US 1987449 A
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Jan. 8, 1935. 5 SCHWEIZER T AL 1,987,449
PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CREPE YARN Filed Feb. 25, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 I Fig. 3
ERNST SCHWEIZER CHARLES LANDQLT- l N VENTOR5 ATTORNEYS Jan. 8, lg35. SCHWElZER ET AL 1,987,449
PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF CREPE YARN Filed Feb. 23, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Fig.5.
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fins ifiJrweizEf Charks land)? A harneji Patented Jan. 8, 1935 UNITED STATES PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURE 01F (ZREPE YARN Ernst Schweizer and Charles lilandolt, Zurich, Switzerland Application February 23, 1933, Serial No. stair: In Switzerland February 12, 1932;
The present invention relates to a process and means for manufacturing twisted yarn, and especially crepe yarn, and it is one characteristic feature of the invention, that the yarn is first 5 drawn off from a rapidly rotating yarn supply bobbin by means of rollers closely disposed above the latter, then moistened while under reduced tension, afterwards exposed to a temperature of 100 to 300 C., or more, and finally wound at constant speed upon cylindrical or conical bobbins.
The main object of our invention is to provide a process and apparatus as indicated which are far more simple and economical than those in use heretofore, being particularly elfective to prevent the formation of the deleterious and troublesome kinks in the yarn which are otherwise usually encountered.
Another important object is to make it readily possible to manufacture uniform twisted yarn such as crepe yarn of high quality.
A further object is to manufacture finished crepe yarn and the like by much fewer operations than were heretofore considered necessary.-
Other objects and the several advantages inherent in the features and practice of our invention will appear more fully hereinafter as the specification proceeds.
Before specifically illustrating and describing the invention at length and in detail, it may perhaps be remarked that the art already discloses the step of mcistening and drying the thread during the twisting operation, as well as stretching the thread while moistening it.
However, according to the invention, the thread is freed from its tension by means of a drawing ofi roller disposed anterior to the moistening point, the peripheral speed of the roller being somewhat greater than that of the winding bobbin. The drawing off roller is further disposed 40 in an extremely closeposition above the threadguide which in turn is located above the twisting bobbin. As the twist is formed between this drawing ofi roller and the thread guide, an extremely uniform twisting is obtained by the resulting short distance, as with a greater distance, the twisting has the tendency to concentrate upon the weaker parts of the thread. Moreover, the yarn is exposed to a temperature of 100 C. to 300 C. or more while being guided through a device for vaporizing the water in the individual thread disposed along the path of travel of the yarn, and by this means, an extraordinary drying of the yarn is obtained. The water adhering to the yarn is not only evaporated as in the usual drying methods but it becomes directly vaporized,
(Cl. Jim-2) and hence the saturation of the air with water vapors has no influence upon the drying process.
Besides the quick drying effect obtained, the yarn is at the same time steamed by the steam produced, that is, the yarn which had become living is again paralyzed whereby the onerous formation of kinks is avoided. Surprising as it may seem, yet these very high temperatures have in no way any detrimental influence upon the yarn, even upon the highly sensitive artificial silk for which the present invention is especially adapted.
In order to obtain a uniform twist, as well as uniform moistening and uniform drying, it is absolutely necessary to have an absolutely uniform speed of winding on to the bobbins, even with bobbins of conical form. In order to control the yarn as far as possible, the winding bobbin is driven, not by means of rollers but directly by primarily using known gearings connected to the driving means to reduce the number of revolutions of the bobbin in accordance with the increase of the winding, and secondly, for the manufacture of conical bobbins, according to the invention, eccentrically driven wheels are used to control the number of revolutions of the bobbin at each to and fro movement of the thread guide in accordance with the momentarily varying diameters of the winding.
In order that the invention may be better understood reference will nowbe made to the accompanying drawings wherein are diagrammatically illustrated, by way of example, varying types of apparatus in accordance with the invention.
Figure 1 shows one particular construction and arrangement of apparatus.
Figure 2 is a cross section through the drying apparatus shown in Figure 1.
Figure 3 illustrates a modified form of apparatus according to the invention.
Figure 4 is another modification.
Figure 5 is yet another modification.
Throughout the views, the same reference numerals indicate the same or like parts.
In the arrangements illustrated the spinning bobbin 1 carrying the yarn which has preferably already been after-treated on the said bobbin, is mounted on a spindle 2. The yarn may advantageously have a moisture content of and in order to protect the moist yarn as much as possible the bobbin 1 is surrounded by a bell shaped member 3. The bell shaped member 3 is provided at or near its apex with a small orifice 4 and a suitable hook or other yarn guide 5. Posit med. close to the bell member 3 and above same is a pair of rollers 6 and 7 which rollers serve to draw off the yarn from the bobbin 1. In order to protect the yarn the rollers may be covered with suitable soft material such as velvet, plush, felt or the like. According to the invention the twisting of the yarn is effected for the greater part in the short distance between the hook or other yarn guide and the pair or feed rollers 6, 7.
After passing between the rollers 6, 7 the yarn is passed over or comes into contact with a wetting roller 8, which may be immersed partly or wholly in a bath of water or if desired softening and/or sizing agents may be added to the water.
After wetting the moist yarn is passed through the drying apparatus 9. The drying apparatus drys the yarn very rapidly and immediately prior to the yarn attaining a dry condition it is steamed. This causes the yarn to retain its twisted form and obviates the tendency to kink". The steaming is effected by maintaining the temperature of the drying apparatus 9 at an elevated temperature, for example at least 100 C. so that the moisture in the yarn is evaporated. It may here be stated that for each twisting station a drying apparatus is provided and this latter may be constructed and arranged in many different ways. One particular method of construction and arrangement is shown in Figures 1 and 2 of the drawings.
In this construction the yarn moves in a channel 10 formed in a hollow cylinder 11 which may be heated in any suitable manner, for example by super-heated steam, hot air or by electricity. For the purpose of introducing the yarn to the drier a slit insulating cylindrical jacket 12 is arranged round the heating member and in order to prevent loss of heat owing to the slit a second slit cylinder 13 is positioned around the slit cylinder- 12. The two cylinders are orientated so that when the yarn is introduced to the drier the slits correspond. After the introduction of the yarn the cylinder 13 is rotated so that the slit in the cylinder 12 is covered by the wall of the jacket 13. The two cylinders 12, 13 may if desired be replaced by a single insulating cylinder having a closable slit. In order to aiford better insulation rotatable closure caps 14 and 15 may be positioned at the ends of the drying apparatus 9 and said caps will obviously be provided with apertures for the passage of the yarn.
Above the drying apparatus -9 the yarn is wound on to a bobbin with complete absence of tension variations. This is of great importance for the regular twisting of the yarn. If inany part the yarn becomes stronger (when only slightly stretched) or weaker (when stretched considerably) the originally uniform twist imparted to the yarn accumulates at the weaker parts where on relaxation of strongly twisted yarn so called kinks are formed. It has been found that variations in tension are caused by the yarn guide reciprocating in front of the winding bob- .bin, since the distance between the last stationary yarn guide and the reciprocating guide is constantly varying. Consequently to avoid this varying tension according to the present invention the winding bobbin 16 is itself recip-' rocated, the yarn guide or guides 17 in front thereof remaining stationary. Any variation in tension is thereby avoided and the distance between the last stationary yarn guide 17 and the guide next before said guide 17 is constant and may be made as small as conveniently possible. In the construction shown in the drawings the last guide prior to the guide 17 is formed by the end cover 15 of the drier.
The winding bobbin which may be, for example, a flanged or cross wound bobbin, is reciprocated by the cam 18 while the driving gear 19, 20 ensures that the driven speed thereof diminishes in accordance with the increase in bulk of the yarn wound thereon.
The drawing off speed of the bobbin 16 is slower than the speed of the yarn feed rollers 6, 7 by the amount by which the yarn contracts between the said feed rollers and the said bobbin. If desired however the drawing 01! speed of the bobbin 16 may be increased or decreased in order to stretch the yarn or to pack the same loosely on the bobbin and/or to impart other properties to it.
The twisting may be carried out in one operation or as customary heretofore in a series or plurality of operations according to the properties of the yarn. According to the present invention each operation is combined with the twisting, thereby entirely obviating the special operations such as re-winding or steaming. Theprinciple' of the processes illustrated is the same but varying forms of winding apparatus may be used. According to the invention the yarn is wound directly onto bobbins for use without further winding in knitting machines, looms etc. The bobbins may be of any known or suitable shape. Preferably the yarn is given only a few twists in the last operation so as fully to utilize the relatively expensive machines for winding special bobbins. Advantageously the yarn may even be given too much twist in the last operation but one so that in the last operation the yarn can be somewhat untwisted again thereby also reducing kinking.
In winding cops the operation and apparatus is for example as illustrated in Figure 3.
This figure shows a varied form of drier. In this construction there is no actual heating element but a burner 102 such as fish tall or other gas burner known in gas singeing machines is positioned at the bottom of the drier min the lower part thereof. The gas burner may be replaced by an electrically heated resistance. The
'yam is passed through or over the burner or heated resistance and the layer of steam is immediately formed round the yarn to prevent the same being scorched or burnt. The drier may for the rest be constructed substantially the same as shown in Figures 1 and 2.
The cop 21 is mounted on a shaft 22 which is driven by the toothed gears 23, 24, and 26.-
The gear wheel 24 is driven by the gear 25 by means of a slide block and pin 27 and the gear 25 is mounted, eccentrically to the toothed gear 24, on the shaft 28, carrying the operating cam 20 for the yarn guide 30. Therefore during each to and fro movement of the yarn guide 30 the speed'of' rotation of the cop varies in such manner that the speed of rotation is always more or less exactly inversely proportional to the diameter on which the yarn is being wound. As is known the structure of the yarn wound on cops is conical.
In addition to its reciprocating movement the yarn guide.30 also makes an additional feed motion lengthwise of the cop so as to. wind the latter over its entire length. This additional motion of the yarn guide may be obtained as follows.
The driver 31 of the yarn guide 30 is driven by a cam 29 and carries a rotatable sleeve 32. This sleeve 32 which is screw threaded is driven by the gears 33, 34, 35 and 36 and by the pinion 37 so that in addition to being reciprocated it is also rotated. The yarn guide 30 is mounted on a screw threaded rod 38 which is also driven from the sleeve 32. The screw threaded rod 38 is prevented from rotating by the key 40 positioned in a slotted sleeve 39. Therefore on each rotation of the sleeve 32 the yarn guide is fed forward the distance or pitch of one screw thread.
Conical bobbins with tapering ends may be used instead of cops and here again the drawing 011 speed and the yarn tension must be maintained as constant as possible in order to prevent irregularities in the twist imparted to the yarn. Such an apparatus is represented by Figure 4. A motor (not shown) drives a conical pulley 41 which, by means of a belt 45, drives the conical pulley 42 which is fixed on the shaft 75. The belt 45 is slowly shifted by means of a fork 62 mounted on a push bar 44 which receives its movement by means of an eccentric or cam 43 slowly rotated from the conical pulley 42 by means of the shaft 75, the gearing 59, and the chain 61. On the shaft '75 there is fixed a toothed wheel 47 which, by means of a gearing 48, 49, 50, 51 drives a toothed gear wheel 81 mounted on a swinging lever 82. On the outer part of the wheel 81 is fixed a bolt 52 which engages with a radial guiding slot 53 of a wheel 80. The centre of the wheel 81 does not fully coincide with that of the wheel 80. Further the eccentricity of these two wheels can be varied by rocking the lever 82 mounted on the bolt 55 since the bolt 76 mounted on the lever 82 is influenced upon by an eccentric 83 which is slowly driven from the conical pulley 42 by means of the wheels 56, 5'7, the chain 58, the gearing 59, 60 and the shaft 75. l
The wheel 80 is mounted on the shaft 54 upon which are fixed further the cam drum 64 and the toothed gear wheel 78 which latter engages with a gear wheel 79 fixed on the shaft 7'7 supporting the bobbin 16.
With the groove of the cam drum 64 engages a slide '72 to which the lever 67 is pivotally connected. This lever 67 is provided with a slot 68 into which reaches the bolt 69 fired on an anglelever 70. The bolt 69 forms the pivot of the lever 67. By turning the angle-lever '10 mounted at 73 by means of a cam 71 said pivot'may be shifted. The cam 71 is slowly rotated from the gearing 59, 60 by means of the chain 74. To the lever 67 is pivoted a bar 63 supporting the thread guide 65.
The operation of the driving mechanism described is as follows: By shifting the belt 45 on g the conical pulleys 41, 42 by means of the fork 62 and the cam 43 the number of revolutions of the bobbin 46 is lowered in known manner according to the increase of the winding. In the same proportion the number of strokes of the thread guide is reduced so that during all the winding action always the same number of bobbin revolutions will come on a to and fro movement of the thread-guide.
By rocking of the angle-lever '10 the pivot of the lever 67 is shifteddownwardly and therewith the stroke of the thread-guide 65 slowly reduced, whereby the tapering ends of the bobbin 46 are made. I
The bobbin 46 and the cam drum 64 actuating the thread guide are driven from the gearing 81, 52, 53, 80. As the centre of the wheel which lies in the plane of the drawings does not coincide with the centre of the wheel 81 which lies somewhat before said plane the angular speed of the wheel 80 varies periodically with each revolution according to the eccentricity of the two wheels 80, 81. With one revolution of the shaft 54 corresponds a to and fro movement of the thread guide 65 during which the speed of rotation of the bobbin varies from a minimum to a maximum and again to a minimum according to whether the yarn is directed by the thread guide to a greater or smaller diameter of the bobbin. The eccentricity of the two wheels 80, 81 is chosen in such a manner that the ratio between maximum and minimum number of revolutions of the bobbin is in proportion with the ratio between maximum and minimum diameter of the bobbin. In order to obtain a layer of yarn of uniform strength along all the length of the bobbin it is important that also the speed of the thread-guide varies in the same ratio as the number of revolutions of the bobbin.
With increasing winding the ratio between maximum and minimum diameter of the bobbin varies, it becomes smaller. Therefore the eccentricity of the two wheels 89, 81 is to be reduced with increasing of the winding. This is efiected by rocking of the lever 82 mounted on the wheel 81 about the bolt 55 in such a manner that the wheel 81 always rests in engagement with the wheel 51 mounted on the bolt 55. In this way the centre of the wheel 81 is directed towards the plane of the drawings and the eccentricity of the two wheels is reduced.
Figure 5 illustrates a modified arrangement for drawing the yarn off the twisting bobbin 1. In this arrangement the opposed pairs of drawing off rollers 6, 7 and 84, 85 illustrated in Figures 1 to 4 are replaced by a single drawing off roller 101. This roller is preferably covered with plush, rubber or the-like. In order to secure a better drawing ofi operation, the yarn is adapted to engage the roller for at least a quarter of its circumference. The peripherial speed of the roller 101 is advantageously made somewhat higher than that of the winding bobbin. The drying apparatus 9 may conveniently be heated electrically with low tension current of say 1040 volts. Preferably the yarn is wound onto a cylindrical cross wound bobbin with tapered ends.
It is obvious that the difierent driving arrangements for the yarn guide and winding bobbin illustrated in the drawings may be repeated for each twisting station or individual groups of stations or may drive all the bobbins and yarn guides of the machine.
It is also obvious that the principle of the stationary yarn guide with the reciprocating bobbin as described with reference to Figure 1 of the drawings may also be applied to all the other modifications illustrated simply by transferring the yarn guide motion to the bobbin shaft.
It is of course immaterial to the present invention whether the yarn material employed consists of artificial silk, natural silk, cotton, wool, hemp, flax or the like.
Having now fully described our invention, we
1. A process for manufacturing twisted yarn, and especially crepe yarn, which consists in rapidly rotating a supply of yarn to be treated, uniformly drawing off the yarn from said I supply during rotation, spacing the point at which the drawing pull is effected from the supply substantially near said supply whereby a uniform twisting is obtained, moistem'ng the yarn, passing said yarn through a zone having a temperature ranging from 100 C. to about 300 C. so as to'dry the same quickly by direct vaporization, the yarn also passing through the steam caused thereby, whereby kinks are avoided, winding said yarn on bobbins, the winding speed being less than the drawing of! speed, whereby the yarn while being moistened and dried is under reduced tension, and controlling said winding to compensate for various factors such as the form of bobbin,the amount of yarn thereon, and length of yarn between the point of drawing ofl and the point of winding up, whereby said winding will be carried out at a-uniform speed, and uniform twisting and uniform moistening will be effected.
2. A process according to claim 1 wherein the high temperature at which the yarn is dried is applied thereto bytreating the yarn past a drying flame at suflicient speed to prevent