US 1981057 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. V.'20, 1934. v. LOMBARDI v 1,981,057
KNITTED FABRIC I File dot. 29. 1931rv 2 sheet-snee. 1
K'Juz KNITTED FABRIC Filed oct. 29, 1951v ZSheets-Sheet 72A INVENTOR ATTO NEY,
Patented Nov. 20, 1934 UNITED STATES,
PATENT ori-ica Lombardir Knitting Machine Co. Inc., New
York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application october 29,1931seria1 No.' 511,711
14 claims. (o1. ca -201) This invention relates to knitted fabrics and has for an object the provision of a fabric inwhich varied pattern designs may be incorporated in a ready and economical manner.
In accordance with this invention the pattern effect is produced by one or more series of drop stitches which are prevented by special means from forming runs. In one embodiment the ,depressions due to the drop stitches are of such size and occur at such intervals as to produce the desired design. The last loop formed before beginning a^series of drop stitches is prevented from running by a long loop inserted into the fabric by a special yarn. This special yarn may be vloosely interlocked `in the fabric at other points and then pulled out into ythe said long loop where it will hold the last knitted loop of the regular yarn and thus prevent starting a run.- The said long loop may hang loose on the back of the fabric or it may lie on thefront of the fabric in the depression caused by the drop stitches and bel subsequently incorporated into the knitting. Further details of this and other featuresy of the invention will appear hereinafter. l l
For a better understanding of the invention reference is made to the following detailed description taken in connection with the accom-v panying drawings in which Fig. 1 represents an embodiment of this' invention in which the run preventing loop lies loosely in the back of the fabric while the yarn forming the said loop is interlocked in other por.-
.tions of the fabric;
Fig. 2 isa cross sectional Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal view of a portion of Fig. 1 showing theV stop loop lying -loosely in the back;
Fig. 4 represents an alternative form of the inview of a portion of vention in which the run-preventing loop is knitted in the front"of the fabric so that it falls into the depression formed by the drop stitches;
Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view of a portion of Fig. 4; v
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic showing of different characteristic patterns which may be made in accordance with this invention;
Fig. 7 illustrates a knitted fabric in which the" yarn forming the run-preventing loop is knitted in other portions of the -fabrc so that the formation of the said long loop causes the main fabric to bulge out in th back;
Fig. 8A illustrates a knitted fabric somewhat similar toFig. 7 except that the yarn forming and 18.
the run-preventing yarn is knitted into an increased number of wales;
Fig. 9 isa longitudinal view o f thefabric of Fig. 7 or 8 showing the overhanging bulge with the run-preventing long loop bridging several .60 drop stitches; y Fig. 10 -is similar to Fig. 9 is smaller; and
Fig. 11 illustrates characteristic pattern effects which may be formed on the back of the'lfabrlic 65- by the bulges of Figs.v7 and 8. f
Fig. 1 is an enlarged perspective view of the front of a knitted fabric with depressions which may be placed to form a pattern, each depression except .that the bulge fbeing produced by a series of drop stitches in the bottom of the depression. The fabric shown is mainly of the usual jersey type where one or more Vyarns form inter-knitted loops in a plurality of wales and rows. For convenience in de scription the rows of loops have been numbered 1 to 18y and the wales have been numbered 1 to 6'.
It will be noted the yarn formsv regular loops in all the rows for wales 1, 2, and 3. In IWale 4 drop stitches are formed in rows 1 and 2, butv 80 beginning with row 3, regular loops are formed. in wale 4 until row 10 is'reached where a series of drop stitches begin, the next loop for wale 4 not being formed until row 15 is reached. Wale 4 also has a loop in row 16 and thereafter in' the said wale drop stitches are present in rows 17 The series of drop stitches just described give a pattern effect to the fabric but special meansvmust be provided to prevent runs in the fabric due to .the drop stitches, and the important loop to be controlled to prevent such a run is the last loop formed in a Wale before beginning a series of drop stitches. Thus the loop in Wale 4 row 9 unless suitable precautions are taken would start a run down the fabricl freeing the previously formed loops in said Wale. In accordance with this invention there is a special yarn 31 which is interlocked in the knitted' fabric in wales 1, 2, and 3, between the loops of rows 9Aand 10. This yarn 31 in wale 4 is formed 100 regular loopfin wale 4 row 9 therefore can not '110 the fabric.
start a run and a series of drop stitches vbeginning with row 10 may be formed Without subsequent damage to the fabric. Specialyarn 31 is subsequently-interlocked in the fabric such as Wales 5 and 6 until it is needed again to prevent the formation of a run due to drop stitches.
'As previouslystated the long loop .of yarn 31 hangs loosely in the back of the fabric. The yarr 31 may be loosely interlocked in vother portionsl of the fabric so that it may be pulled out into a long loop by the knitting machine Without crimping the fabric so that the said loop `of yarn 31 will be long enough to stay in place .even when the fabric is stretched. It is of course to be understood that yarn 31 in other portions of the fabric may bevformed into small regular loops instead of .being interlocked in most of th wales of the fabric, see Figs. 7 and 8.
Another special yarn 32 is also shown in Fig. 1 which serves the same purpose as yarn V31 so that a detailed description of its function is not necessary. It will be noted that yarn 32 is interlocked between rows 16 and/17. until it reaches Wale 4 where it forms a long loop extending to the rear of the fabric and lying between the upper end of the loop in Wale 4 row 16 and the 'yarn portion which would normally have formedA a loop in Wale 4 and roW 17. 'Ihis long loop therefore holds the regularloop in Wale 4 roW 16 in place and prevents the starting of a run through The character of the pattern eiiect due to the depressions in the fabric caused by the series of drop stitches is shown in Fig. 2 which is a sectional view of Fig. 1. The depression due to a l drop stitch is shown at the point 34 Where the fabric is much thinner than at the point 35 Where regular loops are formed.
Fig.' 3 is a longitudinal section of the fabric of Fig. 1 and shows a run-preventing loop 36 hanging looselyy in the back of the fabric.
While this invention is not limited to any particular procedure for producingl the drop stitches and the long loops described above in connection with Figures 1, 2, and 3, the following is suggested as one Way of manipulating the needles to produce the desiredY effect.
The direction of knitting successive rows in Fig. 1 is from the bottom towards the top of the figure. It will be assumed that'the fabric v has 'been knitted as far as row 9 and that the needles in all the Wales 1 to 6 are in their .bot-
tom position, each holding a loop of, jersey stitch;
in row 9. 'Ihe special yarn 31 is then fed across the needles to be subsequently interlocked in Wales 1, 2, 3, 5, and 6, as described in my Patent No. 1,541,230. As will appear from the disclosure v in this patent the needles in Wales 1, 3, and 5 must b`e held out of the path of yarn 31 and the needles 'in Wales 2 and 6 must be positioned to catch the yarn Without casting their loops in row 9. Theselatter needles may then be retracted to provide any desired loosenessl of the `linterlocked portions of yarn' 31 in order to allow for the subsequent redistribution of the yarn inv the formation of 'a long loop. The interlocked portion of a yarn thus acts as a feeder for the long loop Which otherwise is cut off from the yarn supply. In the Wale 4 the special yarn-31 is permitted to knit through the loop in row 9.
When now the needles are raised for knitting of the loops in roW 10 the yarn 31 is held ,on the The yarn for row 10 is then fedacross the needles, all of which are operated, except that in Wale 4, to form'jersey loops thereby completely interlocking the yarn 31; in Wale 4 no loop is formed so that the yarn for row 10 forms what in this specification has been termed a drop-stitch, Lnamely, a bridging strand across the Wale on the back of the fabric, such as Would be formed by a drop-stitch or a run in vthis Wale; the dropstitch thus formed passes With the loop in row i 9 into the fabric. The loop in yarn 31, Wale 4 noW being held by its needle to project from the front of the fabric it will be necessary to raise this'needle before the yarn for row 11 is fed across the needles, and this loop is cast and trans-f ferred to another element capable of holding it in the back of passing yarnv carriers in any Wellknown manner; lUnder this condition any num-A ber of the rows from 11 tol16 may be knitted causing the fabric to advance and to thereby 1 lengthen the loop in yarn 31 as desired. the necessary yarn being taken from the loosely interlocked portions of this yarn. The long loop Vis cast olf this transfer element before it is time lfor a similar transfer of the long loop in yarn 32,. Fig'. 4 illustrates another form of the invention which is somewhat similar to Eig. 1 except that the run-preventing loops, instead of dangling loose in the back of the fabric, 4lie in the front of the fabric in the recess formed by eachvseries of drop stitches, the top of each run-preventing loop being caught in the regulargknitting. Thus said long loop, so that the said long loop is` taken up in the knitting at that point in the usual manner. This long loop of yarn 40 therefore prevents the formation of a run due to the drop stitches in rows 9, 10 and 11 of Wale-3 `by holding in place the last formed regular loop in Wale 3 namely in,A row 8. 'I'he saidlong loop lies flat fin the front of the fabric in the recess formed by the drop stitches just described.
In another portion. of the fabric of Fig. 4, vanother special yarn 41 after being loosely interlocked in Wales 1 and 2 and other Wales not shown,l comes up between the top of the loopin row 12 and Wale 3 and the yarn portion which normally would have formed a loop in row 13 Wale 3. Drop stitches are present in Wale 3 rows 13 to 20 inclusive and the longl loop of yarn 41 lies in the recess' formed by these drop stitches. Another special yarn 42 after -being loosely interlocked formsa long loop which lies over the drop'stitches in Wale 3 rows 21 to 25, drop stitches 'being continuous in' Wale 3 from row 13 to row 25. This long loop of yarn 42 in Wale 3 comes up inside the top of the long loop of yarn 41 in Wale 3 so as to hold the two'long loops in Wale 3 in place. The regular loop formed in row 26 Wale 3 comes up through 4the top ofthe long loop of yarn 42 as described for the other special yarns.
Drop stitches are'also present in rows 21 to 25 of Wale. 4 and special yarn 42 forms another run-V starting with the regular loop in wale 4 row 20. The upper end of this long loop in wale 4 is taken up in the knitting as previously described.
v The procedure for forming the fabric shown in Figures 4 and 5 may be similar to that described vfor forming the fabric shown in Fig. 1 except for across the needles, the needle for wale 4 must be raised to cast the long loop which then will form a stitch with the next loop in wale 4 as shown in Fig. 4.
Instead of having the run-preventing loops ex- 'tend over several rows they may be only one row long providing there is a special yarn present for each drop stitch. Thus in Fig. 4 drop stitches are present in wale 3 rows 2, 3, 4, an'd A5. Each of these four drop stitches is protected by a loop of a special yarn. Special yarns 43, 44, 45, and- 46 form run-preventing loops invwale 3 in rows 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively while being loosely in- A terlocked in other portions o f the fabric.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view of Fig. 4 and shows thel two sides of the long loop of yarn 41 lyingl in the recess created by the drop stitches of the regular yarn.
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic showing of different characteristic patterns which may be y.made in accordance with the form of the invention shown in Fig. 4. The interlocked yarn is drawn out into long. run-preventing loops in the front of the fabric as shown by the heavy lines of the figure. The interlock yarn in a certain portion may be drawn out into two or more loops which may be of different lengths. It is to be understood that/the long 'loops may if desired cover` as many as twelve to fifteen rows of drop stitches; also that the run-preventing yarnsmay be incorporated into regular loops in certain portions of the fabric. These long run-preventing loops are flush with the surface of the fabric and hence are not likel'yto be caught.
It will be noted by reference to Figs. 4 and 6A that a smaller number of interlocked yarns are needed to give a certain pattern effect than would be the case in a two color fabric for example without drop stitches and having the yarns not forming loops in any portion interlocked behind the fabric. Thus if in Fig. 4 the regular yarn is white and the special yarns are black the fabric disclosed therein requires only one black yarn to produce a black strip ten 'rows long in one wale while the usual type of interlock fabric as shown in my U. S. Patent No. 1,426,576 would require ten special yarns across the fabric to produce the same strip. The jersey background of the fabric of Fig. 4 also has a more solid color than with a large number of inter/ locked yarns shining through. The fabric of Fig. 4 is also more economical particularly when the long loops are made from an expensive yarn such as metallic'thread or silk. The fabric of Fig. 4 also has great elasticity making it suitable for bathing suits and the like, due to the easy slipping of the interlocked yarn which can draw c yarn from the long f ree loops which will again draw the yarn backwhen relieved of tension. Attention is also called to the fact that nolong run will ordinarily be produced even if one of the long loops of Fig. 4" is torn. The special yarns such as yarn 42 may also if desired be larger than the regular loops and also of a different color.
A different form of the invention is shown in Fig. 7 which is similar to that of Fig. 4 in that there 'are depressions formed by drop stitches and that there are special run-preventing loops. The special loops that prevent the runs are formed from interlocked yarn which is more or less knitted into the fabric so as to make it tight thereb'y preventing the formation of as long loops for the drop stitches as would be secured with a loosely interlocked yarn as in Fig. 4. This therefore causes the fabric to bulge out in the back at the points where the run preventing loops are Thus special'yarn 50 may form regular loops in wales l, 3, and 9, and other wales not shown while being carried behind the fabric in wales 2, 4, 6, and 8.l Drop stitches are'present in wales 5.and 7 rows 2 to 7 inclusive, while wale 6 in said Vrows has regular loops in all rows shown. Special yarn 50, after passing behind the fabric in wale 4, passes under the regular loop in Wale 5 row 1 and forms a long loop the top of which encloses the yarn forming the regular loop in row 8. Since special yarn 50 is tightly incorporated in the fabric to the lleft of wale 5 it follows that in the knitting of the fabric insufcient yarn can be pulled to make the special loop of the normal length of six rows. Hence taking the special loop up in the knitting at the point shown means that the fabric will bulge out in the back to make,
up for the shortness of the special loop. This is to be distinguished from Fig. 4 where the special yarn is incorporated in the' fabric loosely enough that the necessary length of yarn for each special loop may readily be obtained from adjacent wales.` t
In Fig. 7, yarn 50 also forms a long loop in Wale 7 in a similar manner as in wale 5. These bulges bridged by the long loops present a pattern effect which may appear in various parts of the fabric.
Fig. 8 is similar to Fig. 7l except that in Fig. 8 there is no regular yarn in row 3 asthe special yarn 51 is the only yarn for that row and the said yarn 51 forms regular loops in wales 1 to 4, 6, 8 and 9. A run preventing loop of yarn 51 is formed in wale 5 to bridge the drop stitches in wale 5 rows 4 to 8 and a similar long loop is formed in wale 7 rows 4to 8. The fabric oi. Fig. 8 also bulges because special yarn 51 is too tightly incorporated in the main portion of the fabric to yield in the knitting operation sufficient yarn to bridge five rows.
In Fig. 9 the line 53 is intended to represent the bulging part-of the fabric of Fig. 7 or 8 while the line 54 indicates` the bridging run-preventing loop.' Fig. 10 illustrates a smaller bulge where line 55 indicates the run-preventing loop and line 56 the bulging fabric of either Fig. 7 or 8.
These bulges on the reverse side of the fabric form projections which may be used for pattern effects asy illustrated schematically in Fig. 11, where each small block 59 may represent a bulge ius produced by two run-preventing loops as shown be understood that the invention is not limited thereto, but may possess other forms according to the scope of the appended claims.
What is claimed is:
1. AA knitted fabric comprising in -one portion yarns formed into small loops in a plurality of wales and rows, said yarns in one Wale forming a series of drop stitches for a pluralityof rows to produce a recess in said fabric, said -fabric having an additional yarinwhich for several wales adja cent said one Wale is carried along said rows without forming any of said small loops Vbut being loosely enmeshed in the rear of the fabric in the loops of said first yarns, and means comprising a long loop of said additional yarn formed in said one wale for preventing a run in said fabric due to said drop stitches.
: 2. A knitted fabric in accordance with claim 1 in which the bottom of said long loop-is includ in the knitting in said one wale at the beginning of said series of drop stitches to prevent a run due to said drop stitches, while thetop of said long loop is included the knitting in said one Wale at the other end of said series of drop stitches.
3. A knitted fabric in accordance with claim 1v in which the bottom of said long loop is included in the knitting for preventing a run in said fabric due to said drop stitches,A while the top of said long loop is free of the knitted fabric to permitthe vsaid long loop to project away from the surface of the fabric.
' 4. A knitted fabric comprising a pluralityof yarns knitted to form small loops in a plurality of wales and rows, an additional yarn lof a different characteristic Linterlocked in a plurality of alterfnate wales of said first yarns and carried entirely behind the fabricv inwales between said alternate 'wales, said' first vyarns having in one wale drop stitches in a plurality-of successive rows, and
means comprising a long loop o f said additional yarn formed in said last wale for preventing a run in said fabric due to said drop stitches. Y
5. A knitted fabric comprising a plurality of yarns knitted to form small loops in a plurality of wales and rows, an additionalyarn of a diierent characteristic interlocked between said small loops in a plurality of alternate wales of said ilrst yarns and carriedv entirely behind the fabric in -wales between said alternate wales, said rst yarns having in one wale drop stitches in a plurality of successive rows, said additional Vyarn appearing in the front of the fabric to form a long loop lying in the recess produced by said drop stitches.
6. A knitted fabric comprising a plurality of yarns knitted to form small loops in a plurality. of wales andrdws, and an additional-yarn of a dif# ferent characteristic interlocked between said small loops in a plurality of -altematewales of said first yarns ancd carried entirely behindthe fabric in Wales between said alternate wales, said iirst yarns having in one Wale drop stitches in a plurality of successive rows, and said additional yarn appearing in the front of the fabric to form a long -loop lying in the recess produced by said drop is loosely interlocked in a plurality of alternatewales andrcarried entirely to the rear of the fabric in the walesbetween said alternate wales, said additional yarn in its passage across said one wale Yappearing in the front of the fabric to form a long loop lying in the recess formed by a plurality of said drop stitches, the bottom of said longloop being included inthe knitting in said one wale to prevent a run due to the drop stitches, said long loop being fornfed by the taking .up ofthe slack in its loosely interlocked portion in adjacent wales so as to prevent the formation of said long loop from causing the adjacent fabric to become crimped thereby. l
8. A knitted fabric in accordance with claim characterized by said additional yarn having a color different from the color of the 'egularly knitted yarns of the fabric, said additional yarn appealing in the front of the fabric only as long loops in recesses formed by drop stitches.
9. A fabric comprising in one portion yarns formed into small undistorted loops in a plurality of rows and wales, said yarns in one wale forming a series of drop stitches for a plurality' of rows to produce a; recess ln said fabric, said fabric having an additional yarn which for several wales adjacent-said one wale is carried along one ofsaid rows without forming any of said small loops but being loosely enmeshed in the, loops of said first yarns in the rear of the fabric, said additional yarn in its'passage across said one wale appearing in front of the fabric to form a long loop lying in the front of the fabric in said recess, the bottom of said long loop being included in the km'tting in said one wale to prevent a'run due to the drop stitches, said long loop being formedby the vtaking up of the slack in its loosely enmeshed portion in adjacent wales so as to prevent the' formation of said long loop fromlcausing the adjacent fabric to be crimped thereby. A
10. A knitted fabric comprising yarns formed in one portion into small undistorted loops in a plurality of wales and rows, said yarns .in one wale forming a series of drop stitches for many rows, said portion comprising a plurality of additional yarns, each additional yarn for severaly wales adjacent said one wale being carriedV along one of said rows without forming any of saidA small loops but being loosely enmeshed in the 5 loops of said flrst yarns in the real ofthe fabric, each additional yarn in its passage across said one wale forming a' long loop lying in the :front of the fabric upon the bridging yarns resultingfrom a pluralitys of said. drop stitches, the longloops of said additional yarns inv said one wale forming an uninterrupted series of .interknitted long loops tied into the knitting of the main fabric only at the beginning and end of said series to prevent a run due to said drop stitches.
v11. A knitted fabi-ie comprising yarns formed in one portion'into smallV undistorted loops in a plurality of wales and rows, said yarns in one Wale and also in a second wale forming a series of uninterrupted drop stitches for many rows, said portion comprising a plurality 'of additional yarns, one of said additional yarns for several wales adjacent said one wale being carried along onelof said rows without foiming any of said small loops but being loosely enmeshed in the loops of said first yarns in the rear of the fabric, another of said additional yarns for several walesnadiacent said wale being carried along one of said rows without forming any of said small loops but being loosely enmeshed in the loops of said first yarns in the rear of the fabric, said one additional in itspassage across said one Wale forming a long loop lying in the front of the fabric upon the bridging yarns resulting from a plurality of said drop stitches, the bottom of said long loop being included in the knitting in said one Wale to prevent a run due to drop stitches in said one Wale, said second additional yarn in its passage across said second Wale forming a long loop lyingin the front of the fabric upon the bridging yarns resulting from a plurality of said drop stitches, the bottom of said last mentioned long loop being included in the knitting in said second Wale to prevent a run due to the drop stitches, each of said long loops being formed by the taking up of the slack in'the ,yarn in its loosely enmeshed portion in adjacent wales.
' 12. A knitted fabric in accordance with claim l1 in which each of said additional yarns extends substantially parallel to a row throughout the fabric except for wales where it forms one of said long loops, each of said additional yarns being ofy a color differing froml the color of said first yarns, each of said long loops lying flat and substantially flush with the surface of said fabric.
13. A knitted fabric comprising in one portion g yarns formed into small loops in a plurality of Wales and rows, said yarns in one Wale forming a. series of drop stitches for a plurality of successive rows, ysaid fabric having an additional yarn of a different characteristic which for a plurality of wales is enmeshed in the rear of the fabric in the loops of said rst yarns, and means com-V prising, a long loop of said additional yarn formed in said one Wale for preventing a runV in said fabric due to said drop stitches. y
14. A knitted fabric comprising in one portion yarns formed into small loops in -a plurality of wales and rows, said yarns in one wale forming a series of drop stitches for a plurality of successive rows, said fabric having an additional yarn which for a plurality of wales is enmeshed in the rear of the fabric in the loops of said first yarns, and means comprising la long loop of said additional yarn formed in said one wale for preventing a run in said fabric due to said drop stitches.