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Publication numberUS1982308 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 27, 1934
Filing dateMar 3, 1932
Priority dateMar 3, 1932
Publication numberUS 1982308 A, US 1982308A, US-A-1982308, US1982308 A, US1982308A
InventorsJulius Kahn, White Herbert E
Original AssigneeTruscon Steel Co
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Tunnel liner
US 1982308 A
Abstract  available in
Images(6)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

N0v.27,1934. KAHN ,UL 1,582,308

TUNNEL LINER lFiled March5,.1932 e sheets-Sheet 1 alzas NOV. l J. KAHN vEl' AL TUNNEL LINER- Filed March 3, 1932 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 NOV. 27, 15534. J. KAHN El' AL 1,982,308

TUNNEL LINER lFiled March 3, 1932 6 Sheets-Sheet 4 Y rfi JJldizxsu Nov. 27, 1934.

J. KAHN Er Al. 1,982,308

6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed March 5, 1952 Nov. 27, 1934. J. KAHN 'Er Al.

TUNNEL LINER Filed March 3, 1932 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 .NN .AWN

Patented Nov. 27, 1934 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Cleveland, Ohio,

assgnors to Truscon Steel Company, Youngstown, Ohio, a corporation of Michigan Application March 3, 1932, semi No. 596,628

` s claims.

In that type of tunnel liner made up of sections or plates, and in which the plates are usually of metal plate having side flanges, .the sections of the plates being secured together by fasteners passing through the anges, it has been the' custom to have these plates or sections generally rectangular in shape, the plates when in position being thus located in circumferential rows with plates in each row in alinement. As a consequence the circumferential flanges are also in alinement.

It is an object of the invention to provide a structure which as a whole when assembled constitutes a series of endless trusses extending around a circle, the flanges constituting the main members while the bodies of the plates constitute web members connecting the main members so that stresses due to pressure of the earth outside the structure are thoroughly distributed throughout. This is particularly advantageous in the case of localized stresses due to boulders or soft spots in the earth.

Several embodiments of the invention are disclosed in the accompanying drawings, wherein:-

Figure 1 is a side elevation of a portion of a tunnel lining, in which the novel structure is employed.

Figure 2 is an end elevation of the same.

Figure 3 is a perspective view showing the inner side of one of the plates.

Figure 4 is a sectional view on the line 4--4 of Figure 3.

Figure 5 is a side elevation of the plate shown in Figure 3. Figure 6 is a view in elevation of a modication 'of the form of structure shown in Figures 1 and 2.

Figure '7 is an end elevation of the same. Figure 8 is a side elevation of still another form 0 of construction.

Figure 9 is an end elevation thereof.

Figure 10 is a side elevation of still another embodiment of the invention.

Figure 11 is an end elevation of the structure `shown in Figure 10.

Figure 12 is a side elevation of another embodiment vof the invention. E l Figure 13 is an end elevation thereof.

Figure 14 is a detail perspective view of one of the plates shown in Figure 14.

Figure 15 is a similar view of two of the plates in assembled relation and indicating how the said two plates may be formed of sections in parallelogram. y

Referring rst to the embodiment diSGlosed in (ci. er1-4s) Figures 1 and 2, a portion of a tubular tunnel lining is shown and consists of rows of plates 20,

`the plates of each row being located to form aI ring, and the rows being disposed side by side. As these plates are duplicates, the detail showing of one in Figures 3, 4 and 5 and a. description thereof will suftce for all. The plate is preferably formed of plate metal, comprising an outer curved body wall 21, which may be reenforced or stitfened by circumferential ribs 22. Along each of the side edges of thebody plate are inset anges 23 and 24 that are perforated as illustrated at 25 to receive fastening bolts, rivets or the like. It will be noted that the body wall 21 is in the form of a parallelogram so that the flanges 24 and the edges carrying the same, are

disposed diagonally to the other iianges 23.

When these plates are assembled to produce the lining-structure or as shown in Figures 1 and 2, the flanges 23 of adjacent plates are located 75 side .by side and are suitably secured together in a well-known manner. The flanges 24, are however disposed diagonally to a plane perpendicular to the axis of the tunnel, the diagonal flanges of one plate abutting and being secured to the di- 30 .agonal flanges of adjoining plates in the same row. More than that, it will be noted that these diagonal'lines or joints of one row are staggered with relation to those of the adjacent rows, so that the diagonal flanges 24 will abut against g5 the flanges 23 of the plates of the adjacent row between the ends of said latter anges.

As a consequence a structure is formed, each ring of which may be considered as a continuous truss (Figure 1), which when placed under 90 stress by an external load, will tend to distort by rotating one chord in one direction and the other chord in the opposite direction, a tendencythat is resisted by the webs or bodies of the plates.

In Figure 6 the plates are designated 20a, and 95 their structure is the same as that disclosed in Figures 3, 4 and 5, saving that the form of the parallelogram of the body wall is reversed so that the straight lines of joints run longitudinally of the tunnel rather than circumferentially'of the 100 same. It will be obvious however, that the action is precisely the same'as that heretofore described, except that the chords ofA the trusses are longitudinal instead of circumferential.

In the structure disclosed in Figures 8 and 9 105 the plates are designated 20b and it will be noted that the parallelogram formation 'of the body Wall of each is the same as heretofore described.

In other words their general structure including the ilanges is the same as in Figures 3, 4 and 5. 1.10

In this form of structure, however, the plates of adjacent rows are reversed. That is to say, the joints of vone row extend diagonally in one direction andthe joints of the adjacent row extend diagonally in an opposite direction. The same effective results are, however, obtained.

The structure illustrated in AFigures 10 and 11 is very similar to that illustrated in Figure 8, except that the continuous straight line joints are extended longitudinally of the tunnel instead of circumferentially thereof. The plates are here designated 20c and it will be noted that the rows extend longitudinally of the tunnel to produce said longitudinal joints. The plates of one row, however, have their diagonal joints and edges extended in an opposite direction from the diagonal edges and joints of the plates of the adjacent row. They still, however, are staggered as in the disclosure illustrated in Figure 8.

Figures 12 and 13 disclose a structure in which the rows run longitudinally of the tunnel instead of circumferentially, forming a series of trusses. Triangular plates 20e are provided, with alternate plates of each row reversely arranged and with the apex of the plate of one row abutting the base of the plate of the next row. As will be clearly evidenced by a comparison of Figures 12, 13 and 15 two of these plates may be considered as the sections of a parallelogram and in this respect are very similar to the disclosure shown'in the iirst forms of the invention.

From the foregoing, it is thought that the construction, operation and many advantages of the herein described invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art without further description, and it will be understood that various changes in the size, shape, proportion and minor details of construction may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of sacrificing any of the advantages of the invention.

What we claim, is:

1. A tubular structure comprising separate rows of plates, the rows being located side by side, each of said plates being a substantial parallelogram having parallel sides forming the sides of the rows, and parallel ends disposed diagonally of the sides, the correspondingly disposed diagonal ends of abutting plates in a row extending diagonally across the row.

2. A tubular structure comprising separate rows of plates, the rows being located side by side, each of said plates being a substantial par- 1,9s2,sos

alielogram having parallel sides forming the sides of the rows, and parallel ends disposed diagonally of the sides, the correspondingly disposed diagonal ends of abutting plates in a row extending diagonally across the row and out of line with the joints between the abutting ends of the plates of adjacent rows.

3. A tubular structure comprising separate rows of plates, the rows being located side by side, each of said plates being a substantial parallelogram having parallel sides forming the sides of the rows and parallel ends disposed diagonally of the sides, the joints between the ends of the plates in each row extending in the same direction and in opposite directions to the joints of the plates of adjacent rows.

4. A tubular structure comprising separate rows of plates, the rows being located side by side, each of said plates being a substantial parallelogram having parallel sides forming the sides of the rows and parallel ends disposed diagonally of the sides, the correspondingly disposed diagonal ends of abutting plates in a row extending diagonally across the row, said rows forming continuous rings side by side `with the sides of the rings and of the plates being disposed in planes perpendicular to the axis of the tubular structure.

5. A tubular structure comprising separate rows of plates, the rows being located side by side, each of said plates being a substantial parallelogram having parallel sides forming the sides of the rows and parallel ends disposed diagonally of the sides, the correspondingly disposed diagonal ends of abutting plates in a row extending diagonally across the row, said rows extending longitudinally of the axis of the structure and the diagonal ends of the different rows being alternated and producing broken joints extending around the structure.

6. A tubular structure comprising rows of plates extending longitudinally of said structure and said rows having substantially parallel sides extending in said longitudinal directions, the sides of the plates of one row being secured to the sides of the plates of adjacent rows and forming joints between the rows that are extending longitudinally of the structure, the ends of the plates of each row being secured together and forming,

joints across said longitudinal rows.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3812679 *Aug 8, 1972May 28, 1974Ruemmele WTunnel lining and method of applying
US4723872 *Jun 26, 1984Feb 9, 1988Frontier-Kemper Constructors, Inc.Trapezoidal divider wall for use in shaft construction
US4830536 *Jul 25, 1984May 16, 1989Commercial Shearing, Inc.Method and apparatus for tunnel lining
Classifications
U.S. Classification405/151, 138/100, 138/159
International ClassificationE21D11/15, E21D11/14
Cooperative ClassificationE21D11/15
European ClassificationE21D11/15