|Publication number||US1988456 A|
|Publication date||Jan 22, 1935|
|Filing date||Mar 19, 1931|
|Priority date||Mar 24, 1930|
|Publication number||US 1988456 A, US 1988456A, US-A-1988456, US1988456 A, US1988456A|
|Original Assignee||Milo Ab|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (54), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan. 22, 1935. A. LYSHOLM GAS TURBINE SYSTEM Filed March 19, 1951 FUfL f5 57 26 T i INVENTOR WW w ATTORNEY,
was Jan. 22, 1935 4 i I I 1,988,456
UNITED STA'THES'PATENT .IOfl-FlCE GAS TURBINE SYSTEM an Lyaholm, Stockholm, Sweden, alsignor' to Aktiswegbolaget Milo, a joint-stock company of en I Application March 19, 1931, Serial No. 523,767 In Germany March 24, 1930 BGlaims- (01.6042) The present invention relates to gas turbine sys- In accordance with the present invention, the tems and has particular reference to the producadvantages to be derived from burning fuel to tion of gaseous motive fluid comprising gases of produce a motive fluid having relatively little excombustion for use inthe turbines of such systems. cess air are obtained while at the same time the 5 Since the amount of energy available in the modifllcultles heretofore encountered, when motive 5 tive fluid is dependent upon the quantity and temfluid of such character has been provided in acperature of the gases and also upon the speciflc cordance with prior suggestions, are eliminated,
heat thereof, the amount, of energy may be inas will hereinafter be more fully explained. creased by increasing the gas temperature through In order to be suitable for use in gas turbines,
the burning of an increased amount of fuel, but the motive fluid should be substantially soot free, 10 this method of increasing the energy is limited by since it is obvious that any substantial amount of the maximum temperature of motive fluid usable 'soot or free carbon in the fluid will form deposits in the turbines. In order to increase to the desired in the conduits and turbine blading and eventuvalue the energy available it is therefore necessary ally materially reduce the, efliciency and capacity in some instances to compress the combustion supof the system. Practice has shown'that for fuels is porting medium to a relatively high pressure, and having soot forming characteristics it is usually also, in some cases, it is highly desirable to obtain necessary to provide an excess of air of at least the desired results by increasing the speciflc heat about30% in order to obtain perfect combustion. of the gaseous motive fluid by the injection of As has previously been explained, the provision water, which at the temperature of the gases is of compressor capacitysufllcient to supply such 20 converted into steam. quantity of excess air when the system is operat- The most economically advantageous way of seing at maximum capacity involves undesirable curing the required energy in the motive fluid decosts and this I .avoid by forming motive fluid pends, however, upon the character of the load for with two different kinds of fuel,'one of which has which the system is intended. If the system is non-sooting characteristics, when the. load on the intendedfor continuous base load operation, comsystem is of relatively high value. By doing this pressor apparatus producing the necessary com-' I am able to utilize to the best advantage subpressed combustion supporting gaseous medium stantially all of the combustion supporting memaybe employed which compresses comparatively dium delivered from the compressor apparatus.- large volumes of such medium at relatively low I also may make use of water injection in pro- 30 pressure, with substantial excess air in the moducing the motive fluid. tive fluid as finally produced, such excess air serv- The invention is applicable in its use to a wide ing to prevent the production of excessive temvariety of specific arrangements of gas turbine perature of the motive fluid. Such apparatus, systems or plants, and for purposes of illustration however, involves the use of compressor and other only and in order that the nature of the invention apparatus of such size and cost that the capital and the manner of its use may be readily under-' charges render the arrangement economically un-' stood, I have illustrated in the accompanying attractive for use in systems intended for carrying more or less diagrammatic drawing one arrangepeak loads, either alone .and therefore usually ment of gas turbineapparatus embodying the 40 involving only periodic operation of the system, invention. or superimposed on a base load and involving wide In the drawing: f variations in the motive fluid energy required by Fig. 1 is a more or less diagrammatic view the system. showing a gas turbine system suitable for varia- For systems intended to carry variable or peak ble load operation and embodying the invention; loads, it may frequently be advantageous to seand cure the energy required to carry high values of Fig. 2 is a more or less diagrammatic sectional load by burning additional fuel in a compressed view on a larger scale of a combustion chamber medium the maximum quantity of which that is arrangement Sui a le for use n y m m y- 7 available is so limited by the size of the compresing the invention. 7 5 sor apparatus that relatively little if any excess Referring to Fig, 1, reference characters 1, 2, 5 air is present in the motive fluid when such addi- 3 and 4 designate four turbines or turbine sections tional fuel is burned. When this is done, the driving a common shaft 4". Reference character system can carry relatively high peak loads with- 5. denotes a compressor driven by shaft 4 and 6 out there being required compressor apparatus of designates an electric generator also driven by this relatively large capacity. shaft. The net useful power delivered by the system is obtained from generator 8 in the form of electrical energy.
In the compressor 5 the combustion supporting medium, in this case air, is compressed to the desired pressure. Air flows to the compressor through inlet conduit '7 and after being compressed is led through conduit 8 to the combustion chamber or heating apparatus designated at 9. Fuel is admitted to the combustion chamber, in a manner to be hereinafter explained, through conduits 10 and 11 and water may be supplied through conduit 12. Control of the fuel and water may be effected in any suitable manner, as by valves indicated at 43, 44 and 45. The motive fluid produced by combustion of fuel in chamber 9 led through conduit 13 and branch 14 to the inlet of the high pressure turbine 1, and the motive fluid exhausted from this turbine at reduced temperature and pressure is led through conduit-15 to the intermediate pressure turbine 2 for further expansion therein. From turbine 2 the partially expanded motive fluid is conducted through conduit 16 to the second intermediate pressure turbine 3 and from this latter turbine the motive fluid flows through conduit 1'7 to the low pressure turbine 4 for flnal expansion in the system. Exhaust is through conduit 18.
The inlet'of turbine 2 is connected to conduit 13 by means of branch conduit 19 having the valve 20 therein. At an intermediate pressure zone in the compressor 5 a conduit 21, preferably valved as at 53, serves to withdraw air at suitable intermediate pressure. Conduit 21 is connected by means of branch conduits 22, 26 and 31, having therein valves 54, 55 and 56 respectively, to separate combustion chamber or heating apparatus designated generally at 23, 2'7 and 30. Chamber 23 is connected to conduit 15 by branch 25; 27 is connected to conduit 16 by branch 29; and 30 is connected to conduit 1'7 by branch 33. Fuel is supplied to chambers 23, 2'7 and 30 through branch fuel conduits 24, 28 and 32 respectively in which are located the respective control valves 5'7, 58 and-59.
Fig. 2 shows on a larger scale an advantageous form of the combustion chamber apparatus 9. In this form two spaced shells or casings 36 and 3'7 provide a jacket space to which water flows from thesupply conduit 12. The fuel supply conduit extends inwardly at 10 to a nozzle 10 and is surrounded by the pipe 38 which communicates with the jacket space and which terminates in a suitable nozzle 38 The extension 10" may advantageously contain a suitable spraying device 47. Conduit 11 is extended as at 11 to a nozzle 11 and is advantageously provided with a spraying device 48. Pipe is extended inwardly from jacket space 35 to anozzle 40 surrounding nozzle 11 and is preferably controlled by a suitable valve 46. A third water pipe 39 is advantageously provided, having nozzle 39 and spraying device 49.
Let it be assumed that the foregoing briefly described system is operated as a variable load plant, which may be either a base load plant adapted to carry peak loads or as a peak load plant adapted to carry peak loads of varying values. The operation at various loads is as follows:
When the load on the plant is low fuel is supplied through conduit 10, this fuel being of the kind having soot forming characteristics, such for example as ordinary fuel oil or like cheap fuel. Since the amount of fuel'req uired is relatively low the amount of compressed air available is such that the fuel is burned in the presence of considerable excess air and the complete combustion thus obtainable prevents the formation of soot. The excess air also serves to prevent formation of a motive fluid of too high a temperature to be usable in the turbines.
If the load increases, thus necessitating the introduction of more fuel, the amount of excess air decreases and when it decreases to a certain value, the tendency to form soot arises. Also, the temperature of the motive fluid increases. When this condition occurs, water may be injected, since the action of water in such instances tends to reduce or prevent the formation of soot. The injection of water also serves to maintain the temperature below the permissible maximum and while the temperature is reduced owing to the water injection, the total energy of the motive fluid remains the same, since the volume and specific heat thereof are increased'by the steam formed as a result of the injection of the water.
If the load increases to a value beyond that at which the soothing fuel can be burned, even in the presence of water, without formation of soot, a fuel having non-sooting characteristics, such for example as alcohol, is supplied through conduit 11 to be burned with such excess oxygen as is available, thus making it possible to impart the greatest amount of heat energy to the compressed air. The alcohol may be incompletely burned, that is to say a relatively large amount of carbon monoxide may be formed, thus reducing to some extent the combustion efiiciency, but for the use intended the obtaining of maximum combustion efflciency is not the controlling factor.
In order to utilize the motive fluid most effectively at the higher loads some of it may be admitted directly to the turbine 2 by opening valve 20. V
For still higher loads the additional energy required may he obtained by reheating between turbines or turbine sections. Since before this may be necessary, substantially all of the available excess oxygen in the air supplied to the combustion chamber 9 is ordinarily'used to burn the non-sooting fuel, additional air must be supplied for combustion with the fuel used for reheating. For this purpose the air at intermediate pressure is supplied from conduit 21 in suitably regulated amounts to one or more of the reheating combustion chambers 23, 2'7 and 30 (depending upon how many times the motive fluid is reheated) and non-sooting fuel is supplied through branches 24, 28 and 32 to such reheating chambers as are used. By employing non-sootlng fuel for reheating, excess air is not required and while the temperature existing in the reheating chambers may reach very high values, the mixing of the fluid discharged therefrom with the cooler motive fluid exhausted from the higher pressure turbines provides for a reheated motive fluid of usable temperature.
While various specific forms of heating and reheating apparatus may be employed, I flnd it desirable when water injection is used to employ a jacketed combustion chamber of thekind illustrated and to utilize means such as are shown at 4'7, 48 and 49 for effecting suitable spraying of the water and fuel.
From the foregoing description it will be evident that the invention is applicable to a gas turbine system capable of carrying widely differing values of load and it will be equally apparent that the invention is applicable to a wide variety of systems which may differ materially in their arrangement from the arrangement herein described by way of example. It will also be understood that certain features may be used within the scope of the invention to the exclusion -of others.
What I claim is:-
1. In a gas turbine system having turbine driven compressing means, a power output turbine and a combustion chamber, the method of operation which comprises supplying to the combustion chamber a combustion supporting gaseous medium compressed in said compressing means, supplying to the combustion chamber a fuel having soot forming characteristics, burning said fuel in the presence of a substantial excess of said medium to effect combustion substantially without formation of soot, introducing a second fuel adapted to burn without producing soot when burned in the presence of insufficient oxygen to support complete combustion thereof, and buming said second fuel in the excess of said'medium remaining after combustion of the first mentioned fuel, whereby to produce a substantially soot free motive fluid comprising gases of combustion and utilizing said motive fluid as a turbine driving medium.
2. In a gas turbine system having turbine driven compressing means, a power output turbine and a combustion chamber, the method of operation which comprises supplyin to the combustion chamber a combustion supporting gaseous medium compressed in said compressing means, supplying to the combustion chamber a fuelhaving soot forming characteristics, burning said fuel in the presence of a substantial excess of said medium to efiect combustion substantially without formation of, soot, introducing a second fuel adapted to burn without producing soot when burned in the presence of insuflicient ongen to characteristics and thereafter consuming sub- 7 stantially all of the remaining portion of said constituent by burning therewith a fuel having non-soot forming characteristics.
4. The improved method of producing a heated and substantially soot free gaseous motive fluid comprising gases of combustion which consists in initially consuming a portion of the combustion supporting constituent of a gaseous medium by burning therewith a fuel having soot forming characteristics and thereafter consuming substantially all of the remaining portion of said constituent by burning therewith a fuel having non-soot forming characteristics in the presence of water.
5. In a gas turbine system having turbine driven compressing means, a power output turbine and a combustion chamber, the method of operation at different loads which comprises supplying a combustion supporting gaseous medium compressed in said compressing means to said combustion chamber and at light loads burning a sooting fuel therein in the presence of an excess of said medium, at heavier loads burning a non-sooting fuel therein without substantial excess of said medium, to produce a motive'fluid for said turbine and expanding said fluid serially in different turbine sections, and at still heavier loads reheating said fluid between said sections.
6. In a gas turbine system havingturbine drlven compressing means, a poweroutput turbine and a combustion chamber, the method of opera-' tion which comprises supplying to the. combustion chamber a combustion supporting gaseous medium compressed in said compressing means, supplying to the combustion chamber a fuel having soot forming characteristics, burning said fuel in the presence of a substantial excess of said medium to effect combustion substantially without formation of soot, introducing a second fuel adapted to burn without producing soot when burned in the presence of insuflicient oxygen to support complete combustion thereof, burning said second fuel in the excess of said medium remaining after combustion of the first mentioned fuel, whereby to produce a substantially soot-free motive fluid comprising gases of combustion, utilizing said motive fluid as a turbine driving medium and reheating said motive fluid at an intermediate pressure stage by supplying thereto an additional quantity of said second fuel and an additional quantity of said combustion supporting gaseous medium, wherebyto produce a reheated substantially soot-free motive fluid comprising gases of combustion for expansion in a pressure stage below said intermediate pressure stage.
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|U.S. Classification||60/774, 60/39.461, 60/39.21, 60/730, 60/775, 60/39.55|
|International Classification||F02C3/20, F02C3/30, F02C6/00|
|Cooperative Classification||F02C3/305, F02C6/003|
|European Classification||F02C6/00B, F02C3/30B|