US 1975253 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' Oct. 2, 1934. M. J'. CONNOLLY PACKAGE Filed May 7, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet lNllz'NY'U/Q. M. J. CONNOLLY.
A TTORN/z' Y I Patented Oct. 2, 1934 I PATENT OFFICE PACKAGE Martin J. Connolly, Washington, D. 0., assignor, by mesne assignments, to American Cyanamid & Chemical Corporation, a corporation of Delaware Application May 7, 1932, Serial No. 609,780
16 Claims. (Cl. 23-240) The present invention relates to thescombination of a shipping or storage container for nitrocellulose or the like, and to such a container per se.
Nitrocellulose asa commercial commodity usually takes the form of a flufiy fibrous material commonly referred to in the trade as cotton. In order to reduce its explosive or combustible tendency in storage and shipment, the material is usually wetted with either alcohol or water, dependent upon the ultimate use to which the cotton is to be put.
This wet cotton has heretofore been stored and shipped in metal drums or barrels. There are many objections to this combination but at the present time there has been no practical solution of this problem. I
The principal object of the invention, therefore, is the designing of a container particularly adapted for the shipment of nitrocellulose or the like either in dry form or wet with such materials as alcohol or water, which will overcome all of the present objections to the heretofore ,commonly used metal drum.
Metal drums as above used are objectionable from the standpoint of cost as these articles are fairly expensive, particularly as they must be made absolutely liquid and vapor-tight. Inasmuch as these drums are frequently stored for long periods of time in the sunshine, pressures develop therein and hence the seams thereof must be specially designed to prevent the leakage of any vapors from within the druin Such containers as heretofore used for shipment of nitrocellulose have a comparatively short life, that is, the average container can only make comparatively few round trips and at the end of this time is in such a worn condition that it is not fit for further use.
Shipping drums for nitrocellulose as heretofore used are extremely heavy, the weight thereof being many times the weight of the nitrocellulose itself. Inasmuch as, as has been above set forth, these drums are comparatively expensive, a nitrocellulose manufacturer cannot afford to use such drums on single shipments but must use them over and over again. This means that during the life of a container, the shipper has paid the freight on this dead weight to an extent which is many times the expense involved in the shipment of the nitrocellulose, the pay load. It will be apparent, therefore, that theshipper pays the high nitrocellulose freight rate on the weight of the steel container. In other words, the amount of money which the shipper pays for freight on the container itself is many times that which he pays on nitrocellulose shipped.
Steel drums for the above use are objectionable from the standpoint of danger from fire in opening and closing. These drums usually have a friction top, which means that there is a metal to metal movement in both opening and closing the drums and unless particular care is used in this operation there is a potential danger of striking a spark, with consequent explosion of the contents. 6
In explosions of steel containers from any cause, splinters or fragments are often expelled with tremendous force, with subsequent danger to life and limb. On the other hand, with the use of a container as hereinafter set forth, if the package is disrupted by internal force, the fabric will simply rip or tear, without splitting on these dangerous splinters and hence the use of such a container is highly desirable.
It is common knowledge that when nitrocellulose stands for a considerable length of time in the shipping or storage drums heretofore used, there is a tendency for the cotton to adhere or stick to the sides of the drum. This is not only objectionable from the standpoint of inability to so quickly empty a drum of its 'contents, but the empty drum in its return trip to the factory presents a hazard by reason of this small amount of nitrocellulose remaining therein.
These objections above noted are the particular ones which the nitrocellulose manufacturer and shipper has to face, and all of these objections are overcome by the use of the container of the present application.
The invention broadly consists in a container, the body of which may either be flexible as a cloth or fabric, or comparatively stiff, as fiber or the like, treated or coated with rubber to make the same impervious to liquids or vapors, and of such a design that the container may be quickly and effectively sealed to form a liquid and vaportight joint. Such a container is admirably adapted for the storage or shipment of nitrocellulose.
It is light, so cheap that it may be used for single. shipments and discarded at the end of the trip, the danger or hazard of explosion has been materially minimized, and there is no tendency for the cotton to stick to the walls of the container even after long periods of storage.
A specific embodiment of the invention consists in a rubber coated fabric, preferably on both sides, and of a weight or thickness or character which will prevent the penetration of alcohol or water. This fabric may be formed into a bag and the ends sealed by any convenient method. Perno haps the most efficient method is to coat the extreme ends with a rubber cement, folding these ends over upon the body of the bag and then pressing the cemented parts together until the cement has set. As an alternative construction a rubber cemented strip may be applied over the open ends of the bag and sealed in the same way.
An advantageous combination may be made between the rubber coated fabric bag and an interiorly rubber coated fiber container by placing the cotton within the rubber bag and after sealing the same placing the package within a fiber container treated as above. Such a combination would effectively prevent the leakage of liquid or vapors from the innermost package and the fiber would to a great extent obviate the possibility of tearing the fabric as by reason of nails or splinters in the car in which the material is shipped.
The invention further consists in the novel con struction, combination and arrangement of parts more fully hereinafter described and shown in the accompanying drawings.
In the drawings Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the top of a fabric container, showing the method of folding of the ends prior to scaling.
Fig. 2 is a top plan view of the container of Fig. 1 sealed.
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of one step in a modified method of sealing a bag of this invention.'
Fig. 4 illustrates a step subsequent to that shown in Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 illustrates a step subsequent to the steps of Figs. 3 and 4.
Fig. 6 is a perspective view of a container, sealed according to Figs. 3, 4 and 5.
Fig. 7 is a perspective view showing another method of sealing.
Fig. 8 is a sectional view along the line 88 of Fig. '7.
Fig. 9 is a view of the bag completed as by the method of Figs. 7 and 8.
Fig. 10 is a sectional view of a fiber container particularly adapted for the storage of nitrocellulose.
Referring now with particularity to the device of Fig. 1, the body of the bag 1 is made of a material such as rubberized fabric preferably rubberiz ed on both sides so as to be entirely impervious to liquids or vapors with which the material to be shipped may be saturated or contain. The main body of fabric may be sealed as by a. lap joint 2 and cemented with the usual type of rubber cement. Each end of the bag of Fig. 1 may contain flaps such as shown at 3 and 4, flap 3 being first folded down, and then flap 4 on top thereof, and cemented by any desirable type of rubber cement.
Two additional flaps are provided, one of which is shown at 5, which may be conveniently cut at each edge in a direction parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bag itself to form a loose strip 8. This strip 6 may then have cement applied thereto and be folded down into the position shown at '7 and against the main body of the fiap 5, for reinforcing purposes. The other side of flap 5 is similarly treated to form the reinforcing strip 8. The entire fiap 5 is then folded down upon flaps 3 and 4, cemented in place, and flap 9 similarly treated to form completely a cemented end as shown in Fig. 2. This completed end then may form the bottom of the bag and upon filling the same with the nitrocellulose or other material,
' the open top of the bag is similarly treated to close the same. Such a method insures against the escape of liquid or vapors from within the bag and forms an effective package.
A modified form of sealing is shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6 to consist of a body 1 of rubberized fabric closed by a lap seam 2, all as above described. A strip of rubber cement or adhesive may then be applied to the bottom of the bag as at 10 and this cemented edge folded over against the main body of the bag to form the double bag thickness as shown at 11. An additional amount of cement is then applied to the surface 12 and this cemented edge then turned again upon the body 1 to form the three bag thicknesses as at 13. Such a seam is entirely satisfactory and effectively prevents leakage of materials from within the bag. Obviously upon filling of the bag with the desired contents, such as nitrocellulose, the top may be similarly doubled or folded to form a seal at that point and the completed bag will take the form shown in Fig. 6. The type of seal shown in Fig. 6 is more desirable than that in Figs. 1 and 2 in that the fold itself at the top and bottom of the bag being substantially fiat without any of the bags contents being underneath the same, this fold may be placed between clamps or upon a fiat surface and pressed Another practical form of device is shown in .Fig. 7. There the body of the bag is shown at 1 with the same type of seam 2. The bottom of the bag may be conveniently closed as by a strip of rubberized fabric 14 to which rubber cement has been applied, and this cemented strip slipped over the end of the bag andsecured in place. It is desirable that the longitudinal extent of the strip 14 shall be greater than the width of the bag body 1 so as to form extensions 15 beyond the side edges thereof. This extension when cemented together effectively prevents accidental breaking or loosening of the strip at this point.
At the top of the bag an additional strip 16 is preferably cemented to one side only of the bag body 1, the remainder of the strip itself and a corresponding section of the bag top having applied thereto a rubber cement which upon moistening with gasoline, naphtha or the like will become tacky so that the strip may be folded down over the bag top and upon itself in much the same manner as for the bottom of the bag above referred to. It is proposed that the bags sealed at the bottom and open at the top, but with the closing strip already partially secured thereto, should go to the shipper in that condition. It only remains for him to fill in the desired weight or quantity of material to be shipped, moisten the strip and the bag top with the desired solvents and fold the former onto the latter for sealing.
Where desirable a thin strip of fabric may be cemented to the top of the bag as shown in' Figs. '7 and 8, this fabric being indicated at 17- and having applied to the outside thereof the same type of cement as applied to one face of the strip 16. This'will be found to be advantageous where the outer surface of the bag 1 is of such a nature that the quick sealing cement preparation cannot advantageously be applied thereto. The completed package of Figs. '7 and 8 is shown in Fig. 9.
As a modified form of container Fig. 10 is referred to. There the body of the container is shown to consist of two layers of fiber or the like 18 and 19, with a closely fitting cover or cap 20 sealing one end. In this form the entire inside area of the container is Washed or coated with a rubber composition 21- which effectively produces an integral sheath. This sheath is impervious to such liquids or vapors as may be contained within the material to be shipped. A duplicate cap is indicated at 21 similarly treated so that its inner surface contains a sheath of rubber 22. Upon filling the loose material to be shipped within this container, the cap 21 is replaced and a sealing strip 23 preferably of the same type as shown at 16 in Fig. '7 is applied. Such strip will be provided on one face with rubber cement which can be made tacky or softened by the use of gasoline or naphtha. Obviously where desirable the material such as nitrocellulose or the like may be filled into the container of Figs. 1 to 9 and this container in turn placed within the fiber or the like container of Fig. 10 and it in turn sealed. This provides a double security against the escape of liquid or vapors from within and the relatively impenetrable fiber material prevents accidental tearing or puncturing of the rubber fabric.
Nitrocellulose or the like shipped within rubber treated fabric containers is particularly advantageous in that the carloading thereof may be materially increased over that where metal containers are used. The latter are usually cylindrical in form and hence there is a considerable amount of waste space in a car. On the other hand, particularly such a package as that shown in Figs. 1, 6 and 9 may be more solidly packed without the loss of space. Where these bags are stood upon end, that is, upon either the folded end of Figs. 6 or 9, or the end of Fig. 1, the package rests upon that portion containing the greatest thickness of rubber and hence offers the greatest resistance to penetration of nails or the like which may be on the carfloor.
Such fabric containers as above referred to are particularly advantageous from the standpoint of opening for they may be readily slitted with a knife and the contents removed either by dumping or by turning the package inside-out. In the case of nitrocellulose a bronze or glass knife may be used which will further completely minimize the fire or explosion hazard.
In some instances, particularly where the filling of a bag includes alcohol, as for instance nitrocellulose wet with ethyl alcohol, it has been found that this solvent extracts certain dark-colored deleterious material from the rubber, which in turn objectionably discolors the nitrocellulose. In order to avoid this effect, it is proposed either to utilize a rubberor alcohol-proof composition in or on the bag itself, which does not contain any substance extractable by alcohol. Asa modification it may be found desirable to first extract the ordinary rubber with alcohol in order to eliminate .therefrom any material which is soluble in alcohol. The subsequent use of such a package will I avoid any discoloration of the material shipped in the bag due to extraction by its contain d alcohol. There may be used low temperature vulcanized rubber, rubber having a high percentage of latex therein or a rubber coated with a flexible, adhering, alcohol-insoluble lacquer or coating such as as used in the claims shall include such related compounds; I
I claim: I 1 1. In combination, a sealed flexible container having an inner coating of rubber of suflicient thickness to render the same liquid and vapor tight, and a filling of nitrocellulose therein.
2. In combination, a sealed flexible container having an inner coating of rubber of sufiicient thickness to render the same liquid and vapor tight, and a filling of nitrocellulose and alcohol therein, said container being sealed against the escape of alcohol.
3. In combination, a sealed flexible container comprising a fabric having an inner coating of rubber of sufiicient thickness to render the same liquid and vapor tight, and a filling of nitrocellulose therein.
4. In combination, a sealed flexible container having an inner coating of rubber of suflicient thickness to render the same liquid and vapor tight, a filling of nitrocellulose therein, and a protecting second container surrounding the first container.
5. In combination, asealed flexible container having an inner coating of rubber of sufiicient thickness to render the same liquid and vapor tight, at filling of nitrocellulose therein, and a protecting second container surrounding the first container, the second container being liquid and vapor tight.
6. In combination, a sealed" flexible container having an inner coating of rubber of sufficient thickness to render the same liquid and vapor tight, a filling of nitrocellulose therein, and a protecting second container surrounding the first container, the second container being rubber lined and rubber sealed.
7. A container for the storage and shipment of uid and vapor tight, the open end of the body being rubber gummed to a second strip, a portion of the second strip having applied thereto a rubber cement, said portion extending beyond the open end of the body, and adapted to have this cement softened as by naphtha or the like and folded over and submitted to pressure at the open end.
8. A container for the storage and shipment of nitrocellulose or the like comprising a rubberized fabric tubular body and having at one end a strip of rubberized fabric folded on itself and holding therebetween the end of the body, said strip being rubber gummed to the body end so as to be liquid and vapor tight, the open end of the bodybeing rubber gummed toasecond strip,a portion of the second strip having applied thereto a rubber cement, said portion extending beyond the open end of the body, and adapted to have this cement softened as by naphtha or the like and folded over and submitted to pressure at the open end, the longitudinal extent of each strip being substantially greater than the width of the tubular body.
9. In combination, a container having a body of fiber or the like and'a closure at one end thereof, the body and closure being covered with an integral layer of rubber, a filling of nitrocellulose therein, and a second cap or ,closure overlying the opposite end of the body, said second .closure being lined with rubber, and a rubber cemented sealing strip secured over the joint between the second closure and the container body.
10. In combination, a sealed rubberized fabric container containing a quantity of nitrocellulose, said container being impervious to liquid and vapors, a second container of a rigid nature surrounding the first container, the inside of the body and one end of the rigid container having applied thereto an integral rubber coating, a second closure on said rigid container, the interior of which contains a rubber coating, and a rubberized fabric sealing strip rubber cemented over the joint between the second closure and the body.
11. In combination, a flexible container sealed against the escape of alcohol, the inner surface of which includes rubber but which contains no material extractable by alcohol, and a filling of nitrocellulose wet with alcohol within the container.
12. In combination, a sealed flexible container having an inner adherent flexible coating of nitrocellulose lacquer or the like, and a filling of nitrocellulose wet with alcohol therein. Y
13. A storage and shipment container comprising a rubberized fabric tubular body, having at one end a strip of rubberized fabric folded upon itself and holding therebetween the end of the body, said strip being adhered to the body end so as to be liquid and vapor tight, the open end of the body being adhered to a second strip, a portion of the second strip having applied thereto a cement, said portion extending beyond the open end of the body and adapted to have its cemented portion folded over and submitted to pressure to close the open end.
14. A storage and shipment container comprising a tubular body essentially of rubber, and having at one end a strip also essentially of rubber folded on itself and holding therebetween the end of the body, said strip being adhered to the body end so as to be liquid and vapor tight, the open end of the body being adhered to a second strip, a portion of the second strip having applied thereto a cement, said portion extending beyond the open end of the body and adapted to have its cemented portion folded over and submitted to pressure to close the open end.
15. In combination, a container having a body of fiber or the like and a closure at one end thereof, the body and closure being covered with an integral layer of rubber, a second cap or closure overlying the opposite end of the body, said second closure being lined with rubber, and a sealing strip cemented over the joint between the second closure and the container body.
16. A flexible container having an inner coating of rubber of suificient thickness to. render the same liquid and vapor tight, said container having its bottom portion sealed, the top thereof comprising two pairs of substantially diametrically opposed main flaps, each flap of one pair having additional flaps cuttherefro-m at each edge thereof, so that upon filling the container, a pair ofmain flaps may be folded downwardly in overlapping relation, the edge flaps from the other pair of main flaps folded in against the main flap which carries them, and then the thus reinforced fiaps folded in upon the already folded main flaps.
MARTIN J. CONNOLLY.