|Publication number||US1988214 A|
|Publication date||Jan 15, 1935|
|Filing date||Apr 19, 1933|
|Priority date||Apr 19, 1933|
|Publication number||US 1988214 A, US 1988214A, US-A-1988214, US1988214 A, US1988214A|
|Inventors||Page Reford L|
|Original Assignee||Lee E Herrick|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (3), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 15, 1935. R. L. PAGE 1,988,214
REFRIGERAT ION APPARATUS Filed April 19, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTO IFEFQED L. A625.
13/1! 68B) .7 AT RNEYH Jan. 15, 1935. R. L. PAGE 1,988,214
REFRI GERAT I ON APPARATU S Filed April 19, 1933 I5 Sheets-Sheet 2 IN VEN TOR. Kin-W0 L. PA.
Jan. 15, 1935. l R, L, PAGE 1,988,214
REFRIGERATION APPARATUS v Filed. April 19, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR.
Patented Jan. 15, 1935 PATENT OFFICE.
1,988,214 REFRIGERATION APPARATUS Reford L. Page, Binghamton, N. Y., assignor of thirty-three and one-third per cent to Lee E.
Application April s, 1933, Serial No. 666,852
My invention relates generally to a new and improved means of refrigeration.
My invention is susceptible of a wide variety of applications and it will be understood at the outset that while I have illustrated and will de-. scribe it as applied particularly to an ice cream freezer and a cold storage package or cabinet, I do not wish to be limited thereto as these are merely illustrative of the many useful applications of my invention.
With the advent of solidified carbon dioxide on a commercial scale and at a cost which enables its general usage, it has replaced in many uses the old form of refrigerant, namely, ice, or ice and salt. This solidified carbon dioxide offers many advantages over the ice and salt as a cooling or refrigerating material principally due to its extremely low temperature and the fact that it evaporates directly as a gas leaving no residue as in the case of melted ice used either alone or with salt. Consequently the packages or cabinets for holding materials and maintaining them at a low temperature have been greatly simplified over the old form of ice and salt devices for the same urpose.
For completely satisfactory and economical use of this solidified carbon dioxide, however, there has still remained a problem, have solved for the first time. This problem grows out of the inherent qualities of the solidified carbon dioxide itself. If this material is placed directly against the materials to be refrigerated or directly against the containers thereof, the extremely low temperature of the refrigerant thus applied so directly tends to freeze solidly such materials. If an air space is left between the solidified carbon dioxide and the materials to be refrigerated or the containers thereof, the result is improved but not satisfactory particularly in cases where it is necessary to permit the ready escape of the gases evaporated from the refrigerant in order to prevent their reaching the material to be refrigerated, Furthermore, such an air space does not long retain the low temperature after the dissipation or evaporation of the refrigerant and consequently such an arrangement is uneconomical.
I have discovered that by placing a brine pad" between the solidified carbon dioxide and the material to be refrigerated or the container there- .for, the above problems are. entirely solved due to the fact that the brine pad under the temperature lowering action of the refrigerant evenly and uniformly absorbs the heat from the material to be refrigerated and retains its heat which I believe I long after the solidified been completely dissipated absorbing properties carbon dioxide has by evaporation.
By brine pad I refer to preferably a closed compartment or container filled with a material 5 having a very low freezing point such as brine,
alcohol or the like and which preferably entirely surrounds the material to be refrigerated or its container and closely adiacent the outside of which the solidified carbon dioxide may be placed; 10
The principal object of my invention, therefore, lies in the means and method of interposing between solidified carbon dioxide or similar frozen gaseous material acting as a refrigerant, and the material to be refrigerated, a brinepa comprising a material of low freezing point and capable of retaining its heat drawing power a substantlal length of time.
One object of my invention lies in the provision of a receptacle which provides a space for a 20 material to be refrigerated and which is surrounded by a brine pad" either independent thereof or preferably formed as an integral part of such receptacle. 1
Another object of my invention lies in the 2,5 provision of an ice cream freezer utilizing the above described principles and in which there is provided means for the escape of the evaporated gases from the solidified carbon dioxide without danger of such gases beingdrawn into 30 the mixing chamber.
Still another object of my invention lies in the provision of an ice cream freezer embodying certain details of construction and arrangement of parts which facilitates the freezing action and 3: which is particularly adapted for home use in that it utilizes solidified carbon dioxide or the like as a refrigerant, thus eliminating messy residues as is the case with salt and ice.
Another object of my invention lies in the pro- 4' vision of a storage cabinet utilizing solidified carbon dioxide as the refrigerant and which has a wide variety of uses such as storing ice cream, storing articles of food in the home, refrigerating articles for transportation and the like. 4
Other objects and advantages in details of construction and arrangement of parts will be apparent as the description proceeds, reference now being had to the figures of the accompanying drawings forming a part of this application and l wherein like reference numerals indicate like parts.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a side view of an ice cream freezer embodying my invention. a
Figure 2 isa cross sectional view of the ice cream freezer, certain parts being omitted and others being broken away fc clearness of illustration.
Figure 3 is a 3-3 of Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a side view of a receptacle embodying my invention, certain parts being broken away for clearness.
Figure 5 is a detail sectional view taken on the line 5-5 of Figure 1 illustrating the cover connection and the receptacle.
Figure 6 is a side view of the screen partition used in the ice cream freezer.
Figure 7 is bottom plan view of the receptacle shown in Figure 4.
Figure 8 is a top plan view looking into the container or casing receptacle and other elements being removed therefrom for clearness.
Figure 9 is a detail top view of the ice cream freezer illustrating the rotating means for the receptacle.
Figure 10 is a cross sectional view illustrating a modified form of my invention as applied to a storage cabinet.
Figure 11 is 2 top plan view thereof.
Figure 12 is a detail view illustrating the holding means for the materials to be refrigerated in connection with the cabinet shown in Figure detail view taken on the line Figure 13 is a cross sectional view of another modified form of container embodying my invention..
My invention will particularly to an ice first be de' 'cribed as applied cream freezer of the home type, that is of from one to four quart size which may be conveniently used in the home for making ice cream, ices and the like.
The reference character 1 refers generally to an outer casing of wood or other suitable matevenient portability. This outer container 1 is preferably provided with double bottom and walls as indicated at 2, the space between the same being filled with some suitable insulation material 3 such as cork or the like.
Centrally disposed on the bottom of the container on the inside thereof, is a bearing lug 4 adapted to rotatably receive the rounded pivot member 5 provided centrally on the underside of the container'fi within which the ice cream mix or other materials being frozen is placed.
Surrounding the container 6 within the box 1 and spaced slightly from the sides thereof is provided a guard 7 comprising preferably a wire strips 8 whereby to reinforce the same. guard is spaced from the inner walls 2 of the outer box and in such space the solidified carbon dioxide 9 or other frozen gas refrigerant is adapted-to be placed, the perforated or mesh guard 7 preventing direct contact of such refrigerant with the walls of the container 6.
Spaced substantially above the bottom of the outer receptacle and disposed between the guard 7 and the inner walls 2 is a perforated supporting ring 10 upon which the refrigerant 9 is placed This supporting member 10 and of the ice cream freezer, the 1 container serve to agitate the gas and to cause it to move upwardly around the sides of the container 6 inside the guard 7. Thus the low tem-.
perature of this gas is utilized fully before it escapes to the atmosphere in a manner to be described.
A cover 14 is provided for the open top of the receptacle 1 and in such the central opening 15 through which the container 6 is removable and through which it may be placed in the receptacle. As shown clearly in Figure 2, there is ample space provided in this opening 15 around the sides of the container 6 for the escape of the gas evaporated from the refrigerant 9. As is well understood in the use of ice cream freezers, the material within the container 6 to be frozen is agitated and whipped during rotation of the container. By this process a considerable amount of air is whipped into the material in the container. In order that the gas from the evaporated refrigerant 9 does not enter overlies the opening 15 in such top. Thus as the gas escapes through the opening 15 it is directed outwardly away from the container by this overhanging flange 16.
The top of the'container 6 is provided with a cover 17 provided around its flanged edges with one or more indentations 18 (see Figure 5) conforming to similar indentations 19 in the upwardly extending top flanged portion 20 of the container whereby rotationof the top 17 will cause corresponding rotation of the container 6.
The usual means of agitation for the material tated by the usual turning mechanism conventional to most ice cream freezers. Without going into detail, as the turning mechanism forms no part of this invention, it may be described briefly as a cross piece 24, removably supported at opposite ends by upstanding brackets and 26 on opposite sides of the top of the receptacle 1. A
7 locking hook 27 is pivotally mounted upon the bracket 26 as a means for removably fastening the cross piece 24 in position. This cross piece able opening in ing gear member derside of the strip 24 and provided with a squared opening 33 adapted to fit over the squared. member 23 on the cover 1'7, whereby upon rotation of the crank 30, said cover 17 and container 6 are rotated. The upper end 22 of the paddle member 21 is of irregular shape and passes through an opening of similar shape in the cross piece 24 whereby the paddle member remains stationary within the container as said container is rotated around it. As before stated the particular details of this rotating and agitating mechanism form no part of this invention and have therefore, not been illustrated nor described except generally. Any desired form of rotating means may be employed.
It will be noted with particular reference to Figure 4 that the walls and bottom of the container 6 are double, the inner wall 34 thereof being spaced from the outer wall 6 whereby a communicating space is provided entirely around the side walls and bottom of the container. This space is sealed at the top by the flange 16 and there is provided in the bottom 35 an opening closed by the screw plug 36 (see Figure 7) by means of which the space between the walls and bottom of the container may be filled with brine, alcohol or other suitable fluid 37 having a very low freezing point. Thus there is provided in effect a pad entirely surrounding the inner walls of the container 6 as well as the bottom thereof and this pad will hereafter be referred to as a brine pad although it will be understood that the fluid therein need not necessarily be brine but may be alcohol or other material having the propcrty or characteristic of a low freezing point.
Thus there is provided between the ice cream mix or other material to be frozen within the container 6, and the solidified carbon dioxide or other refrigerant 9 a brine pad capable of being chilled to an extremely low temperature without freezing by the refrigerant and which uniformly and evenly absorbs the heat units from the material within the container 6 until such material is frozen.
It will be understood that if the solidified carbon dioxide or other like evaporating refrigerant be used either directly in contact with or separated by an air space only from a container without the brine pad, the evaporation of the refrigerant and its consequent loss as a refrigerant will not serve to freeze the material within the container except perhaps around the edges nearest the refrigerant. By the use of the brine pad, however, the full refrigerating properties of the solidified carbon dioxide is utilized to chill the intermediate material 37 which does not evaporate and which retains its low temperature uniformly for a substantial period of time and serves as an excellent heat absorption unit for the freezing process.
In this respect the brine pad of my invention functions similarly to the melted ice in an ice and salt freezer. As is well known it is the melting of the ice into water which provides the effective freezing medium for the ice cream mix and the use of salt with the ice is to increase the rapidity of melting and lower the freezing point of the water resulting from such melting.
This same principle, means and method of refrigeration is, of course, applicable to other uses than an ice cream freezer. For instance, as a cold storage cabinet or package, the invention is especially well adapted. An illustration of this application is shown in Figures 10 to 13 inclusive. In-Figure 10, the outer receptacle la is provided with double walls and bottom 2a insulated by suitable material 3a such as cork. Positioned substantially centrally within the receptacle is a wire mesh guard member 711 similar to the guard '7 previously described. Provided above the bottom of the outer receptacle is a perforated supporting member 10a similar in all respects to the supporting member 10 previously described. The solidified carbon dioxide or other refrigerant 9a is adapted to be placed between the imier wall 2a. and guard 7a whereby it is kept out of actual contact with the container 6a. adapted to be received through the open top of the receptacle, the container 6a being supported directly upon the bottom of the receptacle.
The container 6a is provided with the inner wall 34a spaced from the outer wall and bottom to provide a brine pad the same as reviously described, fllled with brine or other suitable material 37a. A cover 17a for the receptacle 6a is provided and has a handle 38 by means of which the cover may be removed from the container. Secured to the cover 17a is provided a downwardly extending spindle 39 attached to which are disks or shelf members 40 upon which may be placed articles for cold storage.
Inasmuch as there is no agitation of the materials within the container in this type of storage cabinet, the problem of the gases evaporated from the refrigerant 9a becoming mixed with the materials in the container is not presented. Therefore, the flange 16a corresponding to the flange 16 previously described is so designed as to .rest upon the cover 14a of the receptacle thereby retarding the dissipation of such gas. Thus the gas may be utilized to a greater extent in chilling the brine pad than in the case of the ice cream freezer.
The invention is especially adaptable for a storage cabinet for ice cream after the same has been frozen or partially frozen and packed in containers for storage or for transporation. This is illustrated clearly in Figure 13 in which the container 6b with its inner spaced wall 34!) and the space between said walls filled with brine or like material 37b comprises the brine pad similar to the previously described container. In this instance the inside of the container is free to be filled completely with the ice cream or other material to be retained under low temperature and a suitable cover 17b is provided therefor. This type of container may be substituted for the container 6a in Figure 10.
Naturally the size and shape of the container determines the size and shape of the outer receptacle whether it be for a stationary cold storage cabinet or a rotatable freezer.
From the foregoing it will be clear that I have provided a means and method whereby solidified carbon dioxide or similar evaporating refrigerants may be utilized for freezing and cold storage purposes by the interposition of a brine pad between such refrigerant and the material to be refrigerated Of course, changes may be made in details of construction without departing from the spirit and scope of my invention. I do not limit myself, therefore, to the exact form herein shown and describedother than by the appended claims.
1. A refrigerating apparatus comprising. an outer receptacle, a container therein for receiving material to be refrigerated, a refrigerant between the inner walls of said receptacle and said container, and a material between said refrigerant and said container having a freezing point lower than that of water.
2. A refrigerating apparatus comprising an outer receptacle, a container therein for receiving material to be refrigerated, a refrigerant between the inner calls of said receptacle and said container, and a liquid having a freezing point lower than that of water between said refrigerant and said container.
3. A refrigerating apparatus comprising an outer receptacle, a container therein for receiving material to be refrigerated, a refrigerant between the inner walls of said receptacle and said container, and a brine pad between said refrigerant and said container.
4. A refrigerating apparatus comprising an outer receptacle, a container therein for receiving material to be refrigerated, a volatile refrigerant between the inner walls of said receptacle and said container, anda brine bad surrounding the walls of said'container.
5. A refrigerating apparatus comprising an outer receptacle, a container therein for receiving material to be refrigerated, a volatile refrigerant between the inner walls of said receptacle and said container, and a brine pad surrounding the walls of said container, thespace occupied by said refrigerant having communication to the atmosphere.
6. An ice cream freezer comprising an outer receptacle, a container rotatably mounted therein, a volatile refrigerant between the inner walls of said receptacle and said container, a brine pad between said container and said refrigerant, and means for rotating said container.
7. An -ice cream freezer comprising an outer receptacle, a container rotatablymounted there-- in, a volatile refrigerant between the inner walls of said receptacle and said container, a brine pad between said container and said refrigerant, and means for rotating said container, the space occupied by said refrigerant having communication to the atmosphere.
8. An ice cream freezer comprising an outer. receptacle, a container rotatably mounted therea volatile refrigerant between the inner walls of said receptacle and said container, a brine'pad between the inner walls of said container and said refrigerant, means for rotating said container, the space occupied by said refrigerant having communication to the atmosphere, and means for directing the evaporated gases from said refrigerant away from said container after leaving said receptacle.
REFORD L. PAGE.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3046755 *||Jan 26, 1961||Jul 31, 1962||Sale Roberson Y||Ice cream freezer|
|US4078397 *||Nov 26, 1976||Mar 14, 1978||Brande Bruce R||Beverage container cooling device|
|US4242884 *||May 7, 1979||Jan 6, 1981||Kotschwar Rex R||Beverage cooler|
|U.S. Classification||62/342, 62/384, 62/463, 62/438|
|International Classification||A23G9/04, A23G9/22, A23G9/12, F25D31/00|
|Cooperative Classification||A23G9/225, F25D31/006, A23G9/12|
|European Classification||A23G9/22J, A23G9/12, F25D31/00H|