 being extended at its opposite ends over the upper and lower flanges 13, 14, to which the stiffeners 18 are suitably attached, as by welding or the like.

Suitable bolt-openings 19 are provided through the overlapping ends of the stilfeners 18 and the respective flanges 13, 14, as best seen in Figure 5, and attached to the respective opposite ends of cach wall 12, as by suitable fastening members or bolts 20 passed through the openings 19, is a pair of `upper and lower suspender or tie-bars 21, 22, respectively, which extend rearwardly and laterally and also convergingly upwardly from the wall 12 for disposition upon the opposite faces of the adjacent or co-operable slope-bar 3, to which the pair of tie-bars 21, 22, is secured by a common fastening member or bolt 23, as best seen in Figure 4.

Preferably also, it may be said, the same fastener 23 is employed for securing the like tiebars 21, 22, of an adjacent aligning earth-check C, as best seen in Figure 7.

In use and operation, the mat type of erosion check or slope-retainer of my invention is constructed of a plurality of the panehsections B of Figure 7, each anchor-bar 7 and slope-bar 3 thereof, except, of course, the respective end bars, being common to contiguous panels, as seen in Figure 3. When employed in fill construction, where the shoulder 3 is approximately tangent, as in the present instance, the bars 8 at their respective lower ends are extended to more or less degree, so as to substantially reach to the toe of the slope, there being thus as many of the checks C in each panel B as may be required for the purpose. On the other hand, where employed in cuts, as will be understood, the knuckle-heads 1G will lie in a curved line following the shoulder of the cut` through the hill.

The mat-construction of erosion-check or slopeietai1ier shown in Figure 8 provides a highly eiicient and flexible arrangement for protecting embankment-slopes, the manner of interconnecting the panels B serving to tie adjacent portions of the earthwork solidly together, while permitting sufficient flexibility to the mat as a Whole for accommodating itself to settlement in the earthwork, as may often occur in fills and the like.

Each of the earth-checks C acts as a small retaining wall anchored against displacement downwardly of the slope for supporting a particular portion of the surface layer of slopematerial. Drainage water, for example, flowing over the slope-surface 2 of the earthwork A, tends to scour material from the slope-surface, but is prevented from doing so by the checkwalls C, which retard the ow of water and cause the deposit of the water-carried earth or silt behind the walls C, the effective action of which is augmented by the angular anges 13, 14, which not only prevent water entering erosively between the earth and the face of the plate 12, but also accumulate a body of erosionretarding earth directly and compactly against the face of the wall, and it may here also be noted that the relative angularity of the flanges 13 and 14 may selectively vary with the inclination of the slope and facilitates the attachment through the bars 21, 22, of the member C with the anchoring bar 8. The walls C, being anchored to the main body of the earthwork at a point remote from the effective scouring action of the water, remain substantially fixed in position independently of any local movement of the slope material. By thus preventing movement and erosion of the surface layer of the embankment-slope, the entire underlying body of the embankment is protected from the destructive effects of the natural elements.

I might add that the knuckle-heads 10 serve also most effectively for holding the earth in shape at the shoulder of the embankment.

In some instances, it may be desirable to protect an earthwork construction by individual panels or sections, each independent of the other. For such purpose, the retainer may be modified, as illustrated in Figure 9, to include such individual panel-sections B', each cornprising an anchor-bar 7 which is attached at an end to an anchor-block (not shown), as described for a bar '7 of a panel B, and terminating at its outer end adjacent the knuckle-head 10'.

To the outer end of the bar 7', are, in turn, attached oppositely flaring pairs of tie bars 21', 22', similarto, but preferably of heavier section than, the bars 21, 22. Each pair of the tie-bars 21. 22is attached to the respective opposite ends of the check C at the head of the slope, and the remainder of the checks C in the row thereof are, in turn, suspended from the topmost check by means of respective pairs of slopebars 24 disposed approximately parallel with the general slope of the embankment for engaging the also respective opposite ends of the several checks, as will be readily understood from Figure 9.

Thus each panel B comprises an anchorblock and its attached anchor-rod 7', which, in turn, suspends by the slope-bars 24 a row of checks C along and under the slope of the embankment. Such panel sections B may usefully be employed in protecting end slopes of embankments'as, at bridge-sites and the like. I might add that the walls C may be arranged, if desired, in staggered `relation down the embankment slope by disposing some of the walls C under the anchor-bars 7 and others between the bars.

In practice, it is found that the action of the elements or forces of nature tending to erode, loosen, or dislodge the surface material of earthwork embankments is by my check or retainer lll) blocks for the sections.

B each including the slope-bars 8, knuckle heads 10, bridle-bars 21,VV 22,` and wall-sec-V tions'C, substantially as set forth for like parts of the slope-retainer B. However, the opposed anchorage bars '7 ofthe slope-retainers Bfare inthis case extended under `the pavingslab-26 of the highway and suitably` secured together, as at 2'7, whereby each sloperetainer B"-ser,ves as an anchor for the other, thus dispensing with or obviating the need of an anchorage-block or 28 designates respective gutter-forming members disposed.longitudinally onfthe opposite sides of the slab 26, each gutter-memberZS being composed ofpreferably sheetfmetallic material have ing a generally Z-shaped cross-section, as best seen in Figure 10. l rfhe web of the` memberv28 is `disposed approximately flush with the top of the slab 26, one or the inner leg of the member 28 depending adjacent to, and forming a boundingwall or mold for, the side face of the slab 26, and being preferably -apertured or oth-v erwise formed for engagement or connection with the adjacent anchor-rodfl, as indicated at 29 inFigure 10. l f i, l

The other orouter leg of the member 28 profjects above the plane of' the topfsurface of the slab 26 and is spaced therefromthewidthof the web of the member 28, the latter -thusserving as a gutter for the slab 26. 1 At suitable intervals, suitablescuppers or drain-pipes (not shown) may beprovided leading fromthe gutter 28 to a suitable point,Y of discharge,l as at theltoe. of the embankment slope, for .removal ofthe drain; age Water of the slab 26. Preferably, though 4not 1 necessarily, the embankment shoulder is ,car`

ried up to the top of the'outer wall ofy the gut.- ter 28, as best seen at 30 -in Figure? l0. l My check or-retainer'is adapted. for use .both in dry or, above-water ,earthwork constructions and in submerged or underwater ccunstructions,A asrrevetment and `beach protection t'tforkls.` For such latter purpose, however, INprefer to ern# ploy a 'type ofl slope-retainerllBW.,vasbestgseen in Figures A1l and 12, whereinE designate "geni erally a beach' or `the like,fcornprisinjinfthe present instance, ja 'suitable underwater fillfde-y posited on the'naturalbedl"of the-body of water 32,` as a water-course,lake,` or theflike; the fill E extending from the water-lin`e ha desired distance into" theV body of l water `32`,':and (terminating in an embankment slope 33. .a 'lhe slope-retainer `comprises preferablyI any desirednumber of the sections B each of which includes `a pair of anchor-blocks 3,4, iof, masonry,

concrete, vor other suitable construction, suitably.

spaced along and embeddedin thenaturalground 31, preferably at the. approximate `water-line` 35iA of `the beach Suit-ably` securedfas at i 36, to the respective L anchonb'rlocks 34, fare anchorage#` members or bars 37,` each ofjwhichfextendsfrom its anchor-block 34 approximately to and oppo-y limit of the beach E.

site the ehdlslope'aa and `each of which is am* bedded beneath and disposed approximately parallel with the top-surface 38, of the beach E. At their outer or free ends, the anchor-bars 37 terminate in respective pairs 'of diverging upcornerpost4l of a pair of spaced A frames or panel-supporting structures F, the posts 41 being of such height as tov extendsubstantially from the natural ground-line 31 to and a suitable distance above the level of the water 32 for serv lng as a marker, as at 42, for Aindicating the outer Each frame F` includes a slope-bar 43 disposed approximately parallel with the general slope 'of the embankment.33, and attached at its upper end to the post 4l for extending downwardly and forwardly therefrom Aa suitable distance approximately to. the Alevel of the ground 3l, that isto say, substantially to the toe of the slope 33, the Vbar `43 at its outer end being connected to the lower end of the post 41 by means of a suitable tie-bar 44, as best seen in Figure l2.

Supported by and between the pairof frames F; is a plurality of check-walls C, in the pres-` ent instance three in number, arranged approximately in parallel relation in a spaced row extending stepwise `transversely of the embankment-slope 33. The `check-walls C are .substantiallysimilar in structure to the earth-checks C and each includesa channel-shaped bodyportion l2 having upper and lower longitudinal flanges 13', 14', respectively, alongitudinal stiffening-rib l'lfand cross or vertical stiifeningposts 18', as best seen in Figure 12.

The opposite end portions, or if desired the entire length, of the lower flanges 14 is suitably `bent` angularly with respect to the body or web 12 for accurately andA firmly engaging the sloping upper face of the slope-bar 43, to which the walls C' are secured or 4fixed by suitable fas` teningelements or rivets 45. Y v Y At its respective opposite ends, the upper flange 13pof:each of thellower walls C of the series, is securedor'xed, preferably alsoby rivets or other suitable fastening elements, to a braces bar 46 extending rearwardlyto, and having a portion suitably; bent for residingfirmly also on,ythe upper Vface of the-bar 43, to which the bar 46 is xed by riyets'l'i?.A The upper flange 154 of `thetopmost wall C', however1 is suitably to the posts 4l, asbest Y fixed preferably,VV directly seen-in Figure 12.- y Y f Inuse, the foregoing modified form `of revet* ment-work orbeachfprotection structure of my invention is constructed of a suitable plurality vof thepanelsections B,. suitably arranged in contiguous relation according Vto the 'shape or river-wall to be protected, as 'will- `be understood, andl if desired, the slokpe-` plan of the beach -or bars143zmay be widened so as to support the adjacent ends ofi-abuttingwalls.C? of contiguous sections B" The several sectionsB being disposed on Vthe 'natural-groundl of thev river or lake, as the case may be, a suitable filling material, as, 49, is Adeposited behind the walls C', which lling extends as fartoward the shore-line as Ymay best serve thefpurpose;v the fillingffig for beach-construction :work being preferably covered with a sand vor earth topping 50, as best seenv in Figuren,

V""Thel filling 49 may: also, is desired, be extended `outwardly of and over the series .fofwcheck-walls C for substantially covering .the same, although for underwater or revetment work, such covering of the walls C is not deemed necessary, inasmuch as, in course of time, the beach debris or detritus will accumulate along and on the slope 33 for more or less covering the slope-retainer structure.

It will be understood that other changes and modiiications in the form, construction, arrangement and combination of the several parts of my erosion-check may be made and :substituted for those herein shown and described without departing from the nature and principle of my invention.

Having thus described my invention, what I .claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is,-

l. A slope-retainer comprising a wall for disposition longitudinally and downwardly from the shoulder of an .embankment-slope, a head disposed on the .embankment opposite the shoulder of the slope, and means including a bar `fixed at an end in the earthwork remote from the shoulder of the slope and extending transversely of the embankment approximately parallel with the slope-surface, the bar resting on the head intermediate its ends and having connection `at -its other end with the wall for anchoring the same against displacement.

2. A slope-retainer comprising a wall for disposition longitudinally and downwardly from the shoulder of an embankment-slope, a frustro-conical member embedded in the earthwork opposite the shoulder `of the slope and having va saddle at its upwardly presented apex, and means including a bar xed at an end in the earthwork remote from the shoulder of the slope and embedded in the embankment approximately parallel with the slope-surface', the bar resting intermediate its ends on said saddle and having connection at its other end with said wall for anchoring the same against displacement.

3. A slope-retainer comprising, in combination, a plurality of longitudinally spaced rows of transversely spaced check-walls for disposition in an embankment slope, anchor-rnembersembedded in and extending transversely of the slope intermediate respective pairs of rows of said walls, means for securing the anchor-members in the earthwork at points remote from the shoulder of the slope, and members connecting the respective anchor-members with adjacent check-walls for pre venting displacement thereof.

4. A slope-retainer comprising, in combination, a plurality of longitudinally spaced rows of transf versely spaced check-walls for disposition in an embankment slope, anchor-bars embedded transversely in the slope between and common to respective pairs of rows of said walls, meansfor securing the anchor-members in the earthwork at points remote from the shoulder of the slope, and means including respective pairs of upper and lower tie-members for connecting thel respective anchor-members with adjacent check-walls of thel respective rows for preventing displacement thereof, f

5. In a slope-retainer, a pair of spaced wallsections disposed longitudinally of the embankment-slope, and means for anchoring the sections in spaced relation transversely of the slope, said means including a slope-bar common to, and extending approximately parallel with the general slope of the embankmentintermediate the sections, and tie-bars connecting the bar to the respective sections.

`6. In a slope-retainer, a pair of spaced wall-sec- .eral `slope of the embankment intermediate the 'sect-ions, .and pairs of opposed tie-bars extend- ,ing nbliquely between, and fastened at their ends to, the slope-bar andthe respective sections.

:7, .In ,a slope-retainer, a pair of spaced wallsections disposed longitudinally of the embankment-slope., and means for .anchoring the sections in spaced relation transversely of the slope, said means including a block anchored in the embankment adjacent the head thereof, a slope-bar xed at an end to the block and extending approximately parallel with the 4general slope of the .embankment intermediate the sections, and pairs .of opposed tie-bars extending obliquely between, and .fastened at their ends to, the slope-bar and the `respective sections.

8. In'a slope-retainer, a wall for disposition longitudinally of the embankment-slope, said wall comprising a beam having upper and lower longitudinally extending lateral flanges, and means for anchoring the wall against displacement, said means including a slope-bar xed `upon and extending transversely of the embankment slope and tie-bars bolted at their ends to the flanges of the wall and to the slope-bar.

9. In a slope-retainer, a wall for disposition longitudinally of the embankment-slope, said wall comprising a beam having upper and lower longitudinally extending rearwardly presented lateral anges, and means for anchoring the wall against displacement, said means including a slope-bar xed upon and extending transversely of the embankment slope, and upper and lower tie-bars bolted to the ilanges of the wall and to the slope-bar, said tie-bars extending convergingly from the wall, and being bolted at a common point, to the slope-bar.

10. In a slope-retainer, a wall for disposition longitudinally of the embankment slope, said wall having, at its respective upper and lower margins, longitudinally extending obliquely rearwardly and upwardly presented lateral flanges, and means for anchoring the wall against displacement, said means including a slope-bar xed to and extending transversely of the embankment, and tie-bars having connection at their opposite ends with the slope-bar and with the respective flanges of the wall.

11. In a slope-retainer, a wall for disposition longitudinally of the embankment-slope, said wall comprising a beam having, at its respective upper and lower margins, longitudinally extending flanges, said flanges being presented obliquely laterally and upwardly from, and at different angles to, the beam, and means for anchoring l the wall against displacement, said means including a slope-bar fixed to and extending transversely of the embankment, and tie-bars having connection at their opposite ends with the slopebar and with the respective ilanges of the wall.

12. In a slope-retainer, a wall disposed longitudinally of the embankment-slope, a block embedded in the embankment remote from the shoulder thereof, a bar fixed at an end to the block and extending from the block transversely of the embankment approximately parallel with the slope surface, means connecting the bar with the wall for anchoring the wall against displacement, and a head disposed in operative relation its to the embankment for supporting the bar at its bend opposite the shoulder of the slope,

14. In a slope-retainer, a wall disposed longitudinally and downwardly from the shoulder of the embankment-slope, a knuckle-head comprising a frustro-conical body-member for embed- .fment in the embankment with its apex presented upwardly, and a wall-securing slope-bar xed at an end to the embankment and having connection at its other end with `the wall, the bar resting intermediate its ends on the apex of the bodymember.

WILLIAM L. COX.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2880588 *Apr 16, 1956Apr 7, 1959Moore George RRetaining walls
US3302407 *Apr 20, 1964Feb 7, 1967Continental Oil CoSubterranean storage facilities and method of constructing such facilities
US3421326 *Mar 26, 1964Jan 14, 1969Vidal Henri CConstructional works
US4451178 *Jul 21, 1981May 29, 1984The United States Of America As Represented By The Secretary Of The ArmyMethod for dispersing or arresting lava flow
Classifications
U.S. Classification405/302.6
International ClassificationE02D17/20
Cooperative ClassificationE02D17/20
European ClassificationE02D17/20