US 1988252 A
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Jan. 15, 1935. v A. c. PEARS 9 FLUID PRESSURE ENGINE AND PUMP HAVING CYLINDERS DISPOSED PARALLEL TO A CENTRAL SHAFT Filed Oct. 9, 1933 4 Sheets-Sheet l Jme/wbozl ALBERT CHARLES FEARS,
mo t M0741 Jan. '15, 1935. A c. FEARS 1,988,252
FLUID PRESSURE ENG INE AND PUMP HAVING CYLINDERS DISPOSED PARALLEL TO A CENTRAL SHAFT Filed Oct. 9, 1933 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 Jwum ALBERT CHARLES FEARS,
Jan. 1, 1935. A, Q FEARS 1,988,252 FLUID PRESSURE ENGINE AND PUMP HAVING CYLINDERS DISPOSED PARALLEL TO A CENTRAL SHAFT Filed Oct 9 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 ALBERT CHARLES PEaRs,
Janl 15, 1935.
' A. c. FEARS 1,988,252 FLUID PRESSURE ENGINE AND PUMP HAVING CYLINDERS DIS POSED PARALLEL TO A CENTRAL SHAFT Filed Oct. 9, 1953 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Fig. 6d.
Jwfmov ALBERT CHARLES PEHRS Patented Jan. 15, was
. FLUID, rnizssnnaaivcms AND PUMP HAV I ING CYLINDERS nrsrosrn PARALLEL 'ro i A CENTRAL SHAFT Albert CharlesPears, Cardifi, Wales Application October 9, 1933, Serial No. 692,731
.In Great Britain August 18,1932
. l rclaims. (on. 1234s) Thisinvention relates to fluid pressure engines having the cylinders disposed around and parallel to a centralshaft,
This invention seeks to obviate the elaborate and heavy multi-throw crankshaft, cylinder block, and crankcase casting, in the normal construction of reciprocating engines and the undesirable features inherent to these,- and other methods of mounting the the crankshaft.
.In accordance with the cylinders relative to present invention a main shaft is provided for the torque transmis- .sion to whichdriver members may be coupled by any convenient means. This-shaft is carried on bearings mountedin a suitable housing member.
The cylinders are arranged in units containing one or more cylinders, with their axes. parallel to the main driving shaft, and each unit having its own crankshaft carrying a suitable gear which mesheswith a corresponding gear carried onand fixed to the main shaft. Any convem'ent number of cylinder units may be arranged around or along the main drive shaft, each with its crankshaft gear wheel meshing with the gear on the drive shaft.
In theform of construction which is the subject of this invention, the engine is built around a main-shaft of solid or tubular formas is the more convenient, which receives and transmits the driving torque from. any number of cylinder units which are mounted with the cylinder bores parallel to it.
housing'member or members which are in turn attached to'the cylinder units. v t
Each cylinder unit containing'any convenient number of cylinders has its own crankshaft, which is connected to the mainshaft by means of gears. Thus all the driving gears on a systemof crankshafts have their longitudinal axes lying in a plane normal to the axis of the mainshaft, and mesh with one gear carried on and fixed to the mainshaft. j
If more cylinder units are required than, can be connected-to the one mainshaft driven gear, then this shaft may have mounted upon it any number of gears each of which receives the torque from a system of cylinder units as previ-' ously described. In this way an engine may be constructed with two or more cylinders co-axial. Improvedbalance of the moving parts isobtained if co-axial cylinders are arranged in pairs having their reciprocating parts moving in opposite directions.
. With such 'co-axial cylinders I the, clearance This shaft is carriedinbearings mounted in a spaces may be arranged adjacent between the crankshafts, and connected if so desired.
The entry and exit of the working substance into and from the cylinders is controlled by any known form of valve gear which may be operated from the mainshaft or crankshaft by any convenient means.
For such valve operation or to satisfy drive requirements the gear ratio between the mainshaft and the crankshafts of the cylinder units may have any convenient value. c
. This engine may be designed to operate using steam, compressed air, or any other working substance, or as a pump of single or multistage type, while if desired-a pump and its driving engine may be combined in one assembly.
' As an internal combustion engineany of the four or two stroke cycles may be adopted with the pistons operating in conjunction with ports in the cylinder, walls to control the entry and exit of the working substance if this is desired.
In the system of construction above described, in which the cylinder units containing the necessary crankshaits and other mechanisms are attached to the central casting, from which they may be readily removed, it may be desirable to use a drive to the central mainshaft other than worm or skew gears. In that case bevel gears maybe used, although I am aware that this drive arrangement has been used before in other systems of construction.
, The accompanying drawings illustrate by way of example three forms of engine made in accordance with this invention.
Fig. l is anelevation partly in section, the casing being removed in parts to show the internal mechanism.
'Fig. 2 is a half front view, half rear View of the engine illustrated in Fig. 1. 1
Fig. 3 is a part section along the line III-III, Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is a section along the line 1v- -1v, Fig. 1'.
Fig. 5 is a part section of a modific} form showing the crankshafts.
Fig. 6 is a part section parallel to Fig. 5 showing the-valve control gear.
Fig. 6A is a part section on the line VI-VI, Fig.5.
I Fig. '7 is a part section of a further form showing the crankshaft.
In Figs. 1 to 4 of the drawings, which illustrate a two stroke petrol engine, a hollow main central or main shaft 2 is provided for torque transmission, to which driver members may be modified coupled by any convenient means. As illustrated, the shaft 2 is carried on ball and roller bearings, 3, 4 at rear and front ends respectively, in a suitable tubular housing 5. Driving cylinders 6 are arranged in units containing two cylinders 7, 8, with their axes parallel to the main driving shaft. Each unit has its own. crankshaft 9 which, drives the main shaft 2 through a system of worm gears 10 meshing with a worm 11 carried, and fixed to, the main shaft 2. The worm-wheel 10 is keyed to bosses of bevelled crank-wheels 12, forming thus a spindle for the wheel 10, journalled at 13 in housing 5 and running in ball bearings 14, 15. To the crank-wheels 12 are secured connecting rods 16 by means of crank pins 17. The free ends of arms 18 are connected to side plates 19 by spring pressed ball and hollow spindle devices 20, 21 for lubrication purposes. Any convenient number of cylinder units may be arranged around the main drive shaft 2, each with its crankshaft worm-wheel 10 meshing with the worm 11 on the driven shaft 2.
The main shaft 2 has mounted upon it two worms, so arranged that each meshes with the worm wheels on the crank shafts of a system of cylinders as previously described. In order to obtain improved-engine balance the mechanism is so arranged that the cylinders 7, 8, whose bores 22 are coaxial, have the movements of their pistons 23 opposed, and in so doing the combustion (or clearance) space chambers 2 are formed between two pistons. Ports 25,25 in the cylinders 22 are operated by the move ments of the pistons, as. is the usual practice in the two stroke engine. Reduction gear for transmitting the main shaft drive is provided comprising bearings 27 supporting a lay shaft 28, carried by an extension 29 of the housing 5. Roller bearings 30 are provided carrying a sleeve 31 to which are keyed gear wheels 32, to bosses 33 of which are keyed gear wheels 3 1. Gear wheel 32 meshes with gear wheel 35 keyed to the main shaft 2, and gear wheel 34 meshes with gear wheel 36 bolted at 37 to a boss 38 adapted to carry the propeller.
The cylinder blocks are mounted upon the housing 5 in which the main driving shaft is carried, and although readily detachable therefrom, they increase the rigidity of this component by their own qualities. The ease with which a defective cylinder unit may be replaced by a new unit, is a feature of the invention and assists in the maintenance of the engine.
The cylinder blocks are bolted to sides 39 of the main housing 5 by bolts 40 passing through lugs in said blocks screwing into holes in said housing 5. p v
The rear end of the main shaft 2 is also driven by a Worm drive 43 similar to the front worm drive, the drive being effected by cylinders .7. The rearward portion 44 of the main shaft 2 has keyed it to a spider 45 to which is bolted at 46 a flange 4.7. To flange 47 are keyed three annular members 48 of a clutch device. The other counterpartal annuli 49 of the clutch device are keyed to a toothed crown 50.
The teeth of crown 50 engage at 51 with a toothed pinion 52 running on roller bearings 53 in a race 54 held in position on housing 5 by flanges 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60 secured to said housing. Pinion 52 is secured to shaft 54 and has keyed to it a crown wheel 61 which drives a toothed wheel 62. Wheel 62 drives a blower 63 for supplying fuel to the cylinders 7, 8,
through the conduits 64. A boss 65 on spider 45 carries an annulus 66 which supports a clutch ring 67 operated by mechanism (not shown) to press towards'each other annuli 48, 49, which are separated by fabric members 68 to increase the friction. To main shaft 2 is also keyed a gear wheel 69, which through. suitable gearing (not shown) drives a magneto. 7,01, toeffect ignition through leads 71 and sparking plugs 72. Both the blower 63 and the magneto 70 are suitably bolted to housing 5. The crank shafts are thus disposed tangential to the main shaft.
In Figs. 5 and 6 the housing 73 contains cylinders 74, 75 disposed side by side. The housing 73 is bolted to the main shaft housing 76 by bolts 77 passing through lugs 77'. Cylinders 74,' 75 are connected through connecting rods (not shown) and straps 78, 79 to crank 80 which'runs in roller and ball bearings 81, 82 in the housing. To one end of the crank spindle 83 is secured to a bevel pinion 84 which gives the drive to a bevel wheel 85 secured to one endof the hollow main shaft 86. The banks or blocks of cylinders are disposed around the central shaft so that the crankshafts are radial thereto. The other end of the main shaft is secured a bevel gear wheel 87 which drives a pinion 88 secured to the end of a spindle 89 which runs in ball bearings 90 in the main shaft housing 76. Spindle 89 ends in a gear wheel 91 which drives a gear wheel 92 keyed to the end 93 of a cam shaft 94. To the cam shaft 9 1 are secured cams 95 whichoperate levers 96, 97 pivotally carried at 98, 99 by the housing 73 and actuating the valves 100, 101, of the cylinders 74, 75.
In Fig. 7 again the banks or blocks 102 of side by side cylinders 103, 104 are disposed in housings 105 connected through lugs 106, 107 and bolts 108, 109 to the housing 110 of the hollow main shaft 111. The drive is through worm gear 112, 113 tangential to the main shaft 111. The worm shaft 114 is journalled in ball bearings 115 in the housing 105 and takes the drive from crank 116 through intermeshing gear wheels 117, 118 keyed respectively to the worm shaft and the end 119 of the crank spindle. The
crank spindle ends 119, 120 run in roller and ball bearings 121, 122, respectively in the cylinder housing. Crank 116 is connected by straps 123, 124 to the connecting rods (not shown) and cylinders placed side by side in the cylinder casing. The outer wall 125 of the cylinder housing is detachably secured by screws 126, 127 to said housing.
The size of the engine can be changed at will by varying the number of units mounted around the main shaft and connected thereto.
Furthermore if an engine in accordance with the present invention is employed in military air-craft, the central hollow shaft provides a way for shot. 7
In the case of vehicles, to obtain afour wheel drive, the mainshaft is connected to a gear box through the usual clutch mechanism, and one drive from the gearbox to the front axle may pass through the hollow engine main drive shaft being concentric therewith. The crank shafts may be in the same or different casings from the cylinders. I What I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A fluid pressure engine having .a central shaft and at least one cylinder unit disposed parallel to said central-shaft, a housing member,
gearing, bearings, the central shaft being carried on said bearings in said housing member, each cylinder unit having at least one cylinder, a crank case and at least one, crank shaft in said crank case, said crank shaft being adapted to drive said central shaft through said gearing, each unit having means for detachably connecting the same to said housing member whereby the size and power of the engine may be increased or decreased according to the number of cylinder units which may be attached to or detached from said housing member.
2. A fluid pressure engine having a central,
hollow shaft and at least one cylinder unit disposed parallel to said central shaft, a housing member, gearing, bearings, the central shaft being carried on said bearings in said housing member, each cylinder unit having at least one cylinder, a crank case and at least one crank shaft in' said crank case, said crank shaft being adapted to drive said central shaft through said gearing, each unit having means for detachably connecting the same to'said housing member whereby the size and power of the engine may be increased or decreased according to the number of cylinder units which may bekattached to or detached from said housing member.
3. A fluid pressure engine having acentral shaft and at least one cylinder unit disposed parallel to said central shaft, a housing member, gearing, bearings, the central shaft being carried on said bearings in said housing member, each cylinder unit having atleast one cylinder, a crank case and at least one crank shaft in said crank. case, said crank shaft being adapted to drive said central shaft through said gearing, each unit having means for detachably connecting the same to said housing member whereby the size and power of the engine may be increased or decreased according to the number, of cylinder units which may be attached to or detached from said housing member and a blower for charging said engine.
4. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 2 in which a blower effects the charging.
-5. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 3 in which the central shaft is hollow.
6. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 1 in which the cylinders whose bores are coaxial have their piston movements opposed.
'7. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 2 in which the cylinders whose bores are coaxial have their piston movements opposed.
8. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 3 in which the cylinders whose bores are coaxial have their piston movements opposed.
9. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 1 in which each unit has a plurality of cylinders arranged side by side.
10. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 2 in which each unit has a plurality of cylinders arranged side by side.
11. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 3 in which each unit has a plurality of cylinders arranged side by side.
12. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 1 having crankshafts tangentially arranged to the central shaft.
13. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 2 having chankshafts tangentially arranged to the central shaft.
14.. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 3 having crankshafts tangentially arranged to the central shaft.
15. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 1 having the crankshafts radially arranged to the central shaft.
16. A fluid pressure engine according to claim 2 having the crankshafts radially arranged to the central shaft.
17. A fluid pressureengine according to claim 3 having the crankshaftsradially arranged to the central shaft.