|Publication number||US1978145 A|
|Publication date||Oct 23, 1934|
|Filing date||Jan 25, 1924|
|Priority date||Jan 25, 1924|
|Publication number||US 1978145 A, US 1978145A, US-A-1978145, US1978145 A, US1978145A|
|Original Assignee||Heyman Rosenberg|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (14), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 23, 1934. H. ROSENBERG 1,978,145
ANCHORAGE DEVICE Filed Jan. 25, 1924 2 Sheets-Sheet l iymmzlkreizier gnvcnfotl Oct. 23, 1934. EEEEEEE RG 1,978,145
ANCHOR EEEEEEE CE Patented a. 23, 1934 PATENT OFFICE ANCHORAGE DEVICE Heyman Rosenberg, New York, N. Y.
Application January 25,
This invention relates to improvements in fasteners and anchorage devices for use in materials characterized by hardness whether tough and susceptible of being caused to flow in a cold state, such as steel or iron, or brittle or possessed of the tendency to crumble, such as bakelite or masonry.
The object in view is the effective anchorage in such substances accomplished with a minimum amount of labor and with a resulting maximum degree of efficiency.
With this and further objects in view as will in part hereinafter become apparent and in part be stated, the invention-comprises certain novel constructions, combinations and arrangements of parts as subsequently specified and claimed.
In the accompanying drawings,
Figure 1 is a view in side elevation of a structure embodying the features of the present invention, the same being shown on a magnified scale over the ordinary, commercial sizes for purposes of more clearly disclosing detail.
Figure '2 is an end view thereof looking at the point, parts of the head being broken away for saving space.
Figures 3 and 4 are transverse sections taken, respectively, on the planes indicated by lines 3-3 and 4--4 of'Figure 1, and looking downward.
Figure 5 is a view similar to Figure 1 of 'a slightly modified embodiment, the scale being reduced over that seen in Figure 1 but still greater than the popular commercial sizes.
Figure 6 is a section taken on the plane indicated by line 6-6 of Figure 5, looking downward, the perimeter of the base of the cone forming the point being indicated in dotted lines for disclosing' the difference between the diameter thereof and that of the body of the device.
Figure 7 is a further enlarged, detailed, fragmentary view of a portion of the entering end of the structure as seen in. Figure 5. t
Figure 8 is a view similar to Figure 5 of a further embodiment.
Referring to the drawings by numerals, 1 indicates the pin-like body of the fastener or anchorage device which is preferably substantially cylindrical, but is susceptible of variation, and has at one end a head 2 and at the other end a penetrating point 3. The point 3 is the apex of the tapered end portion of the body 1, which tapered end portion instead of being finished like a smooth cone is provided with longitudinal cutaway portions or grooves 4, leaving cutting edges 5, 5. The cutting edges 5 converge at the tip or 55 apex of the point 3. Reference to direction here- 1924, Serial No. ssssz:
inafter will be made considering the device as positioned vertically with the head 2 uppermost. The cutting edges 5 extend from the tip or point 3 upward and terminate at the surface of the body 1, while the grooves 4 extend upward beyond the terminus of the respective cutting edges. While,
a as seen in Figures 1 to 4 inclusive, four cutting edges may be employed, the number of such cutting edges may be varied as found desirable, and the arrangement or form of the tapered end portion may also be varied as seen in Figure 5 or otherwise as will become obvious hereinafter. Formed integral with and outstanding from the body 1 are ribs 6, 6, which are arranged parallel to each other and also parallel to the axis of the body 1, so that the ribs 6 extend along the body 1 without angularity or pitch with respect to the body. Each of the ribs 6, as clearly seen in Figure 4, is substantially triangular in cross section with the apex of the triangle outstandmg from the body, and the base blending into and being formed integral with the body 1. The structure is preferably produced commercially by being formed from a piece of stock subjected to the rolling or stamping action of a divided die which so forces up the ribs and the cutting edges in a rolling or stamping operation. Obviously, the structure may be produced in other ways, but either of these is an inexpensiveman'nerof its production for conmiercial purposes, and naturally resuits in slight variations from the idealistic embodiments illustrated 'in the drawings. Such variations, however, are not 'suilicient to vary the effective functioning, and it should be understood that the commercial sizes range from one-fourth inch or less in overall length upward, and'that the anchorage device is shown according to its preferred proportions in the drawings, so that in the smaller sizes the ribs and cutting edges are so small that their exact form and shape frequently can be observed with accuracy only by the aid of a magnifying glass; A popular commercial size has an overall length of one and one-half inches with the other dimensions proportional to those shown in the drawings, but, of course, the sizes and dimensions may beyaried without either minimum or maximum limit, according to the uses to which the. anchorage devices are to be put.
Whatever the size or dimensions (and it is obvious that the dimensions and their relative proportions may be varied without in the least departing from the invention) each of the ribs 6 provides a cutting edge along its length, and each rib extends substantially from the head 2 to the entering point 3. Some of the ribs 6 are longer than others, since some of them lie along those parts of the body 1 extending down between the grooves 4, while other ribs 6 are shorter, terminating at upper portions of the grooves 4, as clearly seen in Figure 1. Also, as clearly seen in Figure 1, each of the ribs 6 is formed at its lower end into a rounded, cutting edge 7 continuous of its longitudinal edge, and the number of ribs 6 may be varied, and also the number of cutting edges 5 may be varied.
The body 1 and its connected parts are formed preferably of soft steel and then case-hardened. The well known cyaniding process is preferably employed to effect the case-hardening, but it should be understood that the essential characteristic of the finished structure is the effective hardness of the ribs 6, and, when expected use requires, the like hardness of the entering point with its cutting edges 5. The manner of hardening is not a part of the present invention, and wh le the hardening of the surface of the body 1 occurs during a case-hardening process and adds materially to the capacity of the body to withstand the results of frictional contact with maso'nry or other substances, the hardness of the body 1 is but an incident to the hardening of the ribs 6. Care must be exercised to limit the hardening of the body suificiently for preserving the requisite toughness thereof to prevent breaking under hammer blows or other stresses to which the body is liable to be subjected. The ribs 6 must be of suflicient hardness to be classified commercially as hard, and the term hard as herein employed in referring to the ribs 6 or any of the other parts of the improved anchorage device is intended to mean that the part referred to as hard possesses that degree of hardness which will enable it to enter metal, such as soft iron and soft steel, substantially without injury to the rib or other hardened part named, and when employed in conjunction with masonry to cut away the brick or stone material substantially with no further effect than the effect on a stone chisel incident to chiseling away stone. The word hard as used in the appended claims should be so understood.
In conducting one preferred operation with the present improved anchorage device or fastener, when being applied to metal work, a recess or aperture is drilled in the metal work corresponding substantially in transverse contour with the transverse contour of the body 1, so that if no ribs were present the body 1 could be driven in with a snug fit. The point 3 is then inserted in the aperture or recess and the head 2 is struck a driving blow which forces the ribs to enter the surrounding metal and cause the same to flow laterally with respect to the ribs and toward the body 1, so that by the time the device has entered the metal work to the required extent the metal caused to flow will have either been compressed or at least caused to contact with the body 1 and ribs 6 with that degree of perfection which may be designated as a tight, driven fit. When the parts have assumed this position, the anchorage of the present improved fasteneror anchorage device in the work is effective, and various tests have demonstrated that a sufilcient extent of the body 1 having been first introduced in the manner stated, the anchorage is great enough in many instances to enable the severing of the head in an effort to withdraw the anchorage device.
By demonstration it has been established that effective anchorage in metal, such as soft iron and soft steel, is obtainable by flowing and compression of the metal work engaged by the ribs incident to hammer blows delivered to the. head of the fastener, and such anchorage has been found effective whether the metal work has actually fiowed to contact with the body of the an- 'chorage device or not. Where contact of the flowed work against the body does not occur, an arching action of the flowed work usually develops between the opposing contiguous faces of adjacent ribs. The essential characteristic of the fastener when being hammersdriven into the harder metals, such as soft iron and soft steel, is that it deforms the work which it enters and is itself not deformed, whereby it achieves an engagement with the work so effective as to resist loosening under vibration.
The preferred operation just described relates to the application of the anchorage device in a metal body of work, as, for example, in the fastening of a name plate to a heavy casting, but another ptrgerred operation consists in the connecting 0 sheets of metal together, in which instance it is not necessary to form an aperture at all. The two sheets are placed together and the penetrating point is placed upon one of them, and then the head 2 is struck a driving blow which forces the point through the sheets of metal, and the driving continues until the anchorage device has entered to the desired extent. As the point or tapered portion 3 enters, it spreads the severed material of the sheets and forms a burr, and the ribs 6 enter the material of the burr and cause the flowing of the metal to a tightly contacting position both with respect to the ribs and to the body 1.
A third preferred operation consists of the use of the device in masonry or in hard rubber or like brittle substance. When used in conjunction with such materials, an aperture or recess may first be formed in the work sufficient to accommodate the body 1 by the utilization of a chisel or other cutting instrument, but when preferred, the anchorage device itself may be utilized as such cutting instrument. When so used, the point is placed against the surface of the material to be operated on, and the head 2 is struck a series of blows of varying degrees of force as required and permissible, according to the character of material being acted upon, and this is continued until the anchorage device finds its way to its seat or anchored position in the material. It will be recognized, of course, that the material of such work does not flow and that portions of such material must be broken, out or otherwise severed and removed. During the first part of such operation, the anchorage device itself may be moved away to allow the escape of loosened material, but after the opening has been made deep enough to allow the body to approach the final position required, the driving continues without removal of the anchorage device, and the loosened substances about the body either escape along the spaces between the ribs (since the body will naturally not have a continuous, tight fit at all points against the surrounding walls), or such loosened material may remain and become compact under the final seating blows.
Referring to the embodiment illustrated in Figures 5, 6 and 7, the anchorage device consists of the body 1 and the head 2 and the entering point 3', the body being formed with longitudinal ribs 6. The body 1' is not cylindrical in this embodiment, since the ribs 6' have the valleys therebetween formed into arcuate depressions, as clearly seen in Figure 6, and each of the ribs '6 terminates substantially at the beginning of the entering point 3'. The said entering point is formed with ribs 5', 5' with the portions 4" of the point therebetween rounded transversely and tapering downward toform each a segment of the cone comprising the entering point 3'. The several ribs 5' extend from the tip of the point 3' upward to and blend in the body 1, either at the surface thereof or at the terminus of one of the ribs 6', as best seen in Figure 7, the outermost point of each rib 5' outstanding 9. distance not greater at any place than the surface of the body 1'.
The operation of the structure seen in Figures '5, 6 and '1 is substantially identical with that above described.
In Figure 8 is illustrated an embodiment substantially identical with that shown in Figure 1, except that the ribs or threads are interrupted. The entering point will, therefore, not be described in detail'as it is identical. Otherwise the structure consists of a body 1" having a head 2" and longitudinal, outstanding ribs 6", all adapted to function substantially as the corresponding parts in the structure seen in Figure 1. Each of the ribs 6", however, is interrupted in its length, and may be interrupted at a plurality of places, as indicated at 8, 8. Each rib is, therefore, divided into sections, and the upper end of each section below an interruption 8 is preferably formed into an abrupt end 9, while the lower end of each rib section above each interruption 8 is formed into a cutting edge 7" corresponding to the cutting edge at the lower end of the entire rib.
The preferred operations of the structure seen in Figure 8 are the same as those above described, and it will be noted that the interruptions 8, providing the shoulders 9, cause the ribs 6" to afford additional anchorage especially in those materials which flow or otherwise move back or toward the position from which they have been movedby the action of the passing sections of threads.
The structures seen in Figures 5 and 8 are, of course, formed with hardened ribs, the hardening being preferably accomplished as above stated. It will also be understood that the number of ribs in any of the structures shown may be varied as desired, according to the character of work to be accomplished, from one rib to a maximum number limited only by physical capacity of the surface area of the body and size of the ribs.
It will be understood, of course, that the several embodiments illustrated in the accompanying drawings and above described are all valuable, and each has its. advantages according to the character of work to be accomplished, but for purposes of interpretation of the appended claims, the structure shown in Figure 1 may be assumed to be the preferred embodiment. Also, in interpreting the appended claims, attention is directed to the fact that the claims of my copending application, Serial No. 502,972, filed September 24, 1921, and covering improvements in metallic fasteners, (patented since the filing of this application under Patent No. 1,482,151, dated January 29, 1924) are not broad enough to read upon the structure seen in Figure 1 of this application. Also, attention is directed to the fact that the claims of my co-pending application, Serial No. 631,591, filed April 12, 1923. and covering improvements in masonry anchorage devices, (patented since the filing of this application under Patent No. 1,485,202, dated February 26, 1924) are not broad enough to read upon the showing in Figure 1 of this application. Also, my co-pending application Serial No. 570,912, filed June 26, 1922, since patented June 7,1925, Patent No. 1,545,471; my co-pending application Serial No; 682,270, filed December 22, 1923, since patented October 2, 1928, Patent No. 1,686,468; my co-pending application Serial No. 682,268, filed December 22, 1923, since patented July 2, 1929, Patent No. 1,719,137; my ctr-pending application Serial No. 682,269, flled December 22, 1923, since patented September 2, 1930, Patent No. 1,774,846; my 00- pending application Serial No. 631,592, filed April 12, 1923, since patented December 9, 1930, Patent No. 1,784,754; my co-pending application Serial No. 75,831, flied December 16,1925, since patented December 9, 1930, Patent No. 1,784,755; my co-pending application Serial No. 75,832, filed December 16, 1925, since patented January 20, 1931, Patent No. 1,789,660; my co-pending application Serial No. 249,900, filed January 27, 1928, since patented July 14, 1931, Patent No. 1,814,966; my co-pending application Serial No. 362,019, filed May 10, 1929, since patented December 1, 1931, Patent No. 1,834,871; my co-pending application Serial No. 282,732, filed June 4, 1928, since patented February 9, 1932, Patent No. 1,844,823; my co-pending application Serial No. 461,761, filed June 17, 1930, since patented May 30, 1933, Patent No. 1,912,099; my co-pending application Serial No, 448,350, filed April 29, 1930, since patented May 30, 1933, Patent No. 1,912,222; and my co-pending application Serial No. 526,035, filed March 28, 1931, covering Improvements in art of anchorage, each discloses subject matter in common with the subject matter herein disclosed and claimed but does not contain a. claim of a scope suiiicient to read on the structures specifically shown in the instant application.
Also, my co-pending application Serial No. 682,271, filed December 22, 1923, disclosesbut does not claim subject matter in common with the subject matter herein disclosed and claimed. Wherefore generic claims, comprehensive of species including the subjects matter of the said copending applications, are herein presented.
What is claimed is:-
1. An anchorage device adapted for anchorage in metal work comprising a pin-like body adapted to be hammer-driven longitudinally into place, and a hard rib extending along the body as the anchorage means therefor against longitudinal 130 shifting after application, the rib being nontapering longitudinally for a substantial part of its length.
2. An anchorage device adapted for anchorage in metal work comprising a pin-like body adapted 135 to be hammer-driven longitudinally into place, and a hard rib extending along the body as the anchorage means therefor against longitudinal shifting after application, the rib having a cutting edge formed on its entering end.
3. An anchorage device adapted for anchorage in metal work comprising a pin-like body adapted to be hammer-driven longitudinallyinto place, and a hard rib extending along the body substantially throughout the length thereof as the an- 145 chorage means therefor against longitudinal shifting after application, the rib being nontapering longitudinally for a substantial part of its length.
4. An anchorage device adapted for anchorage 1 in metal work comprising a pin-like body adapted to be hammer-driven longitudinally into place, and a hard rib extending uninterruptedly along the body substantially throughout the length thereof as the anchorage means therefor against longitudinal shifting after application, the rib being non-tapering longitudinally for a. substantial part of its length.
5. An anchorage device adapted for anchorage in metal work comprising a pin-like body adapted to be moved longitudinally into place, and hard ribs extending along the body parallel to the axis of the body and of different lengths, said ribs being the anchorage means for the body against longitudinal shifting after application.
6. An anchorage device adapted for anchorage in metal work comprising a pin-like body adapted to be hammer-driven longitudinally into place, and hard ribs extending along the body as the anchorage means therefor against longitudinal shifting after application, the ribs being non-tapering longitudinally for a substantial part of their length.
7. An anchorage device adapted for anchorage in metal work comprising a pin-like body adapted to be hammer-driven longitudinally into place and having a hard penetrating point, and a hard rib extending along the body as the anchorage means therefor against longitudinal shifting after application, the rib being non-tapering longitudinally for a substantial part of its length.
cutting edge along its length, said rib being the anchorage means for the body against longitudinal shifting after application.
9. An anchorage device adapted for anchorage in metal work comprising a pin-like body adapted to be hammer-driven longitudinally into place, and a hard rib extending along the body, the rib having a' longitudinal cutting edge and being the anchorage means for the body against longitudinal shifting after application.
10. An anchorage deviceadapted for anchorage in metal work comprising a pin-like body adapted to be hammer-driven longitudinally into place, and a hard rib extending along the body parallel to the axis thereof as the anchorage means for the body against longitudinal shifting after application. v
11. An anchorage device adapted for anchorage in metal work comprising a pin-like body adapted to be hammer-driven longitudinally into place, and hard ribs extending along the body parallel to the axis thereof as the anchorage means for the body against longitudinal shifting after application.
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|International Classification||F16B15/06, F16B15/00|