US 1983545 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. l1, 1934. A, E. JOHNSON ROTARY WELL DRiLLING APPARATUS 4 sheets-sheet 1 Filed Dec. 25, 1930 HNI xx V Dec. l1, 1934. A E, JOHNSQN 1,983,545
ROTARY WELL DRILLING APPARATUS Filed Dec. 25, v1930 4 sheets-sheet 2 Dec. 11, 1934. A. E. JoHNsoN 1,983,545
v ROTARY WELL DRILLING APPARATUS' Filed Dec. 25, 1930 4 Smets-sheet 5 Dec. 11, 1934.
4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Dec. 25, ,1950
vlo 'Patented Dec. )11,1934 f UNITED` STATES PATENT I OFFICE cent to Hazard-8; Miller, Los Angeles, Calif., a irm composed of Herman Miller and Fred H. Miller, and twenty-five per Withrow, Los ngeles, Calif.
` Application December 25, 1930, serial No. 504,661
'i 25 (cl. c55-f2s) My invention relates to rotary well apparatus using a string of drill pipe for'the mountmg of the bit and to give a rotating action. In this type of drilling, using a rotary turn table having.
an opening through which the string of drill pipe is lowered and lifted and in which the pipe is held stationary by means of slips which frictionally hold the pipe, `these slips fitting in the spider in the turn table, it has been found that due to the heavy weight of the drill ,strings now being used and to the hardness of the metal of these pipes of the string, it is becoming more diicult to properly support the heavy load without slippage or without rapidly wearing the friction face off the slips and also without marring the pipes.
A main object, therefore, of my invention, is the construction of appliances which will positively support the string of drill pipe in a manner other than the friction grip against the pipes, and in order to perform this .operation I provide constructions with abutment shoulderswhich, cooperating with devices on the rotary table, give a` positive support to the string of drill pipe suspended in the well while this i`s held stationary for the purpose of attaching and detaching stands of pipe from the drill string.
A further feature of my invention in connection with this shoulder abutment construction is also providing shoulders for engagement by the elevator so that the drill string may be raised and lowered inthe standard manner by`v the elevator connected to the cables in the derrick, the elevator using one set of shoulders and the positive holding -device using another set of abutment shoulders.
A still further object and feature of my invention-is using these various constructions having the two sets of shoulders, one for supporting the string of drill pipe and the other for .engagement by the elevator, whereby the elevator cannot catch on the set of Ashoulders designed to support the load in its stationary position, and that such supporting shoulders are located below the shoulders to be engaged by the elevator. The purpose of this is so that the v elevator may be latched on the drill pipe or on the coupling elements below the supporting shou`der and will slide upwardly on the portions of the drill string until the elevators come into engagement with the elevator engaging shoulders. f
In connection with this feature of having the drill string construction yprovided with an addi-- tureoff the two sets of shoulders, the lower one for the stationary supporting of the load and the upperone for engagement by the elevator. For instance: in one type of arrangement I may provide a tool joint) coupling element which may be adapted for present type of drill pipe, and this tool joint coupling is provided with a lower set of abutment shoulders to be used in the stationary supporting of the-pipe and an upper set of shoulders yto be engaged by the elevator for raising and lowering the drill string. J y
In still other arrangements I may make the drill pipes themselves with a shoulder to be engaged .and formthe abutment for the stationary supporting .of the drill string, and have a tool joint coupling element connected to the pipe and yeither with the elevator engaging shoulders adjacent its upper end o r at the lower end, in which latter case the elevator encircles the upper part of the drill pipe.
Again,'in still further types, I may make special upper shoulder for engagement bythe elevator.
Therefore, in this construction the drill pipe itself is provided with two types of shoulders. All. of these shoulders are preferably annular and the abutment shoulders are preferably on a slope or bevel to allow the elevators to slip over these in an upward movement. y
- Another object and feature of myinventlon is the use of devices in connection with the rotary table to positively engage and support the string of drill pipe by\the supporting shoulder and in which said devices may be readily shifted for lifting and lowering the drill string and which also willallow the insertion of a bushing on the kelly for rotating the drill string.
rIn this connection another detailed object an feature of my invention is the use of a spider which may be inserted in an opening in the rotary table, and this spider is provided with substantial suspension lugs, these lugs each being designed to engage half of the annular abutment or suspension shoulder of the tool joint coupling element or on thel drill pipe, such lugs being pivoted to allow tilting whereby when such lugs are in a ysubstantially horizontal position they may supbushing.
A further detailed object and feature of my in. vention in connection with the pivoted suspension lugs is constructing these lugs to transfer a `ver tical load' of the suspended drill string to the spider and, hence, to the rotary table, and also to support a slightly lateral thrust, these features effected by the contact of the pivot lugs and the spider whereby the load does not need to be carried by the pivot pins on whichthese lugs hinge.
Any ther feature in connection with the tilting or hinging suspension lugs is that these are so designed that the drill pipe inpassing downwardly through the lugs is centered so that in the action of the lugs closing into the supporting position there can be no binding of the drill string against the lugs.
Fig. 1 is a Vertical section taken on the line 1-1 of Fig. 2 in the direction of the arrows, illustrating a string of drill pipe supported cn the rotary table;
Fig.-2 is a horizontal section on the line 2 2 of Fig. 1 in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 3 is a part section similar to Fig. 1 with the suspension lugs in their inoperative position;
Fig. 4 is a perspective view of one of the suspen- Fig. 5 is a vertical section on the line 5--5 of Fig. 2 taken in the direction of the arrows, with the drill string and the suspension lugs omitted;
Fig. 6 is avvertical section through another type 'of tool joint connection illustrating the suspension shoulder on a length of drill pipe and the elevator shoulders on the upper part of the tool joint connector;
Fig. 7 is a vertical section of another form of tool joint connection, also with the suspension shoulder on a drill pipe and the elevator shoulder on the lower end of the connector;
Fig. 8 is a vertical section through another type of tool joint with the suspension shoulder and the elevator shoulder both on a drill pipe;
Fig. 9 is a vertical section through part of the rotary table, showing the spider, the suspension lugs in their inoperative position, and the kelly bushing fitting in the spider, this section being taken on the line 9-9 of Fig. 10 in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 10 is a horizontal section on the line 10-10 of Fig. 9 in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 11 is a plan showing the centering action of the suspension lugs on a drill pipe.
First referring to Figs. 1 and 2, in these figures there is illustrated in a general manner a rotary table designated 1l, this being illustrated ,as mounted on a suitable base or support 12, rthe particular bearings, however, being omitted. The table is driven by the pinion 13 in the usual manner.
A spiderf14 is fitted inthe spider opening 15 in the rotary table. This opening has opposite sides 16 and what may be termed opposite ends 17 forming a square with the corners 18 cutol. There is also a slight shoulder 19 in the rotary table, this being a common practice and construction. The spider has two vertical inner surfaces 20 which are parallel to the sides 16 and extend completely from the ends 17. These form side blocks 21. 'I'here are a pair of end blocks 22 having two vertical surfaces 23 parallel to the surfaces 20 and with vertical cross surfaces ,24 having slightly rounded upper edges 25. The
top surface 26 of the spider is preferably on the same level as the top surface 27 of the rotary table, as is the common practice. This is more or less immaterial. This construction provides the spider with a at surface 28, this being below the top horizontal surface 26. The spider has a circular opening 29, the upper section 30 of which is tapered to accommodate the kelly bushing orv slips, and there is the usual outwardtare 3l at the bottom. The spider has a diametrically split joint 32 and is provided with horizontal shouiders there are two, each have ears 35 with perforations 36 therethrough. The sides 37 of the suspension lugs are vertical and the inside surface 38 of the ears are also vertical and parallel to the surfaces 37. Pins 39 are inserted through the perforations in the blocks 21 of the spider, these continuing into sockets 40 into the vend blocks 22 of the spider and thus form pivots for the tilting of the lugs from the operative position of Fig. 1 to the inoperative position of Fig. 3. The ends of 'the ears are slightly rounded at the lower portion 41 to give clearance in tilting of the ears.
Each of the suspension lugs has a semi-cylin# drical bore 42 extending therethrough yso that when the lugs are intheir lowermost position these' two surfaces form a cylinder. There is a beveled suspension shoulder 43, this forming a half circle on each lug and forming a full circle when the two lugs are in their lowermost position. There is a at top edge 44 which is slightly,
" 'surface 49. The main part of the weight of the drill string when carried by the suspension lugs is taken on the under flat surfaces such surfaces rest on the shoulders 28 ofthe spider. The outside surfaces 51 of the suspension lugs have a curved section to facilitate giving a clearance at the curved nose of the spider and there is a vertical edge 53 which communicates an end thrust which bears against the vertical surfaces 24 of the spider. Each of the suspension lugs is provided with an eye 54 to which may be attached a chain 55 for tilting these lugs outwardly.
It will be seen, therefore', by this construction that the spider is readily insertable in the rotary table and that the suspension lugs are readilyY mounted in and removable from the spider when desired.
One manner of suspending a drill string is illustrated in Fig. 1 in which a string of drill pipe is designated generally by the numeral 56, this having a drill pipe 57 with an upset section 58 and with pipe threads 59 on the outside thereof. This is an illustration of a typical and standard drill pipe in which the outer surface 60 is cylindrical and the outside diameter is the same throughout except for the screw threaded sections, the diameter at the opposite portion 58 being the same as at the thin portion. In the description herein'- under given, it will be noted that in my new type of drill pipe I divert from these characteristics.
Secured to the drill pipe there is my new type of tool joint coupling element designated generally at 61. This has pipe threads to engage with the threads 59 on the drillv pipe and is pling element has what might be termed a flat annular shoulder 63, the shoulder being transverse to the axis of the drill string and, hence, of the coupling element. These may be designated elevator shoulders as they are engaged by the jaws 64 ofthe elevator 65, this elevator being illustrated as of a standard and typical character. The lower edge ofthe tool joint element is provided with a beveled suspension shoulder 66, this having a slope and engaging the sloping or beveled suspension surfaces 43 of the suspension lugs. These two surfaces transmit the weight of the load of the drill string to the suspension lugs and from the suspension lugs the weight is carried to the spider and from the spider to the rotary table. The suspension lugs do not have any wedging` or gripping effect of the bore 42 against the sides of the drill pipe, there being sullicient' clearance to prevent this,
and the weight of the drill string is not sup-v ported frictionally in any manner. The feature of having the shoulder 66 sloping or beveled is in part so that the elevator, if latched on the drill pipe below the coupling element and sliding upwardly to engage the elevator shoulder 63, may readily slide over the suspension shoulder 66. The outer surface 67 of the tool joint coupling element must be of sufficient lengthbetween the elevator shoulder 63 and suspension shoulder 66 so that there is suflicient room so that the elevator may be easily applied and detached and have a clearance above the rotary table.
In the operation of running a drill string in a well with my equipment, standard drill pipe would have an equipment of new tool joint couplings made in accordance with my invention, and the string as lowered would be supportedi by the engagement of the suspension shouldersy on the tool joint coupling units with the suspension shoulders on the suspension lugs. The vertical component of the load is transferred to the horizontal shoulders 28 of the spider and the horizontal component is transmitted sideways through the vertical surfaces 24 of the spider and the vertical surfaces 53 of the lugs.
After a stand of drill pipe has been secured to the tool joint coupling, unit the elevatorszengaging the upper stand lift the drill string slightly suiciently for the operators on the derrick oor to tilt the suspension lugs `upwardly by pulling on the chains 55. This allows the string to be lowered, there being suicient clearance for the coupling units. When the drill string is being removed from the well and the dilerent stands uncoupled the ared surfaces 49 of the suspension lugs engage the upper portions of the tool joint coupling units or any other parts of the larger diameter and this causes the suspension lugs to be lifted or forced to their upper position illustrated in Fig. 3 and -thus allowing a free upward passage of the drill string.
When it is desired to suspend the string for uncoupling a stand, the operators on the derrick loor merely kick the lugs downwardly, then the string is` lowered until it is properly suspended. Hereagain the flared surface 49 functions to center the string of pipe should it be off center, and give an accurate bearing of the load. The outwardly flared lower surfaces 48 are for the purpose of allowing the two suspension lugs to be tilted upwardly on their pivot pins without binding.
When it is desired to,dri1l, the kelly designated generally at 68, this being, usually, of
drill pipe 76 with an upset section 78.
squared section, is lowered with the kelly bushing 69, the bushing fitting in the spider. (Note particularly Figs. 9 and 10.) The,bushing is rectangular and has side surfaces 70 tting against the vertical sides 20 of the blocks 21 of the spider and has end surfaces 71 which fit against the vertical surfaces 24 of the end blocks 22 of the spider. "I'he kelly bushing has horizontal shoulders 72 which rest on the shoulders 28 of the spider, and has inclined surfaces 73 which t against the tapered surfaces 30 of the spider. The kelly bushing has a diametrical split 74. The general construction of this kelly bushing substantially follows the standard procedure. It will be seen, therefore, that when 'the suspension lugs are tilted upwardly in the position of Fig. 9 it is not necessary to remove these lugs for the insertion of the kelly bushing. The rotary table may transmit its rotary motion through the bushing to the kelly and, hence, to the drill string.
lAnother modification of the drill string and coupling unit is indicated in Fig. 6 in which the drill string is designated at 75. This has a lower This upset section has a sloping annular suspension shoulder 79 and at the upper end is provided with pipe threads 80. Connected to this there is a tool joint coupling designated generally at 81, this being threaded on to the pipe threads 80 at the bottom and having a box 82 at the upper end with tool joint threads for engaging with the pin 83 of the coupling 84. The upper end of this coupling has pipe threads 85 to engage with the pipe threads on the lower end of the upper drill pipe 86.
" The tool joint coupling 81 is provided with an elevator shoulder 87, such shoulder extending radially and in operation being horizontal. In this construction it will be noted that the outer surface 88 of the upset end of the drill pipe is of a greater diameter than the major portion 89 of this pipe and that the outer surface 90 of the tool joint coupling is of the same diameter as the section 88 of the drill pipe. Therefore, should the elevators be applied to this drill string on thesection 89 of the drill pipe, the elevator jaws will ride over, the suspension shoulder 79 and will also ride over the section 88 of the large diameter and also the section 90 without engaging the lower edge 91 of the coupling 81 and the elevator will support the load by the shoulder 87.
I'his construction utilizes a comparatively short upset end on the drill pipe and has the drill string suspended in the suspension lugs by direct engagement of the suspension shoulder 79 on the pipe, and for elevating, the elevator grips the elevator shoulder 87 adjacent the upper end of thetool joint coupling.
Fig. 7 shows a somewhat different construction in which the drill string is designated generally at 92, having a lower drill pipe93, this having a sloping annular suspension shoulder 94, and an elongated upset section 95 wLth pipe threads 96 at the top. These pipe threads are threaded into the lower end of the tool joint coupling 97, which coupling has an elevator shoulder 98 at its lower end such shoulder extending radially. The
coupling is provided with a box 99 having coarse tool joint threads and is threaded into a connecting coupling 100, the latter having the lower end of an upper drill pipe 101 threaded therein, these having a pipe thread connection. In this construction the outside diameter of the cylindrical section 102 of the upset is larger than the section 103. Manifestly, the diameter of the surface 104 of the coupling is of still greater diameter. With this construction, therefore, if the elevator jaws are closed around the drill pipe they slide upwardly over the suspension shoulder 94, over the cylindrical surface 102, and engage the elevator shoulder 98 on the bottom of the coupllng. 'Ihe main difference between this construction and that of Fig. 6, is, therefore, that the elevators engage the low'er end' of the tool joint coupling instead of the shoulder on the upper portion of such coupling.
In the construction of Fig. 8 a further modication of a drill pipe is illustrated. In this case the`drlll pipe is designated generally at 105 having a lower drill pipe 106, this having an upset end 107 with an annular sloping suspension shoulder 108 and adjacent the upper end of the upset a radial elevator shoulder 109. In this case the upset end is provided with a box 110 having a coarse tool joint thread engaging the coarse thread on the pin end l111 of the upper drill pipe 112.
By this construction, therefore, the main cylindrical portion 113 of the drill pipe is of the smallest diameter; the elongated portion 114 of the upset end is of greater diameter; and the upper portion 115 is of the greatest diameter. Thus, if the elevator jaws are clamped around the drill string below the suspension shoulder 108 they will ride upwardly over this and over the part 114 engaging the suspension shoulder 109'. The drill pipe is suspended in the suspension lugs on the suspension shoulder 108.
An important characteristic of my invention is the manner in which the drill string is centered while being lowered in the well by this,
action of the suspension lugs. It will be noted that the spider has a contracted neck 116 and in lowering the drill pipe this pipe may be moved to one side until it contacts with this neck. 'I'he suspension lugs have an edge 11'7 which is formed at the junction line of the flared surface 49, the flat end 47 and the outward are 48 at the lower part of the flat surfaces. This edge 117 is slightly rounded and forms a cam surface, and the lower edge extends outwardly beyond the contracted neck 116. Therefore, when the drill pipe is being lowered, as is indicated in Fig. 11, and in contact with the neck 116 of the spider at one side, the suspension lugs, which have been tilted inwardly by the operators on the derrickfloor, engage the pipe by this cam edge on two of the opposing lugs. The frictional engagement, therefore, of the pipe on these lugs, together with the weight of the lugs, forces the pipe toward the center of the spider. Therefore, the suspension lugs drop into their horizontal position with the.drill pipe properly centered and are in this latter position to engage the suspension lugs before the suspension shoulder comes into contact with the suspension lugs.
By my construction I lnot only simplify the manner of suspending a string of drill pipe in a well and handling this pipe, but also, with my construction, the drilling operations can be carried out either with fewer operators or with less work for the same operators and with greater accuracy. For instance: the driller in operating his hoists, etc., in lowering drill pipe can readily gauge when the suspension shoulder on the drill string is close to the suspension lugs, and as the drill string can be quickly stopped in its downward motion, he can lower the string at high speed until the contact is just about made and then may lower slowly until the weight of the drill string is taken by the lugs and removed from the elevator. .With the old system,l using slips to support the drill string, the driller had to handle his hoists with considerable caution just before and while the slips were being inserted. Thus, the lowering had to be done slowly and the operator was not sure that the load had been taken by the slips until he could notice that the elevator was loosened from the elevator shoulders. Moreover, with my type of construction, it only requires two men on the derrick floor to operate the suspension lugs for tilting them in and pulling them out, whereas, the necessary practice where three slips are used, is to have three men, one for each slip. Again, with my construction, the work of the derrick men in the upper part of the derrick connecting and disconnecting the elevator from the stands of drill pipes lessened because there is additional tolerance and clearance of the elevator on the drill pipe because the elevator has to be of such size as to pass over the suspension shoulder before engaging the elevator shoulder and, hence, has considerable clearance on the pipe sections.
A relatively important feature of my invention from the standpoint of operating is that the diameter of the string of drill pipe below the suspension collar is the same as the outside diameter of the individual pipe, and as this suspension shoulder is sloping, the elevator may be latched on the drill pipe and allowed to slip up over the suspension shoulder and engage the elevator shoulder and, moreover, as in raising and lowering drill pipe, the elevator must be latched and unlatched quickly and usually while the stand of drill pipe is still under motion, this is an important characteristic offmy invention. When run out of the hole when the pipe is placed in the rack, the elevator is usually allowed to slide down the pipe to a convenient position for unlatching, hence, there is nothing to interfere with either the upward or downward sliding of the elevator on the stand of drill pipe until it engages the elevator shoulder.
Another feature of importance in regard to the suspension shoulder is that this, while sloping, does not support the weight of the drill string by any` slip or friction action as distinguished from the support of the drill string by the ordinary type of slips. The support on sloping shoulders is as eifective in maintaining the load of the pipe without any friction or wedging action as the squared shoulders used for the elevator.
An important feature of my invention which allows development of considerable speed in both running the drill string in a well in starting and stopping drilling and in running out of a well is that the master spider 14 is always left in the rotary table. When a drill string is running in or out of a hole for which the lugs 34 are designed, this string is suspended by the lugs. In running in a hole for the tool joint on which the string has been suspended, these lugs are tilted inwardly and form a guide for the drill string until the tool joint next above rests on the lugs. In running out of the hole, also, the lugs are left in their horizontal position while the string is being pulled up and thus guide the drill string. The rubber protectors and the couplings tilt the lugs upwardly until the protectors pass the lugs; the lugs then fall back to the horizontal position and, on account of the undercut bevel again center the drill string. When a driller wants a coupling to rest upon the lugs he raises this above the lugs and then lowers the lugs sufllciently to bring the coupling to rest ling this.
upon the lugs. This is entirely done by the driller. While the driller is manipulating the drill string inl this manner, the derrick iloor man may attach tongs to the upper section of the pipe for unscrew- Where the slip method of suspension is used the oor man must first insert the slips and have the string suspended before he can attach Therefore, by my procedure considerable time is saved in coupling and uncoupling the tool joints.
'Ihe master spider 14 may also be usedv with slips where a different-sized pipe is used than that for which the lugs are designed. This master spider also accommodates a kelly bushing.-v It is the usual practice to always leave the kelly bush-'- ing,.although this is in two parts and bolted together, or on the kelly. Therefore, when the kelly is hoisted it lifts the kelly bushing above the V, rotary table. The present practice, with a long string of drill pipes and using the slip method of suspension, is to have an especially long bushing to accommodate the long slips which are necV essary. 'I'his bushing has to be removed for drilling after running the -drill string in and a bushing of less height inserted, with which bushing the kelly bushing can t. Therefore, as my master bushing or spider 14 accommodates both the lug suspension or slip suspension and the kelly bushing it saves materially in the operation of changing from running in for drilling and from drilling to runnning out of the hole. Therefore, the master bushing or spider 14 vhas definite and conjoint functions in running the drill string in and out of the hole in accommodating the kelly bushing in the drilling.
Various changes may be made in the details of construction without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims.
l. A well drilling apparatus comprising in combination a string of drill pipe having a structure with a lower sloping suspension shoulder, the slope converging downwardly and inwardly toward the axis of the-drill'string, and having an upper elevator shoulder transverse to the drillstring, a rotary table having a spider therein and having tiltable suspension lugs, said suspension lugs having a sloping surface to engage the suspension shoulder and to suspend the drill string in the well, the mounting of the suspension lugs in the spider having a commotion providing a surface to transmit a vertical downward pressure and a surface to transmit a lateral pressure both of said surfaces being contiguous and adjacent the point of tilting, the said lugs being tiltable to provide a passage through the said spider, a kelly bushing fitting in` said spider, and a kelly extending through said latter bushing.
2. In a well drilling apparatus, a drill pipe having a tool joint`eoupling-unit connected thereto, said coupling having a lower downwardly and inwardly sloping suspension shoulder to transmit a downward and outward thrust and an upper transverse elevator shoulder.
. 3. In a well drilling apparatus, a drill pipe having a downwardly and inwardly sloping suspension shoulder to transmit a downward and outward thrust, the slope converging toward the axis of the pipe, a coupling unit connected thereto having an elevator shoulder thereon, the outside diameter of the coupling unit above the elevator shoulder being greater than the outside diameter 'of the drill pipe above the suspension shoulder.
4. In a well drilling apparatus, a drill pipe having a 'downwardly and inwardly sloping suspension shoulder to transmit a downward .and outward thrust, the slope converging toward the axis of the pipe, a coupling lunit vcorniected Vtol `the, upper end of the pipe and havingv an elevator shoulder transverse to the axisl of the pipe, `the coupling having an exterior surface below thel elevator shoulder of substantially the same diameter as the drill pipe above the suspension shoulder, such surface being adaptedv to accommodate the jaws of an elevator.
5. In a well drilling apparatus, a drill pipe having La downwardly andY inwardly sloping suspension shoulder to. transmit a downward and outward' thrust, the slope converging toward the axis of the pipe, a coupling unit connected to the upper part ofthe pipe and having an elevator shoulder at its lower end, the outside diameter of the cou- -plirig above the elevator shoulder being greater than the outside diameter of the pipe above the suspensionshoulder, and the length of pipe kbetween the elevator and suspension shoulders being sufficient to accommodate the jaws of an elevator around the upper portion off the drill pipe.
6. A drill string havingL sections with different adjacent portions of three distinctly different outside diameters, the lowest section being of smallest diameter, the intermediate section of medium diameter, and the upper section of largest diameter, a sloping shoulder to form a suspension shoulder tobe supported on a rotary table being located between the smallest and the medium diameters Vand adapted to support the drill string by a nonder to be engaged by an elevator, the lowest section of smallest diameterbeing adapted to allow latching of an elevator thereabout, and the sloping suspension shoulder allowing such elevator to ride upwardly thereover into engagement with the elevator shoulder. y
7. In a' well drilling apparatus, a section of drill pipe having a vtool joint 'coupling connected thereto at its upper end, such coupling having a sloping suspension shoulder at its lower end at its junction with the drill pipe to transmit a downward and outward thrust, the coupling having a. section of relatively small diameter extending upwardly from the suspension shoulder and having an upper section of a larger diameter, the larger and smaller diameters of the coupling having a squared elevator shoulder.
8. In a well drilling apparatus, a section of drill pipe having its major portion of a smaller diameter and its upper end of a larger diameter, there being a sloping suspension shoulder connecting. the smaller and larger diameter sections of lthe pipe, a tool joint coupling connected to the upper end of the pipe at the portion of the larger diameter, the external diameter of the tool joint being greater than that of the upper end of the drill pipe, and such tool joint having a squared elevator shoulder at the bottom.
9. A well drilling apparatus comprising, in combination, a supporting structure with a plurality of pivotally mounted lugs connectedl thereto, said lugs when operative being adapted to occupy a horizontal position and when in such position the lugs having an annular downwardly and axially inwardly sloping suspension surface, a string of drill pipe having a portion of smaller and a portion of larger diameter joined by a sloping suspension shoulder adapted to be engaged by the sloping surface on the lugs and to be sustained by said lugs by a non-frictional engagement, said lugs having surfaces to transmita downward and outward thrust to the supporting structure.
l0. Ina well drilling apparatus, a spider having an opening for passage of drill pipe",` a plurality of pivotally mounted suspension lugs, each lug when in the operative horizontal position having a downwardly and inwardly inclined surface to form a suspension shoulder and adapted to engage downwardly and inwardly inclined suspension shoulders on a string of drill pipe, said lugs having outwardly flared surfaces below the suspension shoulders, said lugs being adaptedto tilt into an upwardly inclined position, said ared surfaces being adapted when the lugs tilt from the vertical to the horizontal'position to engage a main portion of a drill pipe and to force same to the axial center of the spider.
1l. In a well drilling apparatus, a spider having an opening for passage of drill pipe, a plurality of pivotallyimounted-V lugs, the spider having a horizontal shoulder and a downwardly inclined surface, said lugs having complementary surfaces to engage said shoulder and the inclined surface of the spider to take the horizontal and vertical v thrust in suspending a string of drill pipe, said lugs having' a downwardly and inwardly inclined surface to' form a suspension shoulder adapted to engagev downwardly and inwardly inclined suspension shoulders on the drill pipe, said lugs being adapted to tilt to an upwardly and outwardly inclined position to permit upward passage of a string of drill pipe. Y
"12. In a well drilling apparatus, the combination of a spider having an opening for passage of drill pipe, a plurality of pivotally mounted suspension lugs, each havinga downwardly and inwardly inclined suspension shoulder, andan outwardly flared surface below such shoulder, a string of drill pipe having the main portion of the pipe of a cylindrical section to t betweenY the lugsY when the latter are in their horizontal operative position, the pipe having a series ofY downwardly and inwardly inclined suspension shoulders to be engaged by the suspension shoulders of the lugs by a non-frictional support, said 'Y lugs being adapted to tilt to an upwardly and outwardly inclined position, and in lowering a string of drill pipe when the lugs tilt from inoperative to operative position said flaring surface being adapted to engage a drill pipeand to force same to the axial center of the spider, said lugs having' surfaces complementary to the spider to transmit downward and outward pressures.
13. In a well drilling apparatus, a. rotary table having a spider with side blocks removably mounted therein, said spider having a horizontal shoulder and a downwardly and inwardly inclined opening with a contracted neck, a plurality of suspension lugs each pivotally mounted in the spider and having complementary surfaces to engage the shoulder and the contracted opening of the spider to take the vertical and horizontal thrust when in the operative position, said lugs having when'Y in the "operative position a downwardly and 'inwardly inclined suspension shoulder adapted to engage a downwardly and inwardly inclined suspension shoulder in a string of drill pipe by non-frictional engagement, said lugs being adapted to tilt to an upwardly and outwardly inclined position, and a kelly bushing having shoulders to engage the horizontal shoulder and having an inclined surface to engage the inclined opening of the spider, said lugs when tilted to the inoperative position permitting operating of said kelly bushing witliout removing said lugs.
14. A drill string having a series of downwardly and axially inwardly inclined suspension shoulders at substantially an angle of 45 degrees adapted to be engaged by suspension lugs by a nonfrictional suspension and to transmit downward and outward thrusts, the string having a series of sections of the same diameters as that of the outside of the suspension shoulders, and right angular elevator shoulders above the suspension shoulders and extending outwardly beyond said suspension shoulders.
15. In a drill string, a drill pipe, a tool joint coupling secured thereto, said coupling having a downwardly and axially inwardly inclined-suspension shoulder at the bottom at substantially an angle of 45 degrees, and a right angular outwardly projecting elevator shoulder adjacent the upper part of the coupling.
16. In a drill string, a drill pipe having a short upset upper end with a suspension shoulder inclined at an angle of substantially 45 degrees downwardly and inwardly, a tool joint coupling secured to the upper end of the drill pipe and having an outwardly right angularly projecting elevator shoulder above the connection to the drill pipe Y 17. In a drill string, a drill pipe having a long upset upper end with a suspension shoulder inclined downwardly and inwardly at an angle of substantially 45 degrees, a tool joint coupling secured to the upper end of the pipe having a right' angularly projecting elevator shoulder at its lower end.
18. AY well drilling apparatus comprising a string of drill pipe having a lower conically shaped shoulder downwardly and inwardly tapered forY suspension, a cylindrical surface above said shoulder, and an upper right-angular elevator shoulder above the cylindrical surface, in combination with a rotary table having a conicafly shaped suspension means downwardly and inwardly tapered conforming to that of said suspension shoulder to engage said suspension shoulder and support a string of drill pipe by a non-frictional support, and an elevator having elevator jaws, said jaws forming a snug flt on the cylindrical surface and engaging the elevator shoulder, said jaws having a loose t on the section of the drill string below the lower suspension shoulder and adapted to ride upwardly over such suspension shoulder to engage the elevator shoulder; Y
19. A well drilling apparatus comprising a string of drill pipe having a lower suspension shoulder with a conical surface tapered inwardly and downwardly toward the axis of the string, a cylindricalsurface above the suspension shoulder, and an elevator shoulder Yabove the cylindrical surface transverse'to the axis of the drill string, in combination with a rotary table having suspension devices therein, said devices having hinged elements, said elements when in a horizontal position having a conical suspension sur- .face sloping inwardly and downwardly complementary to the suspension shoulder, said elements being mounted in the rotary table to tilt upwardly to allow downward movement of the drill string without contacting with said elements, said i elementsV when in a horizontal position engaging an enlarged part of the drill string above the elevator shoulder in the upward movement of the string being `tilted by said enlarged part to an i shoulder, said shoulder being conical and tapered upward inoperative position, said suspension devices transmitting the suspension thrust from thesuspension shoulder of the drill string to the rotary table.
20. In a well drilling apparatus, a string of drill pipe having a structure forming a lower suspension shoulder, said suspension shoulder being conical and tapered inwardly and downwardly toward the axis of the drill string, a cylindrical section above the suspension'shoulder and an upper elevator shoulder transverse -to the axis of the drill string, the outside diameter of said structure below the suspension shoulder being adapted to provide a loose t for the clamped jaws of an elevator below the suspension shoulder and a snug fit below the elevator shoulder whereby an elevator with the jaws clamped may slide upwardly over the suspension shoulder to engage the elevator shoulder, combined with means to suspend the drill string by suspension devices having a downwardly and inwardly sloping surface complementary to that of the suspension shoulder.
21. In a well drilling apparatus, a string of drill pipe having a lower sloping suspension shoulder, said shoulder being conical and having an inward and downward taper toward the axis of the string, a cylindrical surface below the suspension shoulder, and a second cylindrical surface above the suspension shoulder, an upper elevator shoulder transverse to the axis of the drill string at the. upper end of the second cylindrical surface, the outside diameter of the second cylindrical surface being greater than the outside -diameter 'of the first cylindrical surface, the suspension shoulder being adapted to provide means for suspending the drill string by such suspension shoulder by a non-frictional support transmitting an outward and downward thrust, and said elevator shoulder -being adapted to provide means for lifting and lowering said drill string.
22. A well drilling apparatus comprising a string of drill pipe having a lower suspension shoulder with a conical surface tapered inwardly and downwardly toward the axis of the string, a cylindrical surface above the suspension shoulder, and an elevator shoulder at the upper end of the cylindrical surface, the outside diameter above the elevator shoulder being greater than that of the cylindrical surface, combined with a suspension means having a downwardly and inwardly sloping surface to conform kto the conical surface of the suspension shoulder and adapted to suspend the drill string in a well by a non-frictional support.
23. A well drilling apparatus comprising a string of drill pipe `having a lower suspension inwardly and downwardly toward the axis of the string, an upper elevator shoulder transverse to the axis of the drill string, the outside diameter of the string above the elevator shoulder being greater than that between the suspension and elevator shoulders,y combined with a rotary table having a spider ttedtherein, a plurality of suspension lugs hinged to such spider to occupy either a horizontal operative position or an upwardly substantially vertical inoperative position, the suspension lugs when in a horizontal position having a downwardly and inwardly sloping suspension surface complementary to the suspension shoulder of the drill string and to engage said shoulder, the spider and the suspension lugs having interacting surfaces to convey a downward and outward pressure when the lugs support the drill string.
24. A well drilling apparatus comprising, in combination, a string of drill pipe having a lower suspension shoulder with a surface downwardly and inwardly inclined toward the axis of the string, and an upper elevator shoulder transverse to the string, combined with a rotary table having suspension means with downwardly and inwardly sloping surfaces complementary to those of the suspension shoulder to engage said shoulder by a non-frictional engagement to support the drill pipe, an elevator having elevator jaws, said l jaws when clamped having a` relatively loose t on the section of the drill string below the suspension shoulder and a relatively close fit to the section of the string above the suspension shoulder, said jaws being adapted to slide upwardly over the suspension .shoulder to engage the elevator shoulder. f .f v
2 5. In a well drilling apparatus, a spider with a contracted neck, a suspension means formed of a plurality of suspension lugs hinged to the spider by horizontal pintles, said lugs being adapted to occupy an operative horizontal position and a substantially vertical inoperative position, said lugs when in the horizontal position having a downwardlyand inwardly sloping suspension surface and having downwardly and outwardly flared surfaces below the suspension surface, said downwardly and outwardly flared surfaces being adapted when the lugs are in a tilted position to engage a drill pipe which is being lowered and off center and force such drill pipe to the axial center of the spider prior to engagement of the suspension surface by suspension means on the drill pipe.
ARTHUR E. JorNsoN.