US 1976628 A
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CURVED TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION AND METHOD OF PRODUCING SAME Filed Oct. 24. 1929 4 Sheets-Sheet l (I A? g 33 INVENTOR 9 fir??? F. O'Rouncf.
ATTORNEY Oct. 9, 1934. l J. QROU-RKE 1,976,628
CURVED TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION AND METHOD OF PRODUCING SAME Filed Oct. 24. 1929 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 4 45 7 INYENTOR Jo/ 7 73 F. OFFour/fe i a c r ATTORNEY Oct. 9, 1934. J F. OROURKE 1,976,628
CURVED TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION AND METHOD OF PRODUCING SAME File d Oct. 24. 1929 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 k\\\\lllllllllllHHlHlil l l l I I INVENTOR Jo fi n F 0 Pour/Fe.
' M P Q? ATTORNEY NG SAME Oct. 9, 1934. .1. F. OROURKE CURVED TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION AND METHOD OF PRODUCI Filed Oct. 24, 1929 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 INVENTOR John F O'Rourke.
ATTORNEY Patented Oct. 9, 1934 UNrrEo STATEg A.
FFiCE oURvEn TUNNEL CONSTRUCTION AND METHOD OF PRODUCING SAME John F. ORourke, New York, N. Y. Application October 24, 1929, Serial No. 402,127
' 6 Claims. (01. 25-121) This invention relates to building construction and more particularly refers to improvements in methods of building sections of a tunnel or' conduit lining, comprising blocks of concrete or like materials, when said sections advance along a curve.
In a patent, entitled Tunnel or conduit lining, t l-1,043,348, issued to me November .5, 1912, I have described and claimeda type of segmental block adapted for the construction of rings forming a tunnel or conduit liningof a predetermined diameter when placed one against another in continuous succession.
One of the surfaces of the blocks going to form one of the'sides of the corresponding ring, is provided with flat bottomed recesses, and the opposite surface is provided with projections having a flat top surface, said projections being adapted to interlock with the recesses of the blocks composing an adjoining ring;
The projections are higher than the depth of the recesses so as to leave grouting interstices between the main surfaces of adjoining blocks, so that the top surfaces of the projections abut against the bottom surfaces of the recesses when placed in position.
The blocks described in said patent were of uniform width, known as standard blocks, which form rings having parallel side surfaces;' with the result that a plurality of rings placed side by side would form a straight tunnel or conduit lining. v
In constructions of this character, it is frequently necessary to alter the direction of a tunnel or conduit so that the section connecting two adjoining straight tracts thereof directed at an angle to each other, has'to be built around a curve, the radius of which-is determined jby conditions affecting each case.
A curved section of this type calls for the employment of rings having tapering surfaces; the inclination of the surfaces of a ring with respect to each other being, of course, a function of the angular width of the ring and-of the radius of the tunnel curve. The building of each taper ring entails'in its turn the necessity of producing the blocks composing thesame, each with the bottom surfaces of its-recesses inclined at an angle to the top surfaces of its projections; the direction of the inclination however, and the distance between said surfaces varying from block to block, according to their position in the ring.
The primary object of the invention is to provide novel and improved means for moulding the blocks going to form a taper ring, said means being used inconnection with moulds such as are ordinarily employed for the production of blocks having parallel surfaces of abutment.
Other objects and advantages of thepresent invention will more fully appear as the description proceeds and will be set forth and claimed in the appended claims.
My invention is illustrated in ing drawings, in which: 1
, Fig. 1 is a front elevation of a tunnel lining comprising moulded blocks embodying my--invention, having spaced complemental projections and recesses'on opposite faces;
Fig.v 2 is a fragmentary longitudinal section thereof through line 22 of Fig. 1; i
Fig. .3 is a view in perspective of a block such as ordinarily used in building tunnel .rings of uniform-width, said block having parallel sides;
Fig. 4 is a view in perspective of a block adapted. for the construction of taper tunnel rings, said block having tapering side surfaces;
Fig. 5 is a'front view in elevation thereof;
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary plan view of a four tube tunnel section going around a curve;
Fig. '7 is a fragmentary cross section of a mould equipped with packing bars for the production of blocks for the taper rings required in the curved sections of a tunnel;
Fig. 8 is a longitudinal section of a similar mould;
Fig. 9. is a view in perspective of the various parts employed in placing a' recess core in a predetermined position with respect to the top of the mould; I
Fig. 10 is a fragmentary cross sectional view of a taper tunnel ring illustrating the relation existing between the packing bars and. the recess cores used to produce the recessed side of the blocks and the opposite side thereof;
Fig. 11 is a cross sectional view of a jig which can'be used on a boring mill to produce the packing bars required for the blocks forming a ring having its sides tapering at a predetermined angle;
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary plan view thereof;
Fig. 13 is a'view in perspective in an enlarged scale of one of the packing bars produced in a boring mill by means of said jig showing ends by which it is attached to jig; and
Fig. 14 is a view in perspective of the same packing bar after its ends have been cut off, ready to connect it as a-packing bar between a recess core and the support which carries it on top of standard block mould.
The blocks may be of concrete, terra cotta, or.
other materials for moulded building blocks which may be made in any well known manner,
for instance, by charging the material for the blocks into suitable moulds. The blocks are segmental in shape, and if their sides 21, 22 are parallel to each other, as shown in Fig. 3, they will form rings of uniform width throughout adapted for building straight sections of tunnel.
However, when a tunnel goes around a curve in any desired plane, as clearly shown in Fig. 2, its curved section is composed of taper rings 23, 24, which in their turn call for the employment of suitable tapering blocks. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section through an axis of tunnel andtherefore the outer surfaces 26, 2'? of the inner blocks 28, 29 have a width substantially equivalent to the width of each ring at its narrowest point, while the outer surface 30, 31 of the outer blocks 32,
33 have a width substantially equivalent to the width of each ring at its widest point.
The inclination of one side of said inner and outer blocks with respect to the other practically occurs therefore in a transversal sense; while the inclination of the upper blocks 34 and lower blocks 35 must be produced in a substantially longitudinal sense, and the inclination of the surfaces of intermediate blocks such as 36, 37 will follow an approximately diagonal direction. 1
In Figs. 4 and 5 I illustrate a block 35 having its surfaces 38, 39 tapering with respect to each other in a substantially longitudinal direction.
The maximum width of each ring may be easily determined by fixing the height at which the concrete or other material will be poured in the mould when moulding the outer block. at its highest point. The difference between the maximum and the minimum width of each ring, called the taper, is a function of said maximum width and of the distance thereof from the center of the curve, as well as of the diameter of the ring. In moulding said blocks in moulds for standard blocks, it becomes necessary to provide limiting surfaces at the top, determining the proper inclination of the top surfaces with respect to the bottom surfaces as Well as the required distances therebetween. The blocks used-are of the type having -pro-' jections 44 on one face and recesses 45 on 'another face, the recessesof one block receiving the projections of an adjacent block. Said projections extend from the surface of the block a distance greater than the depth of the recesses, so that when the rings are placed in position one against the other, the top of the projections of the blocks composing one, ring abut against the bottom surfaces of the recesses of the blocks composing an adjoining ring, leaving interstices between the surfaces of said rings, for a mortar filling.
Said blocks are preferably moulded in 'demountable. moulds of the type illustrated and described in another patent application entitled, Mould for the manufacture of concrete blocks, Serial No. 400,107. In order to form the projections :on the moulded blocks, corresponding recesses 46 are provided in the bottom of the moulds asshown in Fig. 8. Such recesses are shown in the form' of openings through the bottom 47, plates '48 being secured by screws or otherwise to the outside of the bottom, so that the concrete poured into the mould will enter the re-.
cesses 46 and stop against. the plates 48, thereby forming the desired projections on the blocks.
To provide the recesses 45 in the blocks, I provide cores 46, seeFigs. 7, 8, 9, which are nordirection.
' inclinations. 1
shown in Fig. 3, result.
Each core is suspended from'two spaced bars 4'? ,a'ndjs attached to each bar by means of two screws 51, 51' 'set at a predetermined distance from the-center of the core. Each supporting bar is in its turn secured onto the top of the mould at two fixed points 52, 52', also set a predetermined distance from the center of the core and of the mould.
In my other patentfapplication above referred to, having in mind. the conditions arising in building curved sections of tunnel linings, I have explained that at times it becomes necessary in moulding taper ringsto arrangethe cores 46 so as to depress them in the moulds and give them predetermined angle and direction. I have also explained that in order to accomplish said Variations in position of recess cores that spacing bars 53 having suitably inclined .or taperingsurfaces may be inserted between the cores 46. I
As an example, in Fig. '7, I show aspacingbar 53 tapering.v from end to end, transversely, of
the cross bars .47 and the mould,.the result being a tapering block suitable for one of the outside positions in the taperring. Similarly, in Fig. 8, I show a set ofv four spacing bars 54, 55, 56, 57 attached in succession under the four cross bars 47, said spacing bars having their lower surfaces on a 1 common plane inclined withv respect to the bottom of the mould in a substantially longitudinal Such an arrangement produces an equivalent inclination in the bottom surfaces of the, recesses so that the block thus obtained may 1 be suitable for the upper or lower portion of the ring as indicated at 34, 35 in Fig. 1. The spacing bars that would be used in moulds for block 9, as indicated at 20 in Fig. 1 would have diagonal The principal object'of this invention is to produce a complete set of spacing bars for use between recess cores and cross bars suitable for the moulding of the blocks, going to form a ring tapering to a predetermined extent in standard 1 blockmoulds.
The improved methodfland apparatus that I use to thisend are illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12. In the same 58 designates a ring preferably made of cast iron, machined with parallel lower and upper surfaces 59,60, the intermediate diameterD of said ring may approximate the intermediate diameter also designated by D in Fig. 1 of the tunnel casing-tube produced.
The width w of said ring is greater than the length of the spacing bars to be produced, so
that two circumferential series of openings b .bevenly spaced from the-circumference of diam-. eter D at a distance from each other" greater than the distance between screws 51, 51' in supportcumference of the ring 5&atangularpositions 15a corresponding to those occupied byathecross' bars 47 is eplaced in their relative positionszover the blocks composing a casingiringn' i Assumingfor instance; that the blocks composing, :the; ring shown in Fig. 1 be serially identifiedbyicharac ters a, b, c; d, e, f, g, 71.,52', j',; the correspondingzp'oa sitionsoccupied by theircro'ss bars with 'respect to ring 58 appear marked'atai, a2, a3 a4,"b1,b2,- bi, b4, etc., there being :fourcross barpositions for each block, having two recesses.'
Onto each set of radially aligned openings b 1) is'secured a flat bar having two end "openings 6l, 62 spaced a distance corresponding to that separating openings b ffro'm' "openings 11 'said bars have also openings5 'l'i'g'5l'r, spaced from each other and from openings" 61, 62' to correspond to the positions occupied by screws 51,51".- Openings 511; 51"1, are of' thesame" diameter as the stem portion of screws '51, 51 and therefore when the packing bars are finally obtained therefrom, the recess cores remain exactly positione'd'with respect to the center of the moulds.
The blanksfor the spacing bars which are designated by 66 in Fig. 12 are secured onto ring 58 by means of screws or bolts passing through openings b 61, b -6Z. The bars are marked in serial arrangement for purposes of identification; any suitable system or marking may be adopted for instance, the one shown whereby the bars are identified by characters a1, a3, cu. b1, b3, 124, etc. Ring 58 with the entire set of bars 66 secured upon it in their proper positions, is then placed on a boring mill and tilted at an angle corresponding to the inclination of one face of the casing ring to be produced with respect to the other. The highest and lowest points of the surface of ring 58 when tilted will lie along a diametral line 25, the highest point 64 being the one adjacent the set of spacing bars 031 to 14 corresponding to block a in Fig. 1. The lowest point 65 will be placed at the diametrally opposite end close to the set of spacing bars e1, ez, 83, e4, corresponding to block 6 in Fig. 1.
The upper surface of the spacing bars is then machined between their two ends a distance d corresponding to the length of packing bars 53 (see Fig. 7), the machined portion of said bars being also correctly positioned with respect to openings 511, 51'1.
As a result, all the bars 66 will be machined with an intermediate surface portion lying on a common horizontal plane with respect to the rotating bed of the boring mill. Said plane however, will be inclined to the lower surface of the bars which is supported by upper surface 60 of ring, said ring having previously been placed in an inclined position as explained.
As a result the bars at the higher end of the ring will be thinner than the bars at the other end and when placed in position between the cross bars 4''! and the cores 46 will produce the blocks having the greater width. Once the machining has been completed, the ends of bars 66 are cut oil" and the entire set of packing bars such as shown at 53' in Fig. 14 is made available. Said packing bars are then used in groups of four and in their proper relative position on each mould with the result that the moulded blocks will have surfaces tapering exactly as required to produce the desired taper ring. Said blocks will be marked in accordance with the markings of the packing bars used in connection with the same, and their position in building a ring will thus be exactly 1 determined.
It willbe? seen by. referring-to Figs; 11- and 12 thatthepositions of thesets of spacing bars upon ring 58 are reversed with respect to the positions of the blocks, to correspond to;the positions'iof said blocks'if the ring shown in Fig. 12 is revolved 180 degrees about'its diameter 25". at right Jan gle-to diameter 25'. This point-is diagrammatie cally illustrated in Fig. 10 where itis seen that one 'of the thickest packing bars elcorresponds to one of the narrower blocks e while'on'e of the thinnest packingbars a corresponds to one of the widest'blocksci." 1 I In the foregoing description it has been as-' surned that the curved sectionsof tunnel orconduit'lining consist of a continuous succession-oi taper rings." If this method of construction were always followed however, it wouldbe' necessary to produce special taper rings for every curve; In order to obviate this necessity; it is common practice to intermingle-rings with parallel sides Witht'aperr ings in order to produce curves or greaterradii than those for which the taper rings are actually designed. I v
9 The flat 'ring' are used in such proportionsas may be necessary 3 te -obtain various curves'i-"said. curves having a more or less polygonal outlinethe' straight sides of which are form-ed by the rings with parallel sides lying along cords of the curve desired. In this manner, it becomes possible to standardize the production of taper rings and to limit them to a certain number for the production of a wide range of different curves.
The blocks illustrated in the drawings may be used for constructing a circular tunnel, subway, conduit or analogous underground structures, where such blocks are set in ring like form. Where a twin tube underground structure is to be installed having a common wall between the two tubes, the aforesaid blocks may be used for the circular portions of each ring, but'at the common or party wall, blocks of different form are used, in which case the packing bars would be machined on a jig shaped in plan like the cross section of one tube and the party Wall which is so apparent that no drawing of same is needed. The term ring used in the claims therefore will be understood as applying both to circular rings and to rings which have only a partially circular outline.
The inventive idea may also be applied in connection with blocks having side surfaces devoid of recesses or projections, by providing tapering surfaces delimiting the entire upper surface of a block cast in a suitable mould.
Other constructional details of an apparatus embodying my invention may vary from those shown without departing from the inventive idea; the drawings will therefore be understood as being intended for illustrative purposes only and not in a limiting sense. Accordingly, I reserve the right to carry my invention into practice in all those ways and manners which may enter, fairly, into the scope of the appended claims.
I claim: 1. The method of moulding interlocking ring blocks consisting in applying supporting members to standard moulds and supporting the members on the upper edges of the moulds, positioning spacing bars of required shape and thickness against the under side of said supporting members, the under faces of said spacing bars being said spacing bars and securing said recessed cores and spacing bars to said supporting members,
filling the mould with'concrete to a planeiapproximately flush with the top of said recessed cores; and permitting the concrete to set.
2. A mould for concrete blocks including a base, side and end walls extending upwardly from said base, said base having recesses therein to form mould spaces for interlocking projections on a block when cast, said side walls being of,
uniform height, supporting members carried by the side walls and extending across the said mould, spacing bars of different shapes and thicknesses applied to the under surfaces of the supporting members, and recessed cores having parallel upper and lower faces and uniform thickness engaging the under surfaces of the spacing bars whereby the lower faces of the cores are on a common plane and at an acute angle to said base, andmeans for securing the cores, spacing bars and supports assembled.
3. The method of modifying positions of recess cores in standard block moulds to fit them for moulding blocks for tapered concrete block tun;- nel rings consisting in providing supports for said coresandinterposing spacing bars of graduated thickness between successive cores and their supports.
4. The method of moulding the concrete blocks comprising a taper tunnel ring in standard block moulds as set forth in claim 3 whereby when the blocks are erected in a tunnel a ring will be formed in which the bottom of the recesses will lie in a plane making .an angle with another plane in which lie the ends of the projections, equal to the desired taper of the ring. c
5. A-mould for concrete blocks as set forth in claim 2 in which the spacing bars between recess cores and their supporting members are machinedto their different shapes and thicknesses.
6. In combination, a standard concrete block mould, top cores and supporting cross members therefor, the said supporting cross members being supported upon the mould sides, spacing bars of required shape and thickness interposed between successive supporting cross members and their cores, said spacing bars having surfaces tapered 'to produce a predetermined variation in the inclination of said cores with respect to the top of said mould. V
a, JOHN F. OROURKE.