US 1973371 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept. 11, 1934. L. E. CHARLES Er A1.
BLAST TORCH Filed Dec. 8, 1931 Patented Sept. 1l, 1934 `UNITED STATES BLAST Tom Lonnie E. Charles andlamesylnuzakhnd,
Appucamm December s, '1931. serial No. stam s clam. (or 15a-zul The invention relates to a blast torch utilizing gaseous fuels, and particularly concerns the nozzle portion of such a torch.
An object of the invention is to provide a blast 5 torch which is particularly adapted for `burning various mixtures of manufactured or natural fuel gases with either oxygen or air.
Another object is to provide a torch structure wherein means are provided to variably adjust the flame ysize and/or character during the use of the torch.
A further object is to provide a pilot, or pre-rr heating, portion for the torch name whereby to insure the maintenance of combustion when a gaseous fuel of high ignition temperature is to be burned with air.
Yet another object is to provide for utilizing the same gaseous mixture at all parts of th torch flame.
The invention possesses other objects and features of advantage, some of which, with the foregoing, will be set forth or be apparent in the following description of typical embodiments of the invention which are illustrated in the accompanying drawing, in which,
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a blast torch embodying the present invention.
Figure 2 is an axial section through the nozzle portion of the torch, the nozzle parts being related as for burning a mixtureof natural gas and air.
Figure 3 is a longitudinal and partly sectional view of the nozzle portion of the torch,the nozzle parts being related as for burning a mixture of an inflammable gas and pure oxygen.
Figures 4' and 5 4are transverse sections at` 4 4 and 5-5 respectively*` in Figure 2.
Figure 6 is a transverse section on the broken line 6-6 in Figure 2.
. Figures 7 and 8 are enlarged fragmentary showings of portions of the structure of Figure 2.
Figure 9 is an elevation of a modification of. the torch arranged for manual'support during use thereof, the torch nozzle structure being broken` away,
In Figure 1, a gas torch 11 is shown, said torch comprising a body 12 and a discharge nozzle structure 13. The body 12 is 'provided with intake or supply connections 14, 15 and 16, and the passage of gas into the'various said connections to the body is arranged to be controlled by means of valves 17, 18 and 19 respectively.. By way of illustration, it will 'be assumed that the intakes 14, 15 and 16 respectively receive gas, air
,h5 and oxygen, all under suitable pressure. In the present instance, the body 12 is shown as supported on a stand 20 whereby it is particularly adapted for bench use.
A suitable mixing chamber is provided within the body 12 wherein the various gases admitted -the member 22 and at the juncture of the bore to the body are arranged to be mixed and from which the mixture is discharged through a tubular body extension 21. The exact structure and arrangement within the body 1 2 is immaterial to the present invention, and is thereforenot disclosed. For present purposes it is essential only that a combustible mixture of desired composition be delivered to the nozzle 13 from a suitable source, the body extension 2l comprising such a source in the present instance.
The nomic 13, it will now benoted, essentially comprises a central tubular member 22, a tubular member 23 slidably mounted on the central tube 22, and a tubular member 24 carried at the for. ward end of the member 23 and generally enclosing said end. The rearward end of the central nozzle tube 22 threadedly engages the body extension 21 whereby it is carried by the body. Exteriorly, the nozzle tube 22 is reduced inwardly at successive intermediate points thereof whereby it is smaller at its forward end. and cylindrical faces 25, 26 and 27 are dened along its length. At the forward end thereof, the tube 22 is provided with a tip 28; as particularly shown, the tip 28 is removably and replaceably mounted at the tube end, and provides a constricted discharge. passage 29 axially therethrough and communicating with the tube pas sage 31.
The nozzle tube memberA 23, it will now se 90 noted, is interiorly Vstepped in a generally complementary manner to the stepped exterior' structure of the tube 22 whereby bore portions 32 and 33 thereof may closely andl slidably engage the exterior faces 25 4and 26 of the tube 22 Vwhen the tubes are related as shown in Figures 3 and 8. Forwardly of the bore portion 33, the bore portion 34 of the -member 23 is larger than the opposed face 27 of the nozzle tube 22 except at its extreme forward end where the bore 34 is reduced to slidably receive the tip end portion of the nozzle tube 22. Preferably, the shoulders 35 and 36 provided respecf tively at the iuncture of the faces 25 and 26 of 10| portions 32 and 33 of the tube 23, are arranged for mutual .engagement to provide a positive seal thereat, this engagement of the said shoulders being shown in Figure 3. When the shoulders 35 and 36 are so engaged, the forward end of the tube 23 is arranged to engage the tip portion of the tube 22 whereby the chamber 37 deined within the bore portion 34 and about the face 27 is sealed at its forward end'.
Radial ports 38 extend through the tube 22 from the passage 31 thereof and discharge at the tube face 26. When' the tube 23 is moved forwardly on the tube 22 an annular chamber 39 (Figures 2 and 3) is vdonned about the tube 22 md. opposite the uncovered portion of its face 26, and as the ports 38 are uncovered said chamber is arranged to receive the gaseous mixture through said ports and from the passage 31. A further outward movement of the tube 23 is arranged to dispose the shoulder 36 thereof forwardly of the shoulder 42 defined at the juncture of the faces 26 and 27 of the tube 22 whereby yto effect a valved discharge of fluid from the chamber 39 and into the chamber 37.
Desirably, andfas shown, the nozzle tip 28 is conically tapered externally thereof, and the constricted bore portion at the forward extremity of the tube 23 is arranged for adjusted disposal opposite the tapered portion of the tip whereby an annular stream of fluid may be discharged from the chamber 37. The arrangement of ports is preferably such that discharge of uid from the chamber 39 into the chamber 37 is arranged to be effected only after a discharge opening is provided from the chamber 37 adjacent the tip 28; in this manner, an adjustably metered and annular stream of fuel may be discharged from the chamber 37 and about the cylindric stream which issues from the tip 28, said streams uniting tc provide the blast stream.
It will now be particularly noted that when the tube 23 is in its fully retracted position (Figure 3)' the blast stream comprises solely the gases emitted from the tip 28. This is the specific operating condition when the torch is to be used with a mixture of a fuel gas and pure oxygen, it being noted that in this case a minimum quantity of the combustion-supporting gas is needed. When a gas-oxygen mixture is to be used, the air intake valve 18 wouldbe closed and the gas and oxygen supply valves 19 and 17 would be opened for delivering the required mixture to the nozzle passage 31.
When a gas-air mixture is to be used in the torch the valve 19 would be closed and the valves 17 and 18 wouldbe openedA to supply a fuel mixture of desired composition and discharge pressure. Since the required fuel stream of the torch must be increased for a gas-air mixture the tube 23 would be moved forwardly on the tube 22 until the before-mentioned annular fuel stream is emitted around the nozzle tip 28; 'in thepresent instance, the size of the flame produced is arranged to be controlled entirely through shifting of the tube 23 for effecting a regulation of the described valve means jointly provided by and between the nozzle tubes 22 and 23.
In burning certain types of fuel gases, notably the natural hydrocarbon gases which flow from many wells in the extreme Awestern part of the United States, the fire of a stream containing such gases and air has a tendency to go out,
said tendency of such a stream being due to the.
high ignition temperature of the inflammable mixture. When such 'astream is burning, the fire m'ay go out at the base .of the emitted jet and the flame base then tends to travel toward the stream apex until the fire goes out corn-4 Apletely for lack of proper pre-heating of the gas.
' issuing from the passage 37, however, the aforesaid diiference in velocity is so reduced that the flre may go out, and means are accordingly provided for positively insuring the maintenance of combustionat the base of the flame and soA preventing the fire from going out, said means associated with the tubular member 24.
Radial ports 43 are provided through the tube 23 rearwardly of and adjacent the shoulder 41 of this tube, there being at least two axially' spaced sets of these ports. The tube 24, it is noted, extends from a point of the tube 23 rearwardly of the ports 43 and is fixed to the latter tube at said point and for movement therewith; as shown at 44, the tube 24 threadedly engages the tube 23 at its mounting point. Forwardly of the threads 44, the bore -of the tube 24 is spaced from the tube 23 for defining an annular space therearound, and the former tube extends just short of the forward extremity of the latter tube. An annulus 45 partitions the space defined between the tubes 23 and 24 whereby said space is divided to provide a hood space 46 forwardly thereof,and a chamber 47 rearwardly thereof; as shown, the annulus 45 is provided as an integral part of the tube 24 and its bore closely ts the tube 23. i
The partition 45 is provided with sets of openings extending axially therethrough, the jets discharged from said openings are arranged to be lit as pilot flames for the central fluid streams of the nozzle, the hood space 46`being relatively short whereby the flames of said jets may heat said streams and more or less unite with the fire thereof; in this manner, the major torch stream is kept lighted at its base and so may not go out.
A preferred arrangement of partition openings is particularly disclosed, wherein three concentric circles of said openings are provided. The openings 49 of the outer circle thereof are of uniform bore, while the openings 48 of the 120 two inner circles thereof have stepped bores, with larger portions at their outer ends and of substantially the same size as the openings 49. The openings 48, it is noted, receive less gas than the -openings 49 and provide a partial expanslon within their outer portions whereby the pressure at their jets is less than thatfor the jets of the openings 49. In thisV manner, the pilot flames of the outer circles are caused to be drawn generally inwardly toward the nozzle axis and are at the same time effective generally beyond the inner jets whereby a considerable length of the central torch stream may be directly affected by the pilot flames directed from the hood space 46. It will, of course, be understood that the chamber 47 comprises a supply manifold for the pilot fuel streams provided as described.
It will now be noted that the aforesaid pilot streams are arranged to be provided Whenever the fuel mixture is delivered through the chamber 27; accordingly, the forward ports 43 are arranged to be uncovered by their movement forwardly of the shoulder 35 of the tube 22, and preferably just before discharge begins from 14. said chamber. As the tube y23 is moved forwardly on the tube 22 to increase the fuel supply to and from the chamber 27, the discharge pressure'into the chamber 47 will decrease and correspondingly eifect the described pilot flames;
` tocounteract this effect, the opening of additional ports 43 is arranged to occur as the tube 23 is advanced. In the present instance, the rearward set of ports 43 is opened at the appro priate time, it being noted that additional sets of ports 43 might be provided if necessary, and
" of Figure 1, the tube 23 slidably -engages the tube 22, and that a pin 51 of the latter engaged in a generally diagonal slot 52 of the former provides for theadjustment between closed and open conditions of the ,ports 38. for varying the discharge relations of the nzzle.
of the tube 23, an operative condition providing a pilot name and a relatively small blast fiame j is arranged to obtain, this being the relation shown in Figures l and 2.
The embodiment of Figure 9 is operatively similar to that previously described, but is more specificallyadapted for use in an operators hand. In this embodiment, a body 61 is provided with air, gas and oxygen intake connections 62, 63 and 64 respectively, and the mixedA gas is delivered through a goose-neck 65 to a nozzle' 66 providing the previously described ame control features. In the present instance, however, a tube 23' of the nozzle threadedly engages an inner tube 22' for effecting the required adjustments, said tubes corresponding re. spectively to tubes 23 and 22 of the first described embodiment.
From the foregoing description taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, the advantages of the construction and method of operation will be readily understood byv those skilled in the art to which the invention appertains, and while we have described the principle of operation, together with the device which -we now consider to be the best embodiment thereof, We desire to have it understood that the device shown is merely' illustrative, and that such changes may be made, when desired,l as fall within the scope of the appended claims.
Having thusidescribed our invention, we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States the following:
1. In a torch of the class described, a central nozzle tube providing a passage for' a supply of combustible fuel mixture terminating in a restricted discharge orifice, means to by-pass some of the fuel mixture from said passage and means to discharge same in the form of an annular jet surrounding the tip of said nozzle, tube, means to by-pass some of the fuel mixture from said by-pass means and means to discharge same ,in the form of an annular series of jets. surrounding said annular jet, and valve means to adjustably vary the passage of the fuel mixture through eac'h of ,said by-pa'ss means.
2. In a torch of the class described, a central nozzle tube providing' a passage for a supply of combustible fuel mixture terminating in a restricted discharge opening to provide a central torch name, means to by-pass some of the fuel. mixture-from said tube and means to discharge When the' pin 51 engagesin a notch 53 at the rear end j.
same in .the form of an intermediate annular flame surroundingthe tip of said nozzle tube,
means to by-pass some of the fuel mixture from said by-pass means and means to discharge same in the'form of an outer annular-flame encircling the base of said intermediate flame, and valve means controlling each of said by-pass means to simultaneously and similarly.l vary the discharge of fuel mixture to said intermediate and outer fiames.
3. A structure in accordance with claim- 2 wherein the valve mea'ns is operative uponv a change in the setting thereof to change the' supply of fuel to the outer flame to a greater degree than to the intermediate flame.
4. In a blast ,torch nozzle, a central nozzle tubeproviding a, passage for a supplyh'of combustible fuel mixture terminating in al restricted discharge orifice, a tubular member enclosing the' p l forward portion of the rst tube to dene an annular and rearwardly closed manifold chamber ',thereat and thereabout, duct means connectingl the rearward end of said chamber with said supply passage whereby to supplyfuel thereto solely from said passage, and an annular partition defining the forward end of said chamber and axiallyperforated to provide concentric circular lines of jet. openings whereof the jetV openings of the outer circle thereof 'are of vuniform bore and the jet openings of the inner circle thereof have stepped bores with their outer bore portions .substantially the same lsize as the bores of 'the said outer circle and their inner bore portions appreciably smaller than said bores whereby the discharge pressure at the inner line of jet openings is arranged to be less than that at the outer said line of jet openings.
5. In a blast torch nozzle, means providing a 'passage terminating in a discharge orifice, means defining a manifold chamber about said passage and adjacent and rearwardly of said orifice, an annular partition -defming the forward end off said manifold chamber and axially per-4 forated to provide concentric circular lines of jet openings whereof the jet openings of the outer circle' thereof are of uniform bore and lthe jet openings of the inner circle thereof have stepped bores with their outer bore portions of l substantially the same size as the bores of the said outer circle and their inner bore portions appreciably smaller than said bores,- and fuel connections for said/passage and chamber.
6. In a blast'torch nozzle, means providinga passage for a supply of combustible fuel mixture and terminating in a restricted discharge orifice,
`means defining a manifold chamber about said passage and adjacent and rearwardly of said orifice, an annular partition defining the forward end of said manifold and axially perforated to provide concentric circular lines of jet openings whereof the jet openings of the outer circle thereof are of uniform bore and the' jet openings of the inner circle thereof have expanding bores with the outer bore-ends of substantially the same size as the bores of the said outer circle and the inner bore ends appreciably' .smaller than said bores, and fuel connections between said passage and chamber whereby to supply the fuel mixture from the passage to the jet openings. .4 LONNJE'E. CHARLES.v
JAMES E. AYMAR.